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Psych Chapter 15 Test Answers

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Insight Therapy
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“talk therapy”; therapy in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and feelings
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Action Therapy
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therapy in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly
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Psychoanalysis
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type of insight therapy based on Freud, emphasizing revealing of unconscious conflicts
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Manifest Content
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part 1 of Freudian dream interpretation — the actual content of a dream
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Latent Content
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part 2 of Freudian dream interpretation — the symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams
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Free Association
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Freudian technique where patient was encouraged to talk about anything on their mind without fear of negative evaluation
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Resistance
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in psychoanalysis when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain subject or becoming silent
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Transference
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in psychoanalysis, tendency for patient/client to project positive or negative feelings for important people from the past onto the therapist
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Psychodynamic Therapy
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a newer and general term for therapies based on psychoanalysis, emphasis on transference, shorter treatment times, more direct therapeutic apporach
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Nondirective
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therapy style where a therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct action with regard to the client; remains a calm, nonjudgemental listener when the client talks; old Freudian psychoanalysis
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Directive
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Therapy where a therapist actively gives interpretations of a client’s statements and amy suggest certain behavior or actions; more indicative of psychoanalysis today
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Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
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form of insight therapy for depression which incorporates multiple approaches and focuses on interpersonal problems
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Eclectic Therapies
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Therapy style that results from combining elements of several different therapy techniques; ex: interpersonal therapy
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Carl Rogers
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person who developed person-centered therapy
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Person-Centered Therapy
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nondirective insight therapy (based in humanism) in which the client does all the talking and therapist listens with goal of restructuring self-concept to better correspond to reality; four elements
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Reflection
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1st element of Person-Centered Therapy — technique in which the therapist restates what the client says rather than interpret those statements
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Unconditional Positive Regard
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2nd element of Person-Centered Therapy — refers to warmth, respect, and accepting atmosphere created by the therapist for the client in that form of therapy
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Empathy
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3rd element of Person-Centered Therapy — ability of therapist to understand the feelings of the client
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Authenticity
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4th element of Person-Centered Therapy — genuine, open, and honest response of the therapist to the clinet
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Motivational Interviewing (MI)
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contrast to client-centered therapy, has specific goal to reduce ambivalence about change and to increase intrinsic motivation to bring that change about; part of Roger’s person-centered therapy
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Gestalt Therapy
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directive insight therapy (based in humanism) in which the therapist helps clients to accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences using leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing; hiding behind “masks” and denied past
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Humanistic Therapy
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person-centered therapy + gestalt; not evidence based
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Behavior Therapy
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action therapy based on the principles of classical and operant condition dan aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior
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Systematic Desensitization
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behavior technique used to treat phobias, in which a client is asked to make a list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentrating on them; type of behavior therapy
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Counterconditioning
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process of replacing and old conditioned response with a new one by changing the unconditioned stimulus; type of behavior therapy
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Aversion Therapy
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undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimuli to reduce the frequency of the behavior; type of behavior therapy
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Exposure Therapy/Flooding
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technique for treating phobias and other stress disorders in which the person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fear-provoking situation/object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response; type of behavior therapy
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Modeling
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learning through the observation and imitation of others; type of operant conditioning/behavior therapy
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Participant modeling
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technique in which a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step-by-step, gradual process while the client is encouraged to imitate the model; type of operant conditioning/behavior therapy
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Reinforcement
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the strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence/removal of the unpleasant stimulus; type of operant conditioning/behavior therapy
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Token economy
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using tokens to reinforce behavior and have tokens be accumulated and exchangeable for desired items or privileges; type of reinforcement/behavior therapy
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Contingency Contract
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a formal, written agreement between therapist and client in which goals of behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated; type of reinforcement/behavior therapy
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Extinction
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the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a behavior; type of operant conditioning/behavior therapy
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Time-out
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extinction process where a person is removed from the situation that provides reinforcement for undesirable behavior, usually by being place in a quiet corner/room away; type of operant conditioning/behavior therapy
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Cognitive Therapy
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insight therapy that emphasizes clients recognizing and changing their negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs; focuses on faulty thinking and changing it
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Aaron Beck
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person who developed cognitive therapy
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Arbitrary Inference
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distortion of thinking in which a person draws a conclusion that is not based on any evidence; based on Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
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Selective Thinking
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distortion of thinking where a person focuses on only one aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects; based on Beck’s cognitive therapy
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Over-generalization
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one event leads to same conclusion for other unrelated events; type of cognitive distortion
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magnification/minimization
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negative event out of proportion while ignoring positive aspects; type of cognitive distortion
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personalization
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distortion of thinking in which a person takes responsibility or blame for events that are unconnected to that person; type of cognitive distortion
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
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action therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by learning to think more rationally and logically; focuses on changing symptoms, not as much about causation;
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Albert Ellis
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person who developed rational-emotive therapy (type of cognitive therapy) — people changing their own irrational beliefs
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Rational-Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT)
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cognitive-behavioral therapy in which clients are directly challenged in their irrational beliefs and helped to restructure their thinking into more rational belief statements
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Therapeutic Alliance
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positive, caring relationship between client and therapist; exists in successful/effective psychotherapy