Psych101: Chapter 10 Social Psychology

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In Solomon Asch’s study, confederates were instructed to
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give the incorrect answer to the line-matching task.
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A person demanding _______ has power or authority to command a behavioral change, rather than just ask for a change.
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obedience
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In the Milgram study and several similar studies, between _____ percent of the participants went all the way up to the 450-volt shock level.
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61 and 66
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A person tries to change the belief, opinion, or course of action of another person through
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persuasion.
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_____ is the attitude about members of a particular social group and _____ is the behavior that can result from that attitude.
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Prejudice; discrimination
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The formation of in-groups and out-groups
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begins in childhood.
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The effect that people’s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior is
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stereotype vulnerability.
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According to Sternberg, love consists of intimacy, passion, and
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commitment.
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Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love says that companionate love consists of
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intimacy and commitment.
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_______ occurs when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility.
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Diffusion of responsibility
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The \”learner\” in Milgram’s study
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was an actor following a carefully arranged script.
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The fact that Kitty Genovese did not receive help was most likely due to _____.
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the presence of multiple witnesses
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Research on conformity suggests that if a _____ response is required, ______ show more conformity than ______.
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public; women; men
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The war in Iraq, the design of the ship Titanic, and the Challenger disaster are all given in the textbook as examples of
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groupthink.
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Attitudes
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are learned through experiences and contact with others.
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People can reduce cognitive dissonance by
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forming new cognitions to justify their behavior.
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Scapegoats are
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typically members of the out-group.
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Strategies for overcoming prejudice include
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education and equal status contact.
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The sadistic behavior of the \”guards\” in Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Study
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highlighted the influence that a social role can have on ordinary people.
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If your roommate asks you for a ride to campus and you agree, and then the next day asks if he can borrow your car, it is an example of the
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foot-in-the-door technique.
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Cindy tastes peas for the first time and realizes she does not like them. Cindy formed her attitude about peas through the process of
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direct contact.
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Justin walks into the morning meeting 15 minutes late. His boss, Marco, assumes that traffic was bad this morning. Marco is using an example of
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situational cause.
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Shawn and Tanya start talking after they’ve ridden on the dorm elevator several times together. This is an example of which rule of attraction?
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proximity
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Karen intentionally tries to hurt Lisa by spreading rumors about her. Karen is engaging in
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aggression.
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Jim jumped into the ocean to save a drowning man, risking his own life in the process. This is an example of
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altruism.
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The door-in-the-face technique involves
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asking for a large commitment and then, after being refused, asking for a smaller commitment.
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When trying to persuade an audience, the message should
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present both sides of the argument.
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The Challenger disaster is a classic example of groupthink because
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some people knew the shuttle was not OK to launch but did not speak up and therefore disrupt group cohesion.
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As we interact with others on a daily basis, our behavior, feelings, and thoughts are often guided by
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social influence.
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Groupthink can be minimized by
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voting by secret ballot
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Chris’s roommate asks Chris to do him a favor, and Chris agrees. Chris is showing
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compliance.
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Nicole thinks of herself as an honest, trustworthy person. However, when she doesn’t get time to study, she cheats on her history test. Nicole will probably experience
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cognitive dissonance.
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A police officer comes to Jane’s office to discuss personal safety with the employees there. Despite the seriousness of his message, the police officer jokes and laughs with the employees. Jane nonetheless takes what she learned seriously and begins to pay more attention to her safety. Jane used ______ when receiving the officer’s message.
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central-route processing
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Studies have shown more conformity
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in collectivist cultures.
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When prejudicial attitudes cause members of a particular social group to be treated differently than the others in situations that call for equal treatment, it is called
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discrimination.
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Sigmund Freud believed that aggression is
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a basic human instinct.
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In Sternberg’s theory, _______ encompasses the physical aspects of love.
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passion
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_________ is common in college settings, where students and instructors from many different backgrounds live, work, and study together.
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Intergroup contact
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In Milgram’s study, as the teachers became reluctant to continue, the experimenter
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told them that they had to continue.
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Fritz Heider developed _______ to explain why people choose the particular explanations of behavior that they do.
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attribution theory
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Social categorization is
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a natural process.
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_____ is the tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation.
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Attitude
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Anthony assumes that happy people are also friendly and talkative. This is an example of
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a schema.
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When someone who thinks they’re smart does something they think is stupid, it causes
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dissonance.
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If a jury member voted \”guilty\” because the defendant had \”shifty eyes\” and not because of any of the evidence presented, he or she is demonstrating
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peripheral-route processing.
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Harry’s friend Logan studies a lot, so Harry assumes that Logan is smart. Harry’s belief is based on
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implicit personality theory.
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Research suggests a relationship between the network sites particular students use and their
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ethnicity.
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Some research suggests that ______ is one of the main factors that influence people’s choices for selecting people they want to know better.
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physical attractiveness
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The \”jigsaw classroom\”
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works at the college level and in the lower school grades.
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According to _________ theory, prejudice may result, at least in part, from the need to increase one’s own self-esteem by looking down on others.
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social identity
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The \”jigsaw classroom\”
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is a technique that gives each individual only part of the information needed to solve a problem, so they must work with others to find the solution
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_________ has been linked to higher levels of aggression.
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Testosterone
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Jim is studying in his room and hears someone yell for help. He is at the first helping decision point,
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noticing.
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The area of the brain that controls aggressive responses is the
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amygdala.
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The presence of others is especially important in influencing helping behavior when a situation is
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ambiguous.
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The _________ theory states that aggressive behavior is learned by watching aggressive models get reinforced for their aggressive behavior.
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social learning
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Most people associate the term cult with
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a fringe group.
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Carol is told by a police officer to move her car, and she does so. Carol is showing
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obedience.
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When a person changes his or her own behavior to more closely match the actions of others, this is
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conformity.
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People are less likely to be susceptible to the foot-in-the-door technique
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in collectivist cultures.
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In his experiment on conformity, Asch found that
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conformity increased with each new confederate, up to four.
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Sherif’s 1936 study of conformity involved
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asking participants to report the movement of a single point of light in a darkened room.
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Ryan sees a woman collapse in the mall. He doesn’t run over to help her because he assumes there is probably someone else in the crowd who is a doctor or nurse and who can provide better assistance. This is an example of
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diffusion of responsibility.
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A woman falls on the sidewalk in front of Ben. There is no one else around. Studies have shown that Ben is _________ in this situation.
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more likely to help
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Racial and ethnicity differences between a victim and a bystander
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decrease the probability of helping.
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People who are in a good mood are less likely to help if
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helping will destroy their good mood.
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When someone who thinks they’re smart does something they think is stupid, it causes
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dissonance.
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Assigning a person you have just met to a category based on characteristics they have in common with other people or groups whom you have had prior experience with is called
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social categorization.
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According to the ________, people either expand on what they hear or they pay attention to surface characteristics of persuasive messages.
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elaboration likelihood model
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Attitudes are
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poor predictors of actual behavior.
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John thinks of himself as a good friend. When his friend, Dylan, is in the hospital and asks John to visit him, John lies and says he’s too busy. John may then experience
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cognitive dissonance.
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When parents tell their children that smoking cigarettes is dangerous and unhealthy, and the children develop negative attitudes toward smoking, it is an example of
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direct instruction.
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Which of the following memory phenomena has been supported in impression formation?
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primacy effect
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Lashonda is a gifted pianist and is looking for a boyfriend who loves music. Lashonda is focusing on which factor of interpersonal attraction?
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similarity
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Researchers found that reciprocity of liking doesn’t work when
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a person suffers from feelings of low self-worth.
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Nick wanted his friend Jason to go skiing with him for the day. Jason didn’t want to go because he said it would cost too much money. Nick said it would just cost $20. When they got there, lift tickets cost $20 as Nick said, but Jason also had to pay for ski rentals and rental insurance. Nick used the
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lowball technique.
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To minimize the possibility of groupthink,
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leaders should remain impartial.
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Invulnerability, where members of a group feel they can do no wrong, is a characteristic of
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groupthink
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In Asch’s black line experiment, participants
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conformed to the group answer about one-third of the time.
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_____ is the scientific study of how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others.
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Social psychology
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Which of the following emotions about being stereotyped creates a self-fulfilling prophecy?
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anxiety about supporting the stereotype
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______ serve as targets for the frustrations and negative emotions of the in-group.
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Scapegoats

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