psychological disorders study guide

Atypical
(adj.) not typical, unusual (Screaming and crying is atypical adult behavior.) audacious (adj.) excessively bold (The security guard was shocked by the fan’s

Disturbing
upsetting; bothering

Unjustified
not deserved

maladaptive
anything that does not allow a person to function within or adapt to the stresses and everyday demands of life

ADHD
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance of one or more of the three key symptoms extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Usually diagnosed at a younger age

medical model
the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, the medical model assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.

DSM IV-TR
the American Psychiatric Association’s “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition)”, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders. Presently distributed in an updated “text revision”.

Neurotic Disorders
Psychodynamic term for anxiety-driven mental health conditions that are manifest through avoidance patterns and defensive reactions

Psychotic disorders
psychological disorders of thought and perception, characterized by inability to distinguish between real and imagined perceptions

Generalized anxiety disorders
Characterized by excessive anxiety or worry about numerous things, lasting for 6 months or longer.

Panic disorders
Sudden bouts of intense, unexplained anxiety, often associated with physical symptoms like choking sensations or shortness of breath

Phobic disorders
disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations

Obsessive-compulsive disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)

PTSD
A disorder in which a person has lingering memories, nightmares, and other symptoms for weeks after a severely threatening, uncontrollable event

Post-traumatic growth
positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 573)

Panic attack
Anxiety disorders characterized as acute anxiety, accompanied by sharp increases in autonomic nervous system arousal, that is not triggered by a specific event.

agoraphobia
An abnormal fear of open or public places

phobia
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.

social phobia
Anxiety disorder characterized by fear of, and desire to avoid, situations in which the person might be exposed to scrutiny by others and might behave in an embarrassing or humiliating way.

Anxiety
The condition of feeling uneasy or worried about what may happen

stimulus generalization
Process by which a conditioned response becomes associated with a stimulus that is similar but not identical to the original conditioned stimulus

major depression
a mood disturbance characterized by feelings of sadness, despair, discouragement, hopelessness, lack of joy, altered sleep patterns, and difficulty with decision making and daily function

bipolar disorder
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.

mania
An intense or extreme enthusiasm or excitement

how long does depression last?
4-8 months of major depression. can be less if treated. in 40% of people with depression it will relapse within a year.

Rate of depression
6.7% of us ages 18 or older affected per year.

Areas of the brain that affect depression.
amygdala and neurotransmitters

self-defeating beliefs
– may arise from learned helplessness, when people experience unavoidable failure they give up and become depressed

vicious cycle of depression
depression–>behaviors that cause social rejection–>negative life experiences that cause/worsen depression

dissociative disorders
Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.

dissociative identity disorders
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.

schizophrenia
A disorder that is fundamentally characterized by an impaired connection with reality. Hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech.

delusions
False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

catatonia
a form of schizophrenia characterized by a tendency to remain in a fixed stuporous state for long periods

positive symptoms
Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities, such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas.

negative symptoms
Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech.

chronic schizophrenia
a distinction of schizophrenia in which there is a long period of development over the years and the decline in the person’s behavior and thinking occurs gradually

acute schizophrenia
a distinction of schizophrenia in which there is a sudden onset of symptoms that usually can be attributed to a crisis in the person’s life, and the person functioned normally before the crisis with no clinical signs of the disorder. (more reactive, more likely to recover)

dopamine hypothesis
States that high levels of dopamine seem to be associated with schizophrenia

brain abnormalities of schizophrenia
enlarged ventricles, decreased brain volume, altered connectivity and structure, reduced frontal and temporal activity

roles of genetics in schizophrenia
very unlikely to have without family link to schizophrenia. pretty close rate in all populations

historionic personality disorder
pattern of excessive emotional expression accompanied by attention seeking behaviors. Historionic persons may be dramatic in dress, manner, and speech to draw attention to themselves. emotionally shallow and often live in romantic fantasy world

narcissistic personality disorder
a personality disorder marked by a broad pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy

borderline personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures

antisocial personality disorder
A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.

somatoform disorder
any of a group of psychological disturbances characterized by physical symptoms for which there is not a medical cause

conversion disorder
a mental disorder characterized by the conversion of mental conflict into somatic forms (into paralysis or anesthesia having no apparent cause)

hypochondriasis
A somatoform disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses.

Psychologically disordered
deviant distressful, dysfunctional behavior

Evolution (biological perspective on anxiety)
human biologically prepared to fear threats by ancestors

Genes (biological perspective on anxiety)
twin studies- identical twins more likely to have vs fraternal twins less likely to have

physiology (biological perspective on anxiety)
excess sodium lactate, panic attack. phobias occur when increasing co2 in blood. PTSD- disrupt locus cerelus

commonality of depression
symptoms very widespread

differences between men and women in depression
women twice as likely to get major depression than men

reasons why some psychologists are skeptical of dissociative disorders
find suspicious that disorders somewhat localized in areas of times

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