Psych Chapter 15 Quiz Questions

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Although both personality disorders are characterized by avoiding social situations, _____ individuals desperately want social contact while _____ individuals prefer to be alone. avoidant; histrionic schizoid; avoidant histrionic; narcissistic avoidant; schizoid
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avoidant; schizoid
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For someone with _____, an action must be performed in order to alleviate anxiety associated with a recurring thought. obsessive-compulsive disorder antisocial personality disorder phobic disorder generalized anxiety disorder
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obsessive compulsive disorder
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What did the studies that investigated the hippocampal volume of Vietnam veterans and their identical twins find? increased hippocampal volume for both war veterans with PTSD and their twin increased hippocampal volume for war veterans with PTSD but not their twin decreased hippocampal volume for both war veterans with PTSD and their twin decreased hippocampal volume for war veterans with PTSD but not their twin
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decreased hippocampal volume for both war veterans with PTSD and their twin
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John is a first-year college student at a local university. He was diagnosed with a condition that involves an irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed. John was most likely diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. bipolar. obsessive-compulsive disorder. social phobia.
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social phobia
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Which was a major distinction between the DSM-II and the following editions (DSM-III and DSM-IV)? The later editions were the first to discuss cultural syndromes (what were then known as culture-specific disorders). The later editions were the first to include homosexuality as a psychiatric illness. The later editions contained very detailed lists of symptoms that had to be present for a disorder to be diagnosed. The later editions were the first to make reference to the psychotropic medications that should be prescribed for specific disorders.
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The later editions contained very detailed lists of symptoms that had to be present for a disorder to be diagnosed.
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In examining possible neurological explanations for ADHD, some research has found structural and functional abnormalities in the _____ associated with attention and behavioral inhibition. lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus optical chiasm areas temporal and parietal supracortical activation areas frontosubcortical networks
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frontosubcortical networks
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_____ is a positive symptom of schizophrenia. Lack of speech Hallucinations Apathy Withdrawal
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Hallucinations
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_____ is a negative symptom of schizophrenia. Delusions Hallucinations Apathy Disorganized speech
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apathy
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The DSM defines a child as suffering from conduct disorder when (s)he meets at least 3 of a list of 15 symptoms. As a result, there are approximately ________ different combinations of symptoms that could lead to this diagnosis. 21,000 32,000 43,000 54,000
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32,000
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Ani had never experienced any symptoms of depression until her mother died. Ani’s doctor tells her that she was probably predisposed to depression but did not actually exhibit symptoms until a major life event triggered the depression. The _____ model best fits with the doctor’s assessment of Ani’s depression. psychical phrenological humanistic diathesis-stress
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diathesis-stress
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In response to negative emotional words, psychopaths show less activity in the _____ than do noncriminals. somatosensory cortex corpus callosum amygdala and hippocampus entire limbic system
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amygdala and hippocampus
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According to studies conducted in 2005 and 2010, approximately ____ percent of adults in the United States reported experiencing obsessions or compulsions at some point in their lives, but only ____ percent of them went on to be diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 28; 2 34; 8 40; 5 65; 4
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65; 4
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Monica has just gone through the first major depressive period in her life and did not seek out any treatment for the symptoms she experienced. What is the likelihood that she will experience another one at some point? She has a 2 percent chance of recurrence. She has a 50 percent chance of recurrence. She has an 80 percent chance of recurrence. She has a 100 percent chance of recurrence.
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She has an 80 percent chance of recurrence.
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Janet has felt depressed for over 3 years. Some of the time her mood is not severely affected, but she almost always has trouble sleeping and is not interested in food, socializing, sex, or work. Other times she’s overcome by her feelings of worthlessness and thinks about suicide. What condition is Janet most likely experiencing? major depressive disorder seasonal affective disorder bipolar disorder double depression
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double depression
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Which factor has NOT been demonstrated to influence the likelihood that an individual will experience generalized anxiety disorder? low income an individual’s weight living in a large city one’s gender
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an individual’s weight
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_____is a psychological disorder characterized by chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the event to mind. Acute stress disorder Chronic stress disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder Adjustment disorder
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Posttraumatic stress disorder
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Individuals with this personality disorder exaggerate their own achievements and often make a very good first impression. borderline histrionic narcissistic dependent
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narcissistic
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Approximately ____ percent of boys and ____ percent of girls meet the criteria for ADHD. 4; 2 8; 12 10; 4 20; 12
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10;4
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According to the helplessness theory, how will someone who feels helpless MOST likely to react after not passing his driving test the first time? “I didn’t practice enough. Next time I’ll practice more and pass without a problem.” “The test administrator didn’t like me! Next time I’ll go to a different testing center.” “It was rainy today and that made the road slippery, which caused me to skid at the stop sign. That’s probably why I didn’t pass.” “What would be the point of trying again? I’m never going to get my license.”
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“What would be the point of trying again? I’m never going to get my license.”
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After experiencing a terrifying event, such as living or working in a war zone or being physically attacked, it is not uncommon to develop: cognitive deficits. high blood pressure but no psychological disturbances. posttraumatic stress disorder. an autoimmune disease.
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posttraumatic stress disorder.
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The disorder characterized by excessive worry accompanied by three or more of these symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance, is called: agoraphobia. claustrophobia. generalized anxiety disorder. specific phobia.
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GAD
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Which is a key factor in qualifying a group of symptoms as a psychological disorder? The symptoms are seen as unusual in the society in which they occur. The person feels a need to see a professional counselor or therapist. The person responds to unpleasant life events with maladaptive rather than adaptive behaviors. The symptoms cause significant distress or impairment.
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The symptoms cause significant distress or impairment.
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The average duration of a major depressive episode is: one week. three weeks. twelve weeks. two years.
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twelve weeks.
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There appears to be a relationship between _____ and the progression of schizophrenia. smoking major depressive episodes biological changes in the brain such as a dramatic loss of gray matter positive environmental influences such as experiencing a loving, supportive childhood
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biological changes in the brain such as a dramatic loss of gray matter
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with heightened activity in the: left prefrontal cortex. caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. posterior striate cortex. medial temporal hippocampus.
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caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia.
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Someone with a history of aggressive, violent behavior and a criminal record is MOST likely to have _____ personality disorder. antisocial histrionic avoidant schizoid
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antisocial
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_____ is likely to “run in the family,” suggesting a significant genetic influence in causing the mood disorder. Major depression Posttraumatic stress disorder Agoraphobia Specific phobia
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major depression
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In one theory of autism spectrum disorder, the condition is described as a combination of deficits in ________ and superior abilities in ________. emoting; intellectualizing empathizing; systematizing rationalizing; realizing verifying; collaborating
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empathizing; systematizing
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Which neurotransmitter seems to play a role in generalized anxiety disorder? dopamine serotonin GABA norepinephrine
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GABA
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What are the three main categories of personality disorders in the DSM-5? anxious/inhibited, cognitive/smart, and dramatic/erratic odd/eccentric, anxious/inhibited, and dramatic/erratic dramatic/erratic, irrational/illogical, and odd/eccentric odd/eccentric, anxious/inhibited, and irrational/illogical
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odd/eccentric, anxious/inhibited, and dramatic/erratic
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Which symptom of schizophrenia is described as a false belief system that is upheld even though it is irrational? hallucinations delusions blunted affect catatonic behavior
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delusions
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The _____ is the classification system used for diagnosis of psychological disorders. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychosis Medical Guide of Mental Disorders
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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
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_____ is characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in thought, motivation and behavior. Schizophrenia Bipolar disorder Depersonalization disorder Reactive attachment disorder
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schizophrenia
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Although schizophrenia is likely to involve a complex interaction of neurotransmitter malfunctions, evidence from drug studies suggest that _____ is related to the symptoms of schizophrenia. dopamine epinephrine endorphins GABA
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dopamine
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Which pair of relatives shows the highest concordance rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder? a mother and daughter a brother and his sister a father and his son two identical twins
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two identical twins
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Why did the latest version of the DSM switch from Roman to Arabic numerals (e.g., “5” instead of “V”)? The international standard uses the metric system. The DSM is no longer used outside the United States. Few people are able to understand the use of Roman numerals. It allows for faster revision of the manual through the use of decimals.
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It allows for faster revision of the manual through the use of decimals.
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What occurs when a medical model is applied to the study and treatment of psychological disorders? Individuals are punished, mistreated, and shunned from society. Individuals are feared and ridiculed by the medical community. Individuals live in treatment centers for the rest of their lives. Individuals are assessed, diagnosed, and treated by a clinician,
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Individuals are assessed, diagnosed, and treated by a clinician,
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What causes controversy regarding the classification of personality disorders in the DSM-5? People often like individuals with many of the personality disorders. There are foolproof diagnostic measures for personality disorders. Personality disorders may be extreme values of traits on the Big Five. It is too expensive to diagnose personality disorders.
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Personality disorders may be extreme values of traits on the Big Five.
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Which is NOT one of the clusters of personality disorders in the DSM-5? anxious/inhibited violent/disorganized odd/eccentric dramatic/erratic
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violent/disorganized
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The _____ theory of depression proposes that those individuals most likely to suffer from depression attribute their bad experiences to internal, global, and stable causes. internality preparedness helplessness actualization
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helplessness
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An unusually small-sized _____ may be an indicator of a susceptibility to PTSD. hypothalamus hippocampus amygdala frontal lobes
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hippocampus
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Bipolar disorder has _____ rate of heritability of all mood disorders. the lowest the highest an average the closest to 0
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the highest
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When someone is experiencing obsessive-compulsive disorder, obsessions are _____ and compulsions are _____. repetitive thoughts; repetitive thoughts ritualistic behaviors; repetitive thoughts repetitive thoughts; ritualistic behaviors ritualistic behaviors; ritualistic behaviors
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repetitive thoughts; ritualistic behaviors
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Which personality disorder is characterized by extreme introversion and withdrawal from relationships? histrionic schizoid paranoid borderline
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schizoid
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Within the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) matrix, which would be categorized as a “positive valence systems” construct? reward learning working memory loss affiliation and attachment
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reward learning
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What personality disorder involves unstable moods and intense, stormy personal relationships? histrionic narcissistic paranoid borderline
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borderline
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people with phobias are _____ to recall personal experiences with their feared objects, compared to people without phobias, suggesting an environmental influence on the development of phobias. more likely much less likely equally likely somewhat less likely
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more likely
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If anxiety leads a person to study for an exam, then it is _____, but if keeps the person from ever leaving home, then it is _____. harmful; helpful adaptive; maladaptive OCD; GAD GAD; OCD
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adaptive, maladaptive
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In the 1960s, the estimates regarding the frequency of autism spectrum disorder stood at around 4 out of every 10,000 children. Currently, that estimate is around _____ out of every 10,000 children 10 to 20 100-200 400-500 750
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10 -20
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The _______ is a new initiative that strives to guide the classification and understanding of mental disorders by revealing the basic processes that give rise to them. Empirically Validated Treatment (EVT) Strategy Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC) Diathesis-Stress Model (DSM) Biopsychosocial Paradigm (BP)
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rdoc
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Regarding the chronic nature of autism spectrum disorder, one recent study conducted by Helt and colleagues (2008) found that as many as _____ percent of children diagnosed with ASD ultimately lose their diagnosis over time. 5 10 25 40
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25
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Individuals with _____ personality disorder have extreme mood changes and may self-mutilate and threaten suicide in order to manipulate others. borderline histrionic narcissistic dependent
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borderline
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Lauren is lethargic, feels worthless, and is overeating. She is still able to function at her job and to participate in domestic activities. She has been feeling this way for almost two years. Lauren is MOST likely suffering from: dysthymia. major depression. generalized anxiety disorder. bipolar disorder.
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dysthymia
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Which statement is true? Many adults probably suffer from ADHD, but few receive treatment for it. Very few children with ADHD become adults with ADHD, and in those cases the treatment is exactly the same as it is for children with the condition. ADHD is not diagnosed in adulthood; it is exclusively seen in children and adolescents. The majority of children who have ADHD do, in fact, become adults with ADHD, and most continue receiving ongoing treatment.
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Many adults probably suffer from ADHD, but few receive treatment for it.
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Increased activation in the _____ and decreased activation in the _____ has been linked to depression. left medial temporal lobe; right medial temporal lobe right medial temporal lobe; left medial temporal lobe dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
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dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
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When is the first episode of schizophrenia most likely to occur? during early or middle childhood during late adolescence or early adulthood during infancy during middle to late adulthood
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during late adolescence or early adulthood
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Decreased activation in the ______ and increased activation in the ______ have been linked to depression. a. left amygdala; right amygdala b. left prefrontal cortex; right prefrontal cortex c. left medial hippocampus; right superior hippocampus d. lateral geniculate nucleus; medial geniculate nucleus e. anterior prefrontal cortex; inferior hypothalamus
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left prefrontal cortex; right prefrontal cortex
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Which of the following disorders is the most controversial? a. Schizophrenia b. Bipolar Disorder c. Seasonal Affective Disorder d. Dissociative Identity Disorder e. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
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d. Dissociative Identity Disorder
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Individuals who are diagnosed with ______ as adults may have engaged in animal cruelty and fire setting when they were children or adolescents. a. antisocial personality disorder b. borderline personality disorder c. narcissistic personality disorder d. schizophrenia e. avoidant personality disorder
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a. antisocial personality disorder
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What personality disorder involves unstable moods and intense, stormy personal relationships? a. histrionic b. narcissistic c. paranoid d. borderline e. antisocial
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borderline
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hich disorder has a low rate of occurrence yet accounts for approximately 40 percent of admissions to state and county mental hospitals? major depression bipolar disorder schizophrenia antisocial personality disorder
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schizophrenia
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Three different patients show symptoms of three different disorders. The first has a phobia, the second has constant panic attacks, and the third has generalized worries that seem to occur constantly without any specific trigger causing them. Who should these patients see for treatment? a psychoanalyst specializing in hypnotherapy an anxiety disorder specialist a mood disorder specialist They should each see different specialists because their disorders have nothing in common.
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an anxiety disorder specialist
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Which has NOT been identified as a factor that increases one’s risk of engaging in suicidal actions? experiencing significant negative life events during childhood a desire to gain retribution on others who have wronged the individual the presence of severe medical problems the presence of comorbid mental disorders
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a desire to gain retribution on others who have wronged the individual
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In David Rosenhan’s famous study, his mentally healthy associates entered mental hospitals by complaining that they were “hearing voices.” This illustrated the power of: stress. labeling. mental illness. the medical model.
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labeling.
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What is it that people with agoraphobia fear? being embarrassed in public places meeting people in public places having a panic attack in public places falling down in public places
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having a panic attack in public places
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Within the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) matrix, which would be categorized as an “arousal and regulatory systems” construct? perception acute threat language behavior sleep and wakefulness
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sleep and wakefulness
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The terms sociopath and psychopath are often applied to individuals with: schizophrenia. dementia. antisocial personality disorder. generalized anxiety disorder.
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antisocial personality disorder.
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Due to decreased levels of activity in the amygdala and hippocampus, psychopaths appear to be less sensitive to _____ than noncriminals. hypnosis fear rational thought social norms
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fear

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