Psych Quizzes

question

How can cultures positively influence \”emotion knowledge\” development in their youth?
answer

By focusing on information relevant to the self
question

Long term marriage partners have more similarities to one another because of their lifetime in each other’s company and
answer

lack of attention to past negative events and personality traits
question

At the onset of puberty
answer

there is a significant amount of gray matter growth
question

During what time period does the human brain show rapid growth in gray matter?
answer

in the latter months of pregnancy and the first 18 months of life
question

During adolescence, what reaches adult levels?
answer

working memory and reaction time
question

Eduardo wants to live a long life for his kids. What should he focus on?
answer

Lifestyle factors
question

The adaptive advantage to living long after reproductive years is called
answer

the grandmother effect
question

Possible explanation for the palmar effect?
answer

The need for an infant to cling to an adult’s fur
question

What is assimilation?
answer

The incorporation of new knowledge into existing schema, without the need to revise the schema.
question

The major theme of physical and cognitive development during midlife is
answer

stability
question

Joshua whines and often demands attention from his parents and won’t leave them at the park. What kind of parenting style do his parents have?
answer

unresponsive or inconsistent
question

A spurt in myelination occurs between the ages of 6 and 13 in the brain region associated with
answer

language and spatial relations
question

In what order do these occur?
answer

raise head, roll, sit, crawl, walk, hop
question

Marcus was dropped off while his mom was running errands and wasn’t disturbed. Upon his mom’s arrival he didn’t immediately approach her. What kind of attachment does he have?
answer

avoidant
question

In some cultures, children are expected to walk earlier than what would be considered normal in the U.S. This doesn’t work because
answer

changes in developmental timeline are virtually imperceptible because motor milestones are genetic
question

Piaget’s stage characterized by egocentrism
answer

preoperational stage
question

What is the most common and preventable cause of developmental issues during pregnancy?
answer

Drinking a bottle or two of wine with every dinner
question

An 80 year old man has about ____ the fertility of a 25 year old man.
answer

50%
question

According to Erikson, one key to successful intimacy in adulthood is to
answer

establish a solid identity in adolescence
question

Contemporary views on human development focus on age-related changes that occur
answer

across the life span
question

Jenny and her mom Alice’s facial expression interpretation may differ because
answer

Jenny’s amygdala has matured before her frontal lobes
question

Greg dreamed of being an Olympic rower and a surgeon but ended up not rowing and became an anesthesiologist. He has a happy family and is content. According to Erikson, he is most likely to experience
answer

generativity
question

Research shows that african americans and hispanics who identify with an ethnic group early on have
answer

higher overall self esteem
question

Avoidant or anxious-ambivalent attachment is more common in children with
answer

high negative affect
question

What is true about attachment in the U.S., Germany, and Japan?
answer

The German sample had many more avoidant children than the U.S.
question

Vygotsky’s view of cognitive development
answer

A child gains knowledge of the world by interacting socially and collaboratively with parents, teachers, and other members of the community
question

Which of the following is true
answer

Epigenetic tags continue to accumulate in response to ongoing experience throughout the life span.
question

About the same time that infants begin to crawl, usually between 6 and 8 months, they also begin to show separation anxiety. This indicates that they
answer

now recognize who does and does not belong in their social world
question

According to an influential model of relationships, the persistence of a relationship is a direct result of the partners’ commitment, which in turn is determined by the partners’ satisfaction with the relationship, the amount of investment they have already put into their relationship, and ____
answer

The quality of their alternatives
question

What is an important elaboration of Piaget’s concept of egocentrism?
answer

theory of mind
question

Teens tend to spend more time with peers and less with family. Research has indicated that teens have a lower risk for substance abuse when they ____
answer

eat meals with family
question

Arthur is a retired auto mechanic who proudly owned his own auto repair shop, which his sons now run. He and his wife enjoy their grandchildren and enjoy spending the winters in Florida. In Erikson’s stages of social development, he is likely to experience ____
answer

integrity
question

Kohlberg’s postconventional reasoning has been criticized as not representing a universal stage of moral development, but rather being ____
answer

A characteristic of males in Europe and the United States
question

What is object permanence?
answer

The ability to form mental representations of objects that are no longer present
question

Couples typically experience a drop in marital satisfaction after the birth of a first child. In a longitudinal study that followed two cohorts of participants (Lawrence, et al., 2008), marital satisfaction continued to drop up to ____
answer

The child’s 15th birthday
question

Which of the following best describes the relationships of older adults?
answer

Older adults tend to find their relationships with their siblings especially meaningful
question

In whose life have epigenetic processes likely played the most dominant role?
answer

Sixty-five old Oliver, who has worked hard as a truck driver since he was 19 years old
question

Mahatma Gandhi employed non-violent civil disobedience in his efforts towards India’s independence from foreign powers. These actions reflects Kohlberg’s stage of ____.
answer

postconventional morality
question

Teens begin to form an identity by asking \”Who am I?\” and \”What kind of person do I want to be?\” According to Erikson, failure to achieve a stable identity leads to ____.
answer

role confusion and problems with subsequent stages
question

According to the work of Jean Rich Harris (1998), correlations between parenting styles and child outcomes are due to ____.
answer

genetics
question

Which of the following is a criticism of Piaget’s theories?
answer

Piaget viewed the developing child in relative isolation from his or her family, community, and culture.
question

Justin is nineteen. In the past, he drove at an abnormally high speed if no police cars were in sight. Now he believes it is in everybody’s best interests to obey speed limits and other traffic rules. According to Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning, this represents ____.
answer

conventional morality
question

A pattern of infant-caregiver bonding in which children explore confidently and return to the parent or caregiver for reassurance is called
answer

secure attachment
question

To which of the following tastes will a newborn react most favorably?
answer

Sweet
question

Midlife is most often a time of ____.
answer

many challenges
question

Chris and Ivan are fourteen. Chris dares Ivan by saying, \”Let’s take a bottle of wine from your grandmother’s house; she’ll never notice.\” According to Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning, this represents ____.
answer

preconventional morality
question

Which of the following is an advantage of personality inventories?
answer

Large numbers of people can be assessed quickly and inexpensively.
question

Alicia would be hurt not to be included, but might dampen the party with her anxiety, anger, hostility, and tendency towards depression. Leanne never knows what she will do or say next. The Big Five trait that best describes this aspect of Alicia’s personality is ____.
answer

neuroticism
question

According to Freud, what is the resolution of the Oedipus complex?
answer

Identification with the same-sex parent
question

A vendor of used paperbacks leaves stacks of books on a table in an area heavily traveled by students, with a box for money and a sign that says $5. Most students who take a book place $5 in the box. What is the most likely reason for this?
answer

Most college students feel self-conscious in front of the others looking at the books.
question

The self does not exist in a vacuum. It both shapes and is shaped by ____.
answer

our social environment
question

The text notes that Professor Jennifer Mather tested 44 octopuses systematically for their responses to stimuli such as being touched with a brush. What did she find?
answer

The octopuses seemed to have unique and stable responses, similar to having a \”personality.\”
question

What is the cognitive expectancy featured in social-cognitive learning theories of personality about the source of individual outcomes?
answer

locus of control
question

Observation remains one of the most reliable means of making judgments about other people but it ____.
answer

can be time consuming and biased
question

What are the two dimensions of temperament that appear to be particularly important for adult personality?
answer

reactivity and self-regulation
question

What purpose does the text suggest that self-esteem may have played related to survival in the evolutionary past?
answer

A drop in self-esteem served as an early warning signal that rejection by the group is imminent and that behavior designed to regain the favor of the group should be initiated.
question

Daryl is a painter and poet. His work often portrays fantasy images that evoke strong emotion. He loves to travel, particularly in Asia, to view the art at sacred sites and learn about local culture. The Big Five trait that best describes this aspect of Daryl’s personality is ____.
answer

openness
question

Personality tests are widely used by therapists, potential employers, judges, and attorneys. These applications of personality assessment ____.
answer

raise important ethical concerns
question

As Erin walks to the front of the classroom to write on the board, she stubs the toe of her shoe on the floor and nearly trips in front of her professor. She is so embarrassed. However, her professor is actually thinking about his lunch plans. Erin’s reaction is an example of ____.
answer

the spotlight effect
question

Susan was so angry at her boss that, when she got home from work, she yelled at her husband in response to his question \”How was your day?\”. This is an example of ____.
answer

displacement
question

Francesca sees how popular budding actors are at her new high school, so although she has never been involved in this area, she decides to join the drama club. This is an example of ____.
answer

the bask in reflected glory approach
question

According to a large meta-analysis involving thousands of participants (Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999), ____.
answer

males have a very small advantage over women in self-esteem
question

Jonah is a very physical and quite aggressive eight-year-old. All his friends were signed up for soccer but his parents chose football. This is an example of ____.
answer

sublimation
question

Jim is on a diet. At his office, his co-workers often bring in donuts, cookies, and other snacks for the group. He has done fairly well in resisting the temptations each day. How does he likely feel by late afternoon?
answer

He’s focused on his favorite snack
question

\”A personality inventory is a subjective test, often using numbered scales or multiple choice, used to assess personality.\” Which part of her definition is in error?
answer

subjective test; it’s an objective test
question

Of the following, who would be pursuing a dissertation research topic reflecting a contribution of Alfred Adler?
answer

Alexis, who is researching the effects of birth order on professional and financial success
question

Which person is most likely to provide constructive criticism within a group?
answer

a person with high self-esteem
question

What are the two basic requirements of a good test?
answer

validity and reliability
question

In Freud’s view, it is the job of the ego, or self, to ____.
answer

balance the pleasure-seeking impulses of the id with the morality imposed by the superego
question

Psychologists approach the study of the self by examining the ABCs. What are these?
answer

affect, behavior, and cognition
question

Which statistical method was used to analyze the clustering of personality traits?
answer

factor analysis
question

People who differ in neuroticism show different volumes of areas of the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus, areas that have been implicated in ____.
answer

sensitivity to threat and stress
question

Which of the following describes a humanist approach, as opposed to a behaviorist or Freudian approach?
answer

Humanists advocated studying exceptional people to see why they succeeded.
question

Which of the following Big Five traits had the greatest positive correlation with success across a wide range of professional, skilled, and unskilled job descriptions?
answer

conscientiousness
question

Where in the brain does self-referential processing — the processing of information relevant to ourselves but not others — occur?
answer

In the emotional, facial, memory, motor, social, spatial, and verbal domains
question

A child’s pattern of mood, activity, or emotional responsiveness that is linked to later personality is called her ____.
answer

temperament
question

Ross is filling in a personality inventory in connection with a job application. The results are based on his self-report. Why is this a potential limitation?
answer

Ross’s responses might be influenced by his need to appear socially appropriate.
question

In Freudian theory, projection is ____.
answer

a defense mechanism
question

The cognitive organization that helps us think about the self and process self-relevant information is ____.
answer

self schema
question

Most efforts to study the effects of genetics on personality use ____.
answer

the twin study method
question

Javier is disciplined in his research process and in his record-keeping, and follows his advisor’s recommendations to the letter, as he wants to eventually accomplish a lot in this field. The Big Five trait that best describes this aspect of Javier’s personality is ____.
answer

conscientiousness
question

According to your text, what does the science of personality explore
answer

Characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
question

For Freud, what leads to the emergence of personality characteristics?
answer

The resolution of conflicts among the id, ego, and superego
question

Paige, a recent college graduate, has been asked to take a personality test as part of the process of applying for a position with a financial services organization. According to the text, what should she do first?
answer

Fully educate herself regarding the test and make an informed decision about whether to proceed.
question

To avoid the pitfalls of observation and interview, many psychologists turn to ____.
answer

standardized tests of personalityDominic is memorizing vocabulary for his psychology exam, including the term \”allele.\” Which of the following approaches will most help him remember this term?
question

In Freud’s personality theory, the self that others see is called the ____.
answer

ego
question

Evidence across diverse cultures, including the United States, Japan, Korea, Germany, Portugal, Israel, and China, suggests that the Big Five personality traits ____ (McCrae & Costa, 1997).
answer

represent a universal human characteristic
question

Based on research (Gardner, Gabriel, & Lee, 1999), which of the following is true?
answer

Independent and interdependent views of the self are human universals and the relative dominance of one over the other is modifiable by a person’s experience and situation.
question

Dominic is memorizing vocabulary for his psychology exam, including the term \”allele.\” Which of the following approaches will most help him remember this term?
answer

He reflects on how certain alleles have shaped his own life.
question

Of the following, who most reflects self-efficacy?
answer

Todd, who believes that he can handle challenging situations and obtain future rewards
question

According to terror management theory, self-esteem works together with a cultural worldview to ____.
answer

buffer our fear of death
question

When out for coffee with her friend Beth, Beth orders a delicious piece of chocolate cake with chocolate frosting and offers to split it with Rima. Rima says \”Well, maybe this one time; I’ve read that chocolate is good for your health.\” This is an example of ____.
answer

rationalization
question

Gregory feels that he did well on the final exam in his social history class; however, he is actually in the bottom quarter of the class. If Gregory were to estimate his class standing, he would most likely place himself ____.
answer

in the top half of the class
question

What is the relationship between self-esteem and school performance?
answer

There is a modest positive correlation between self-esteem and school grades.
question

Elena’s brother was diagnosed with schizophrenia when he was in his twenties. Sometimes he reports that his neighbors are trying to control his behavior through the television set. Which part of the brain shows excess activity during such delusions of control?
answer

the right hemisphere
question

What might be a purpose of the mere exposure effect from an evolutionary perspective?
answer

To avoid unfamiliar and possibly dangerous stimuli
question

Advertisers direct much advertising towards children and grocery stores place products appealing to children on lower shelves. Why?
answer

Children are more likely than adults to respond to persuasive arguments emotionally rather than logically.
question

In Koscik and Tranel’s study regarding the Trust Game (Koscik & Tranel, 2011), the participants most likely to increase the amount of money they gave a partner when the partner had decreased or not changed his contribution were those ____.
answer

with damage to the amygdala
question

Lucia has always been what some researchers call a cooperator, that is, someone who gives freely of her time, her money, and so forth, usually irrespective of the behavior of others. Cooperators, though small in number in society, are very important because ____.
answer

most people are reciprocators who cooperate only after seeing others do so
question

Which of the following examples involves deindividuation?
answer

Naomi decides to follow her classmates as they sneak onto the subway without paying.
question

He wonders whether David let her win because she is so attractive. This is an example of maintaining a stereotype through ____.
answer

situational attribution
question

Grace is serving on a jury for the first time. She entered the jury room with a dollar amount in mind for damages but, following deliberations, she agreed to a significantly higher number. This is an example of ____.
answer

group polarization
question

A simplified set of traits associated with membership in a group or category is called ____.
answer

stereotype
question

Agreeing to a request from a person with no perceived authority is called ____.
answer

compliance
question

Joshua is eight years old and cannot control his temper. His parents encourage him to vent his anger by punching an inflatable doll. This approach will most likely ____.
answer

heighten his feelings of aggression
question

Which of the following is true regarding physical attraction?
answer

Subjective judgments of beauty are heavily influenced by symmetry
question

In research using surveillance camera footage of public places, researchers observed actual fighting behavior and found that third parties ____.
answer

were more likely to intervene when the number of bystanders was larger
question

Which of the following examples does not fit an evolutionary model to account for altruistic behavior?
answer

Altruism is transmitted by a culture through learning.
question

The group decides to write a letter expressing concern to the local police department, without checking the accuracy of the member’s information. This is an example of ____.
answer

groupthink
question

There is no doubt that Vanessa is very competent in this field; however, she has applied to over fifty auto repair shops in her town and has not received one interview. Which of the following terms describes the most likely reason for this?
answer

discrimination
question

The percentage of the human population lost to war today has decreased since the time of the hunter-gatherers. One possible reason is that between-group violence has been reduced by ____
answer

increasing economic dependencies among nations
question

Biologists have cataloged many species that determine the allocation of mating opportunities, food, and other resources, both within and between groups, by ____.
answer

competition, usually in the form of fighting
question

A judgment about the cause of a person’s behavior is called a(n) ____.
answer

attribution
question

In the \”tit-for-tat\” strategy, your first move is to ____.
answer

cooperate
question

Julio’s term paper is due on Thursday at 5 P.M. On Wednesday, he asks his professor if he can turn it in on Friday morning, to which his professor agrees. On Thursday afternoon, he asks his professor if he can hand the paper in on Monday morning. What persuasive technique does this most resemble?
answer

foot in the door
question

What causes us to view person’s behavior as the result of his or her disposition, even when the behavior can be completely explained by strong situational factors?
answer

correspondence bias
question

Ross, a college sophomore, has no clear preference for any of the candidates running for student body president. The students he admires most are campaigning for their fraternity brother, Henry. Ross decides to support Henry as well. This most reflects ____.
answer

a desire for social inclusion
question

Which of the following most contributes to the formidability of human beings as a species?
answer

Our ability to work together and form alliances
question

Who is most likely to use the central route to respond to persuasive messages?
answer

Jorge, who plans to attend a guest lecture on worldwide water shortages, a topic about which he has read a great deal
question

A person in which of these groups is least likely to be obedient within Milgram’s experiment (1963)?
answer

Australian women
question

Cross-cultural data show that homicide rates are often high in cultures that ____.
answer

feature loving socialization of children and aversion to interpersonal conflict
question

Consider the prisoner’s dilemma (Poundstone, 1992). In which of the following pairings would the participants likely cooperate the least?
answer

One participant from China and one participant from the United States
question

What is the dominant factor in romantic attraction?
answer

physical appearance
question

Recognizing and reacting to individuals based on group affiliation was probably a very important skill for early hunter-gatherers, whose survival often depended on quickly identifying others as potential friends or foes. This categorization was made primarily on the basis of ____.
answer

physical appearance
question

Which of the following is true regarding physical attraction?
answer

Subjective judgments of beauty are heavily influenced by symmetry.
question

What did Milgram conclude in applying his research results to the Holocaust?
answer

Relatively few people have the resources needed to resist authority.
question

Joanne’s puppy is very large, but also submissive. When the puppy meets a more dominant dog, she lies on the grass on her back, shows her belly, and wiggles. This is an example of ____.
answer

minimizing within-group conflict by clear signals of lower status
question

A change in attitudes in response to information provided by another person is called ____.
answer

persuasion
question

Which of the following is a quality of groups where groupthink may take place?
answer

Members already share similar attitudes.
question

Eddie and Tom have been arrested for a crime for which the police have limited evidence against them. They are being questioned about the crime in separate rooms. According to the prisoner’s dilemma model, what would bring about the best result for Eddie?
answer

Eddie confesses and Tom remains silent.
question

How does your text define prejudice?
answer

A prejudgment, usually negative, of another person on the basis of his or her membership in a group
question

Since his divorce, Rodney has become increasingly cut off from his family, friends, and co-workers. Assuming his doctor is well-informed of the literature in this area (House, Landis, & Umberson, 1988; Trout, 1980), which of the following statements is he most likely to make?
answer

Rodney, I’m concerned. Going through a divorce shares a risk of death comparable to high blood pressure and obesity.
question

A murder would be described as having a situational rather than a dispositional basis in which country?
answer

Korea
question

A positive or negative evaluation that predisposes behavior toward an object, person, or situation is called a(n) ____.
answer

attitude
question

In a research study on cognitive dissonance (van Veen, Krug, Schooler, & Carter, 2009), one group of participants undergoing functional MRI was asked to describe the somewhat unpleasant scanner experience as pleasant. The other group was asked to describe it as neutral. Which part(s) of the brain showed higher levels of activity in the participants who made dissonant statements, as compared to those who made neutral statements?
answer

anterior cingulate cortex and insula
question

People are more likely to be persuaded by a message delivered by someone ____.
answer

with whom they share some similarity
question

Who is most likely to use the central route to respond to persuasive messages?
answer

Jorge, who plans to attend a guest lecture on worldwide water shortages, a topic about which he has read a great deal
question

The Elaboration Likelihood Model predicts responses to persuasive messages by distinguishing between ____.
answer

central and peripheral routes to persuasion
question

In Sternberg’s model, the closeness or bonding we experience with another person is referred to as ____.
answer

intimacy
question

For which of the following groups do testosterone levels correlate with the violent nature of the crimes for which they were sentenced, as well as the dominance and violence they demonstrated while in prison?
answer

both male and female criminals
question

Children and youth are exposed to increasingly violent and graphic images and ideas through films, video games, and music lyrics. Some research results show correlations between media exposure and aggression, which indicates that ____.
answer

there may or may not be some relationship between the two
question

For an individual or small group to influence a larger group, it is important to ____.
answer

speak with consistency and confidence
question

Alex is generally a reasonable person — unless he becomes very drunk. Then, he is quick to anger at his wife, accuses her unfairly of infidelity, and has on occasion tried to hit her. What role does alcohol play in these instances?
answer

It has disinhibiting effects on behavior.
question

Rina enters the cafeteria of her new high school, unsure of where to sit for lunch. She approaches two groups of girls, but each group turns their backs on her to talk and laugh with each other. The pattern of her brain activity caused by the distress of social exclusion is most similar to the brain activity associated with ____.
answer

physical pain
question

In which of the following situations is Molly more likely to comply with the request of Valeria, whom she is meeting for the first time?
answer

Valeria is an attractive and energetic woman about the same age as Molly.
question

Human twin and adoption studies imply that aggressive tendencies in human beings are ____.
answer

at least partly influenced by genetics
question

According to initial research regarding online communications (Lee, Park, Lee, & Cameron, 2010), how are user-generated materials, such as blogs and reviews, viewed in comparison to formal news reports prepared by professional journalists?
answer

They are viewed as equally credible and accurate.
question

Sandra and Derek have always had some friction in their relationship. Early on, they called it passion. After twelve years of marriage, it seems that their negative interactions now exceed their positive ones. What does this suggest?
answer

The amount of friction in a relationship is an indicator of its success.
question

Which of the following is a defensive attribution?
answer

just-world belief
question

Raising awareness of a negative stereotype about a group to which we belong has the ability to reduce our performance, a phenomenon known as ____.
answer

stereotype threat
question

Bob received a C on his Calculus II exam and an A on his Macroeconomics exam. Which of the following would best reflect a self-serving bias on his part?
answer

Bob felt he did poorly on the Calculus II exam because he was coming down with the flu and well on his Macroeconomics exam because of his innate gift for understanding how the world works.
question

What was the researchers’ finding in a study comparing brain activity in murderers who had experienced neglect and abuse compared to murderers who had not experienced neglect or abuse (Raine, Stoddard, Bihrle, & Buchsbaum, 1998)?
answer

The brain activity of the neglected and abused murderers was quite similar to the non-violent control participants.
question

Jessica, Zach, and their dog Max have been together for twelve years. Their friends joke that they all look alike. Jessica and Zach are both very attractive with dark hair and dark eyes. This similarity is known as ____.
answer

the matching hypothesis
question

Individual, gender, cultural, and task variables interact to produce social loafing. Who has the greatest potential for social loafing?
answer

Robert is a male from a Western culture and is working in a group to pick up trash along the highway.
question

Manny coaches a team of ten-year-old boys in baseball. When they lost to their arch rivals by a score of 7-2, the boys complained that the umpire was not fair and that they would have won if they had played on their home field. This is an example of ____.
answer

group-serving bias
question

The parts of the brain implicated in ADHD, such as the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia, feature large amounts of
answer

dopamine activity
question

Professor Hall is giving a surprise test in economics class. All other things being equal, which of the following students is likely to make the most errors on the exam?
answer

Lorena, who is depressed that her boyfriend broke up with her and cannot stop thinking about how awful she feels
question

Mira has hallucinations and delusions. Which of the following is a hallucination, as opposed to a delusion?
answer

Mira hears critical voices commenting on her every action.
question

What may well-meaning therapists misinterpret as dissociative identity disorder?
answer

responses to extreme stress
question

In order to understand the reciprocal relationships between factors leading to psychological disorders, which is the most helpful perspective?
answer

integrated
question

Mania, unlike many other disorders, actually ____.
answer

increases productive, goal-directed behavior
question

What kind of obsessions are involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder?
answer

intrusive
question

Which brain structures are thought to be involved in generalized anxiety disorder?
answer

The amygdala and prefrontal cortex
question

Dr. Moran believes that depression is purely the result of chemical imbalances of the brain and that a simple prescription should address each of his patient’s needs. This single-perspective thinking usually leads to ____.
answer

single-perspective treatments
question

Of the following, who is demonstrating a compulsion?
answer

Andrew, who has a precise, daily coffee-making routine that cannot be disrupted
question

Of the following, who is demonstrating mania?
answer

John, who feels so cheerful that he talks extensively and rapidly with strangers on the subway and on the street
question

Which of the following statements is true regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
answer

Fewer than 40% of surveyed pediatricians reported using the DSM criteria to evaluate cases of ADHD.
question

What is the ratio of the incidence of schizophrenia in members of lower socioeconomic groups compared to higher socioeconomic groups?
answer

5 to 1
question

Mia’s doctor tells her that her depression and sleep problems are related. How would the doctor most likely explain this?
answer

Mia is spending too much time in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.
question

Which of the following biological factors may be implicated in depression?
answer

Increased right prefrontal cortex activity
question

African immigrants living in South London were more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia if they lived in a predominantly White neighborhood than if they lived in a primarily non-White neighborhood (Boydell et al., 2001). According to the text, what do these findings suggest?
answer

The stress of minority status might contribute to higher risk for schizophrenia.
question

Jacob is nine years old. He dislikes and often avoids doing things that require sustained mental effort, such as his schoolwork and homework. According to the DSM, ____.
answer

he has met one criterion for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
question

Sonia adores her new boyfriend, who she finds very attractive and intelligent. However, no matter what she does, he criticizes her: her appearance, her opinions, her cooking, the gifts she buys for him, etc. She is feeling more and more helpless and discouraged. This is likely a case of ____.
answer

learned helplessness
question

Teens typically experience a burst of cortical gray matter growth at puberty followed by a wave of gray matter loss extending into their early twenties. Teens diagnosed with schizophrenia experience ____.
answer

loss of gray matter that spreads in waves into the early 20s
question

Courtney is desperately sad, has trouble concentrating, and has lost some of her appetite. She has started to skip most of her classes and can’t maintain eye contact with others for long. She calls her college’s mental health help line and says, \”I’m so worried about my grades that my stomach hurts. I don’t know what to do.\” Based on the text’s continuum from normal behavior to severely disordered behavior, Courtney’s status would be considered ____.
answer

psychological disorder, less severe
question

In the upcoming DSM-V, the criteria for antisocial personality disorder will ____.
answer

be more similar to the definition of psychopathy
question

Which of the following is true regarding the role of genes in schizophrenia?
answer

A large number of different genes have been implicated in the development of schizophrenia and appear to overlap with those involved with bipolar disorder.
question

Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thought and speech, disorders of movement, avolition/asociality, and ____.
answer

restricted affect
question

What is a weakness of the theory that the interpretation of body symptoms, such as an increased heart rate, could lead to increasing anxiety and, ultimately, to panic?
answer

Panic does not increase levels of the stress hormone cortisol.
question

A delusion is a(n) ____.
answer

false, illogical belief
question

Most children with autism have a ____ level of auditory filtering than a group of typical, healthy children.
answer

very different
question

Susan is serving a prison sentence for repeatedly passing fake payroll checks and using false ID cards. Under DSM-IV, which of the following is most likely true?
answer

She likely will be categorized as having antisocial personality disorder.
question

When patients with a history of suicidal thoughts, but no attempts, were followed over a 10-year period, the patients that did commit suicide differed from the other patients in ____.
answer

their degree of hopelessness
question

The weight of scientific evidence (Schechter & Grether, 2008) indicates that thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that has been used in vaccines, ____.
answer

plays no part in the development of autism
question

Lauren has been chosen to introduce the guest speaker to her economics class. She is worried about how she will look and sound to her classmates, her palms are sweaty, and she can feel her heart beating. This is best described as ____.
answer

social anxiety
question

What is borderline personality disorder?
answer

A disorder characterized by instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion
question

Suicide is the eleventh leading cause of death in the United States for all ages, but among young adults ages 25 to 34, it is the ____.
answer

second leading cause of death
question

Who of the following is most likely to attempt and complete a suicide?
answer

A young, single White man by gun
question

Which of the following scenarios is most suggestive of someone who might intend to commit suicide?
answer

Ethan gives his roommate his hardcover collection of Harry Potter books, saying \”I want you to have these.\”
question

Who of the following is within the group most likely to have the lowest rate of bipolar disorder?
answer

Daniel, from Korea, whose family has always eaten a lot of fish
question

What is taijin kyofusho?
answer

A fear of offending or embarrassing other people with one’s odor, eye contact, or appearance
question

A dissociative disorder is characterized by disruptions in a person’s ____.
answer

identity, memory, or consciousness
question

Eileen works in an crowded downtown neighborhood. She constantly worries that her car will be stolen while she is at work, and repeatedly goes back and checks to see that it is locked before finally arriving at the office, frequently late. Her therapist explains that returning to her car so often is a way to reduce the anxiety created by her obsessive thoughts. This is a(n) ____.
answer

learning explanation based on operant conditioning
question

According to research (Bryan & Rudd, 2006), almost 20% of 18-to-20-year olds who had experienced at least ____ attempted suicide.
answer

one depressive episode in the past year
question

Antisocial behavior is associated with abnormalities of the orbitofrontal cortex, which often leads to ____.
answer

poor judgment and impulsivity
question

One reliable correlate of schizophrenia is the presence of enlarged ventricles, which indicates that schizophrenia is associated with ____.
answer

neural degeneration
question

Of the following, who is most likely to have anxiety, as opposed to fear?
answer

Emily, who is so worried about her psychology final that she is unable to study
question

Frank knew that his elderly neighbor Madge did not believe in banks and that she kept large amounts of cash hidden in her home. Frank murdered Madge one day when he knew that she would be home alone, and stole her cash. During his trial, expert testimony was presented that Frank fit the criteria for a psychopath. It is highly likely that his crime was found to be ____.
answer

premeditated
question

Research on individuals with antisocial parents suggests a genetic contribution to antisocial personality disorder. Of the following, who exemplifies a survival advantage that might be related to this disorder?
answer

Carlos, who is a decorated hero of the Iraq war
question

People who choose violent methods to commit suicide, such as firearms, over less violent methods, such as overdosing on pills, have ____.
answer

lower levels of serotonin activity in the prefrontal cortex
question

Which of the following statements is true regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
answer

Regional discrepancies might be associated with low socioeconomic status, which is considered a risk factor.
question

He came home physically healthy but suffering from PTSD. Jake was not much of a drinker before he went to Iraq, but now, he frequently drinks alone at night. To what might this be related?
answer

Lower levels of naturally occurring benzodiazepine activity in the frontal cortex
question

Four students in sociology class received a D on their final project and are required to re-write and re-submit it. In their response to this situation, who exemplifies the attribution style that is most prone to depression?
answer

Gina, who feels that she never does well on written assignments and that she’s just not good at sociology
question

The lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia for a person in the general population is about 1%. For an identical twin of someone with schizophrenia, it is about ____.
answer

50%
question

Which of the following people is within a group that would have the highest chance of experiencing PTSD after witnessing the attacks on the twin towers of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001?
answer

Esperanza, a Colombian woman, who recently moved to New York City and has few family members or friends there
question

A drawback to the purely statistical approach to abnormality is that it might result in very different definitions of psychological disorder ____.
answer

from one culture to the next
question

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) results in the induction of ____.
answer

seizures
question

In addition to scientific evidence, what does evidence-based practice (EBP) utilize to provide the best outcome for a client?
answer

Clinical expertise and client values
question

Rena’s therapist asks her a series of questions about her childhood, such as her relationship with her parents. She is asked to recall, in depth, her interactions with her parents, particularly during mealtime. The therapist tells Rena that her conflicts with her parents at dinnertime may be a source of the problem. What type of therapy does this scenario illustrate?
answer

psychoanalytical therapy
question

Which therapist is most likely utilizing brief therapy during a session with a client?
answer

Dr. Milner, who states, \”Let’s come up with a plan for the next time you feel anxious\”
question

While working on a term paper for her Methods in Psychology course, Angelique researches psychosurgical approaches to treating psychological disorders. She is surprised to find out that frontal lobotomies were routinely performed well into the 1960s, until ____.
answer

the use of medications for psychological disorders became an established pra
question

Why is hypnosis not recommended for the treatment of dissociative identity disorder?
answer

because of the risk of creating false memories
question

Analia is training to be a clinical psychologist. She is interested in using a cognitive approach when dealing with patients; however, she knows that for cognitive therapy to be most successful, it should be combined with ____ techniques.
answer

behavioral
question

Suzette seeks the help of a mental health professional because she just hasn’t feel like herself lately; she is unusually sad, sleeps late, avoids her friends, and eats excessively. During her appointments, Suzette and her therapist engage in conversation as a way to help Suzette understand her feelings. This type of conversation is termed ____.
answer

psychotherapy
question

Tonya recently began a new job as a social worker at a state penitentiary. She would like to incorporate a new program to work with offenders diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. She researches the most effective treatment options and chooses a training program that speaks to the selfish nature of individuals with this disorder, namely \”____\” (Salmon, 2004).
answer

character formation
question

Dr. O’Shea meets with a new patient, Doris, to discuss performing deep brain stimulation for the treatment of her severe depression. He describes the technique to Doris and explains that microelectrodes will be placed in Doris’s ____.
answer

nucleus accumbens
question

The use of medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the United States is how many times higher than in any other nation?
answer

five
question

Dr. Tran, a pediatric psychiatrist, cautions his colleagues against prescribing stimulants for long-term use to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder because of the risk of ____.
answer

growth suppression
question

Frontal lobotomies were performed well into the 1960s, despite the fact that damage to the frontal lobe can severely impair a person’s ____.
answer

judgment
question

One of the earliest examples of cognitive therapy was developed by ____.
answer

Aaron Beck
question

After evaluating Bart, Dr. Aimes considers switching him from Thorazine to Clozaril, a drug that affects several neurotransmitters, including ____.
answer

serotonin
question

What is the relationship between medication and the treatment of borderline personality disorder?
answer

No medications are currently approved specifically for the treatment of borderline personality disorder.
question

Because of the severity and lifelong nature of autism, parents of children with autism are especially vulnerable to \”cures\” that have little research support. What is an example of one of these so-called \”cures?\”
answer

hyperbaric oxygen treatment
question

What is the goal of neurofeedback?
answer

To help keep measures of brain activity within a certain range
question

Although the American Psychological Association (APA) has the primary responsibility for accrediting Ph.D. or Psy.D. psychology degree programs, the Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System (PCSAS) was recently formed to increase ____.
answer

the scientific basis of clinical treatment and research literacy among clinical psychologist
question

What is the primary downside to using learning models that emphasize anger control, social skills, and moral reasoning to treat antisocial personality disorder?
answer

These models are ineffective in those who show true psychopathy.
question

Why is it thought that SSRIs cause sexual dysfunction
answer

They reduce the activity of nitric oxide.
question

The discovery of which class of drugs after World War II changed the treatment of anxiety dramatically?
answer

benzodiazepines
question

Trudy takes Thorazine, a phenothiazine, as part of her treatment regimen for schizophrenia. Sometimes she does not pay close attention and accidentally takes two doses in one day. Her doctor warns her that this is very dangerous because it could produce symptoms consistent with ____.
answer

Parkinson’s disease
question

As medical knowledge improved in the 18th and 19th centuries, psychological disorders became ____.
answer

less mysterious
question

Cognitive-behavioral therapies work best for which somatoform/somatic symptom disorder?
answer

body dysmorphic disorder
question

Rena’s therapist asks her a series of questions about her childhood, such as her relationship with her parents. She is asked to recall, in depth, her interactions with her parents, particularly during mealtime. The therapist tells Rena that her conflicts with her parents at dinnertime may be a source of the problem. What type of therapy does this scenario illustrate?
answer

psychoanalytical therapy
question

SSRIs alleviate symptoms of depression by increasing the ____.
answer

level of seratonin at the synapse
question

What is a major advantage of deep brain stimulation over psychosurgery?
answer

it is reversible
question

What is an example of a significant challenge faced by family therapists?
answer

maintaining confidentiality
question

What is a major benefit of group therapy?
answer

decreases sense of isolation
question

Rena’s therapist challenges her to think about her past dieting failures, in which Rena would strictly limit her caloric intake. She asks whether Rena’s \”all-or-nothing\” view of eating was rational – \”Is it realistic to think that portion control should be either rigid or not worth regulating at all\”? What type of therapy does this scenario illustrate?
answer

cognitive therapy
question

Suzette seeks the help of a mental health professional because she just hasn’t feel like herself lately; she is unusually sad, sleeps late, avoids her friends, and eats excessively. During her appointments, Suzette and her therapist engage in conversation as a way to help Suzette understand her feelings. This type of conversation is termed ____.
answer

psychotherapy
question

The medications Ritalin and Adderall, which are prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), act by ____
answer

increasing norepinephrine and increasing dopamine
question

Therapists face many challenges when counseling married couples. Compared with couples where infidelity is not an issue, how do couples dealing with infidelity fare in couples therapy
answer

Although they initially show more distress than faithful couples, they fare as well in therapy
question

Dr. Schwartz is developing transgenic mouse models to better understand the efficacy of drugs used to treat schizophrenia. She manipulates several genes in the mice and then tests the effects of phenothiazines on the rodents. What should she measure to ensure the effectiveness of phenothiazines in her transgenic mouse models?
answer

activity of dopamine receptors
question

Dr. Blagojevich is interested in understanding how antidepressants affect brain structure. After administering SSRIs to a group of rats for several weeks, Dr. Blagojevich analyzes their brain tissue. He is likely to find an increase in ____ (Malberg, Eisch, Nestler, & Duman, 2000; Nasrallah, Hopkins, & Pixley, 2010).
answer

the number of neurons in the hippocampus
question

Who popularized the use of frontal lobotomies in the United States by performing the procedure on thousands of individuals between the 1930s and 1950s?
answer

Walter Freeman
question

What is the rationale for using stimulants to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
answer

They increase the activity of brain regions responsible for planned behavior.
question

Which word best describes the role of the therapist in the humanistic approach to psychotherapy?
answer

non-directive
question

Dr. Smirnova feels that she made significant progress with her client, Alyssa, at their last session. This week, Alyssa cancels her appointment at the last minute, stating that she does not feel well. Dr. Smirnova suspects that Alyssa is showing signs of ____.
answer

resistance
question

Dr. Sebastian asks his client to say whatever comes to mind about his mother without attempting to censor the content. This technique is referred to as ____.
answer

free association
question

Neurofeedback appears to be promising in the treatment of ____.
answer

ADD and epilepsy
question

Recent medical school graduate Dr. Boykin is undertaking his psychiatry residency with Dr. Stone, an expert in repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). As the two doctors prepare for a clinical trial involving rTMS, Dr. Stone warns that rTMS can have negative effects on patients with a history of ____; therefore, these patients must be excluded from the study.
answer

OCD
question

From the following list, which client is the least ideal for group therapy?
answer

Dean, who attempted suicide last month
question

Person-centered therapy was developed by ____
answer

Carl Rogers
question

Bianca is trying to decide between pursuing a Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree in psychology. As her friend, you tell Bianca that a major critique of the Psy.D. degree is that it ____.
answer

lacks an emphasis on research and the objective evaluation of data
question

Dr. Cohen uses a humanistic approach when treating his clients. What underlying ideology influences his therapeutic style?
answer

Societal judgments interfere with healthy behavior
question

Which of the following was discovered first, and revolutionized the biological treatment of psychological disorders?
answer

Lithium, to treat bipolar disorder
question

During the 20th century, psychological approaches to treatment reflected the rise of the ____ perspectives.
answer

behavioral and humanist
question

The Food and Drug Administration has approved what class of drugs for the treatment of autism?
answer

antipsychotics
question

Dr. DeMarco prefers to use cognitive-behavioral techniques rather than medication to treat his clients with anxiety disorders because ____.
answer

therapy produces longer-lasting effects
question

After several failed attempts at treating his major depressive episodes over the years, Patrick contemplates undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). He discusses this with his doctor, who warns him that ECT can lead to ____.
answer

memory loss
question

In the 1950s, Henri Laborit encouraged his psychiatric colleagues to try phenothiazines on their psychotic patients. What led him to make this suggestion?
answer

The drugs produced a calming effect on surgical patients.
question

The discovery of which class of drugs after World War II changed the treatment of anxiety dramatically?
answer

benzodiazepines
question

For our hunter-gatherer ancestors to survive, physical activity was essential. Today, what do children and adults in the United States spend an average of 55% of their day doing?
answer

sitting
question

What is one of the ways in which positive psychology differs from humanism?
answer

It emphasizes scientific reasoning and research.
question

In 1960, about 13% of American adults were obese (having a BMI greater than or equal to 30). In 2008, that number was about ____.
answer

34%
question

Nutrition plays a significant part in overall physical development, including brain development, and is believed to be responsible for many differences in psychological and health outcomes ____
answer

related to socioeconomic status
question

While hiking with a friend in the Sierra Nevada mountains in California, Lenny comes face-to-face with a young bear on the trail. Lenny rapidly enters the first stage of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome. His brainstem initiates the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which increases his vigilance and fear. This is part of his ____.
answer

physical response
question

Once basic needs are met, additional money
answer

does not guarantee happiness
question

Who faces an especially high risk of premature death?
answer

Adam, age 45, who has not married
question

Which of the following is true regarding the attraction of smoking?
answer

Nicotine has the ability to stimulate the dopamine reward circuits of the brain and to produce a particularly unpleasant set of withdrawal symptoms.
question

Very short-term bursts of stress can have a beneficial effect on many biological systems, including your body’s frontline defense against infection and cancer, ____.
answer

the immune system
question

Based on a meta-analysis of almost 300 studies and about 20,000 participants (Segerstrom & Miller, 2004), who is most likely to suffer the greatest suppression of his or her immune system?
answer

Andrew, whose wife fell in love with his best friend and initiated divorce proceedings
question

What is the first stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome?
answer

an alarm reaction
question

Elizabeth’s boss removes her from a project team working on an important presentation because of repeated tardiness. Her response is to leave the office immediately and drown her sorrows by eating a pint of her favorite ice cream. This is an example of ____.
answer

negative problem-focused coping
question

Oscar is 75 years old. His doctor has encouraged him to walk briskly each day in order to maintain or improve his cognitive performance. What is the most likely reason for this?
answer

A fit cardiovascular system may increase delivery of oxygen to the brain.
question

Hailey plans a family reunion at the lake and wants it to be perfect. With over fifty people attending, though, things do not go exactly according to plan and Hailey is highly stressed all day. Which of the following would most help Hailey reduce her stress levels for future events?
answer

Be flexible with new situations.
question

Alcohol contributes to an enormous loss of potential years of life due to ____.
answer

automobile crashes, homicides, and suicides
question

What is cortisol?
answer

A hormone released into the bloodstream from the adrenal glands
question

Normally, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is regulated by a feedback loop that reduces the release of cortisol. What is the order of signaling by which this reduction takes place?
answer

Hippocampus to hypothalamus to adrenal glands
question

Sarah is on a very limited budget. Her two kids want to go downtown for a snack. Where can she get \”the most bang for the buck,\” that is, the most filling snack for the least amount of money?
answer

fast food restaurant
question

Positive psychology is an approach to psychology that emphasizes ____.
answer

normal behavior and human strengths
question

What is the circuit that responds to perceived stressors by initiating the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream?
answer

sympathetic adrenal-medullary system
question

In a study among college students (Hystad et al., 2009), the trait of hardiness ____.
answer

was negatively correlated with health complaints within the high academic stress group
question

Three weeks after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, prevalence of PTSD among children in Sri Lanka ranged between 14% and 39% and could be predicted by variables such as family loss and severity of exposure. This finding indicates that ____.
answer

children are particularly susceptible to stress and PTSD
question

Which form of exercise appears to be especially helpful in stress management?
answer

regular cardio exercise
question

According to a study of over 42, 000 Americans beginning in 1972 (Davis, Smith, & Marsden, 2006), who is most likely to report being \”very happy\”?
answer

Noah, age 28, who has been married for four years
question

In the United States, which of the following persons is most likely to smoke?
answer

John, who is from a multi-racial background, has difficulty finding and keeping jobs, has not attended college, and is starting to show signs of paranoia
question

What does the text suggest would be a fruitful area of emphasis when viewing schools as positive institutions in their communities?
answer

Student satisfaction with the school system
question

Which of the following is most accurate regarding the trait of hope?
answer

Hopeful people withstand more pain and stress because they believe the future will be better.
question

Results from the Gallup World Poll, the first representative sample of all people on the planet, showed that social psychological \”wealth\” predicted ____.
answer

the presence of positive emotions like happiness
question

What is the term used to describe complete absorption in a current activity, such as work, problem solving, or creativity?
answer

flow
question

Which of the following rat pups were bolder (i.e., less stressed) than the others in the open field test (Francis, Diorio, Liu, & Meaney, 1999)?
answer

The pups with a Low-LG mother fostered by a Hi-LG mother
question

When Lenny came face-to-face with a young bear while hiking in the Sierra Nevada mountains, sensory input traveled to his cerebral cortex and to his amygdala. In what order was the sensory input initiated?
answer

simultaneously
question

The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010b) is using an integrated model of health to address gaps in understanding about the relationships between social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and prior ____.
answer

childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect
question

Which of the following is an example of increasing happiness through living a \”good life\”?
answer

Jackson, who is an engineer by day and a talented guitarist in a bluegrass band on nights and weekends
question

Ellie, a sophomore in college, is feeling very stressed about keeping up with her coursework, part-time job, extracurricular activities, social scene, and friends and family at home. What is the first step she should take?
answer

consider whether any stressors can be eliminated
question

What is the common link between the lack of exercise and developing heart disease – and the lack of hand washing and developing the flu?
answer

the behavioral component
question

Three weeks after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, prevalence of PTSD among children in Sri Lanka ranged between 14% and 39% and could be predicted by variables such as family loss and severity of exposure. This finding indicates that ____.
answer

children are particularly susceptible to stress and PTSD
question

What is cortisol?
answer

A hormone released into the bloodstream from the adrenal glands
question

Nutrition plays a significant part in overall physical development, including brain development, and is believed to be responsible for many differences in psychological and health outcomes ____.
answer

related to socioeconomic status
question

What does the text suggest would be a fruitful area of emphasis when viewing schools as positive institutions in their communities?
answer

Student satisfaction with the school system
question

Caleb feels very discouraged upon learning that he had been cut from the varsity football team and now will play with the junior varsity. Which of the following would be the most positive emotion-focused coping response?
answer

He and a friend go to see a comedy at the movie theater.
question

Kimberly learns that each of her three best friends has a BMI of 30 or greater, which means that they are obese. She herself is overweight, with a BMI of 27, but is not obese. Which of the following is true?
answer

Having obese friends increases her risk of obesity by 57%.
question

Which of the following is true?
answer

Continued stress can damage the hippocampus
question

Lucas is someone who would score high on the Big Five trait of neuroticism. When dealing with interpersonal stress, with whom would he be most likely to use a positive relationship-focused coping method, such as empathy?
answer

his barista
question

Beth, while riding her bicycle down a city street, was nearly knocked into traffic by the abrupt opening of a parked car door. What did her hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis do in response to the perceived stressor?
answer

The hypothalamus communicated with the pituitary gland, which told the adrenal glands to release cortisol into the bloodstream.
question

In a study at Stanford University (Walton & Cohen, 2011), what was the result of a one-time treatment that framed the stress of fitting into the college experience as common and limited in duration?
answer

It significantly improved the grade point averages (GPAs), happiness ratings, and health of African American students at Stanford University three years later.
question

Normally, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is regulated by a feedback loop that reduces the release of cortisol. What is the order of signaling by which this reduction takes place?
answer

Hippocampus to hypothalamus to adrenal glands
question

Once the amygdala has identified a stimulus as potentially dangerous, it communicates with the ____.
answer

hypothalamus
question

George has gone into a deep depression after the death of his wife, for whom he had provided daily care for over two years after her first stroke. What role might cortisol play?
answer

Consistently elevated levels of cortisol due to stress can overwhelm the hippocampus’s feedback loop and lead to excess levels of cortisol in the bloodstream, which is associated with depression.
question

What is the branch of psychology that investigates the relationships between psychological variables and health?
answer

health psychology
question

What is the common link between the lack of exercise and developing heart disease – and the lack of hand washing and developing the flu?
answer

the behavioral component
question

Based on a meta-analysis of almost 300 studies and about 20,000 participants (Segerstrom & Miller, 2004), who is most likely to suffer the greatest suppression of his or her immune system?
answer

Andrew, whose wife fell in love with his best friend and initiated divorce proceedings
question

Jack has been drinking daily for many years. He finds that over time, he has had to increase the amount he drinks to feel the same buzz. This is an example of ____.
answer

tolerance
question

Having the long or short version of the gene related to serotonin function interacts with life stress to produce, among other things, different levels of activity in the amygdala and hippocampus, which can be associated with depression. This is an example of ____.
answer

epigenetics
question

Blake is trying very hard to quit smoking but his friend Javier still smokes, often while they watch sports events together on the TV. Just the smell of Javier’s cigarette makes him crave a cigarette. What should he do?
answer

Avoid situations where Javier will light a cigarette to avoid conditioned stimuli.
question

Which of the following is considered to be the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, and directly responsible for one out of five deaths each year?
answer

cigarette smoking
question

The Holmes and Rahe scales have been used to predict vulnerability to physical illness and psychological disorder due to different stressors that are ____.
answer

negative and positive changes in life
question

Many studies indicate that some alcohol consumption can have positive health effects; however, there are a number of limitations to these studies. Which of the following is one of the problems cited by the text?
answer

The studies are not true experiments in which people would be randomly assigned to drinking or nondrinking groups.
question

Poverty, discrimination, and violence are among the possible variables that account for increased mental health problems among minorities in the United States. Which of the following statements is true in this regard?
answer

People living at the lowest levels of the socioeconomic scale experience two to three times greater rates of psychological disorder.
question

Stress is defined as an unpleasant emotional state that results from ____.
answer

the perception of danger
question

Who appears to be in the resistance stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome?
answer

Alana, who has been juggling her classes, job, and partial care of her younger siblings, and has recently made an unusually poor choice of a boyfriend
question

Researchers found that happiness predicted bigger increases in income, while higher income did not predict increases in happiness. What was the basic explanation for the former?
answer

Happy people form better relationships.
question

If Ethan experiences a big jolt of cortisol due to a stressor late in the evening, how will his sleep likely be affected?
answer

He likely will have difficulty falling asleep and may wake frequently during the night.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member