Psychology chapter 8: part 2

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The key to understanding language acquisition is to
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study the context in which language is learned and used.
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Based on animal and human research, the following may be said about language development:
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a. A child is pre-wired for language acquisition. b. The importance of the social setting in which it is used cannot be underestimated. c. A child must have correct language usage reinforced.
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According to the ________ account, children can deduce meaning of words they do not understand by inferring meaning from the context.
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social pragmatics
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According to famed linguist Noam Chomsky, humans have an innate ability to understand and produce language through a device he called
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Language Acquisition Device (LAD).
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The area of the brain involved in speech comprehension is
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Wernicke’s area.
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The area of the brain involved in speech production is
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Broca’s area.
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In nonhuman animals, the most common circumstances under which communication occurs are
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aggression and mating.
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it relates to how much language is controlled by biology.
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The key reason why psychologists are interested in whether parrots or chimpanzees can learn different aspects of language is because
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Studies using sign language or lexigram boards to teach chimpanzees language have found that
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chimpanzees can combine words into complex forms, but never master syntactic rules.
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Which two animal species demonstrate language learning that resembles human learning the most?
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Bonobos and African Grey Parrots
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Based on animal and human research, the development of language in human children is
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in part innate and in part reinforced.
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In order to conclusively show that animals do use language, one would have to demonstrate that
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the language used arbitrary symbols.
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In studies of attempts to teach chimpanzees language, researchers have found that
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chimpanzees do not get faster when learning new words.
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John B. Watson speculated that thinking operates as a form of ____________ speech, which he referred to as covert speech.
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internal
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Helen Kellers writings suggest support for
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linguistic determinism.
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Studies that have demonstrated the ability of infants to engage in cognitive performance tests (such as looking and sucking procedures) provide evidence that
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linguistic determinism does not accurately reflect our language or cognitive abilities.
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Recent research using PET scans has found that ___________________________, as evidenced by patterns of brain activation.
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the linguistic determinism approach is incorrect
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The view that language defines our thinking reflects what approach to language?
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Linguistic determinism
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Research on the relation between cognition and language suggests that
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some aspects of thinking are more vulnerable to language influence than others.
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According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, a persons native language dictates
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their thinking processes.
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The ways different people think about and perceive the world is most strongly affected by
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the different cultures in which they live.
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In the 1950s, a linguist named Benjamin Whorf proposed that thought and language are related in that the language we speak
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directly determines how we think.
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Current beliefs about thought and language can be summarized by saying that
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our culture and experiences shape the language we use.
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Imagine a society in which people spoke a language with only two words for animals: animals with four feet, and animals with more than four feet (insects, spiders, etc). What would Benjamin Whorf predict about those people?
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They should perceive and think about animals differently.
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Our sensitivity to and memory for odours could be used as an argument against Benjamin Whorfs hypothesis about thought and language, because
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we can distinguish many more odours than we can name.
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The linguistic relativity hypothesis
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What do we call the hypothesis that language influences what we think?
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Researchers have found that ______ influenced by culture.
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both language and thought are
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Researchers have found that despite the number of colour names in a language, the basic abilities to perceive colour are unchanged. This finding would be troublesome for the theory of
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Sapir and Whorf.
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Neetu attempts to identify correctly the colours in the Stroop task interference list, but has difficulty doing so. This illustrates
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the automaticity of language.
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To demonstrate the automaticity of language, participants performing the _______________ task must suppress their attention to printed words to identify the colour of the ink.
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Stroop
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In order to become experts at reading, which two skills do we need to utilize?
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Phonetic decomposition and whole word recognition
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All children must learn how language moves in order to be able to read. For a child learning to read Hebrew, there must be an awareness that language moves
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from right to left.
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In order for 5-year old Zane to learn to read Japanese, he must have an awareness that the language moves
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top to bottom.
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Alfred is taking a 7-day alphanetics course that claims it will increase the rate at which he reads to approximately 2,000 words per minute. Based on the research presented in your text, what will happen to Alfred’s comprehension of the material he is reading so fast?
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His comprehension will be low, and he will likely not understand more than 50% of what he read.
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It is possible to increase both our reading speed and comprehension, as long as our speed does not exceed ________ words per minute.
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400
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Which of the following slows down the rate of reading, and subsequently, reading comprehension?
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Subvocalizing
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cognitive economy.
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One explanation for schizophrenia holds that person with schizophrenia have difficulty in filtering their attention. This is best related to the concept of
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The brain’s tendency to streamline our thinking processes by use of pre-existing knowledge is referred to as
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top-down processing.
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__________ refers to the process of selecting among a set of possible alternatives.
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Decision making
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When attempting to solve a problem, we are often distracted by ____________ rather than focusing on the underlying reasoning needed to solve the problem.
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the salience of surface properties
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The tendency to perceive and approach problems in the same ways that have worked in the past is called
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mental sets.
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My exposure to the typical use of objects in my culture may render me less able to find novel solutions to problems. This is referred to as
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functional fixedness.
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__________ are step-by- step learned procedures that are useful for problem solving but are not flexible to adaptation.
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Algorithms
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The most widely used analogy for our mind’s ability to process information, fill in gaps, and draw inferences has been the
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computer model.
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Which of the following is not one of the features of thought that our brains enable us to do?
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Assign tasks to pre-learned algorithms that can be re-run many times
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According to _______________, our knowledge is organized and accessed in a manner that enables us to simulate our actual experiences.
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embodiment models

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