PSYCH: CH 8 Learning Curve

Flashcard maker : Patsy Brent
Emotions can be compared based on their _____, which is how positive or negative the experience is, and their _____, which is how active or passive the experience is.
valence, arousal
The quote, \”Bodily changes follow directly the perception of the exciting fact\” is representative of what theory of emotion?
James-Lange theory
Our ability to influence which emotions we experience and when or how we express them is termed emotion:
regulation
Which of the following sets contains a discrepant element?
low arousal, alarmed, bored
Schachter and Singer’s two-factor theory suggests that emotions are the result of:
your brain trying to make sense of your body’s physiological response to a situation.
Based on research on priming and visual information, when you are startled, you are best able to perceive:
big patterns
You are completing a survey of questions, such as, \”Anger is more like tense than happy.\” This best illustrates the _____ technique for studying emotion.
multidimensional scaling
Of the theories of emotion described in your text, the account that places the most emphasis on cognition is the _____ theory.
two factor
After an upsetting day at work, Hal stops at the bar for a few drinks. Bill’s been feeling down lately; he tries to remember all the fun he had this past summer. Which of these individuals is engaged in emotion regulation? Which is engaged in reappraisal?
Both Hal and Bill are engaged in emotion regulation. Neither individual is engaged in reappraisal.
Detailed observation of a single patient with damage to the amygdala exemplifies a research method in psychology called the _____.
case study
One reason why the Cannon-Bard theory was proposed as an alternative to the James-Lange theory was that:
there were not enough unique patterns of autonomic activity to account for all emotions.
The amygdala triggers an initial emotional response to a stimulus, while the cortex will later _____ if after fully processing the stimulus the initial emotion was not accurate.
inhibit the response
Fear and anger differ greatly in:
neither valence nor arousal
You come home to find an intruder in your apartment. According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, which of the following responses would come first?
your body reacts
Many emotional experiences entail evaluation, a process known as _____.
appraisal
\”God, grant me the serenity . . .\” The serenity prayer encourages one to remain serene and calm in situations that might normally make one angry, annoyed, or frustrated. The objective of the prayer, therefore, is to:
change the valence of one’s experience, as well as to decrease one’s arousal.
One of the most effective strategies for emotion regulation is to change the way you think about an event, which is known as:
reappraisal
Which theory of emotion can explain why people who are first required to ride an exercise bicycle in a laboratory then find attractive people more attractive, annoying people more annoying, and funny cartoons even funnier?
two factor
People can accurately judge the facial expressions of members of other cultures and people who have never seen a human face make the same facial expressions as sighted individuals. These observations support the:
universality hypothesis
According to the facial-feedback hypothesis:
facial expressions can actually determine our emotional experience.
According to the _____ hypothesis, facial expressions can actually determine our emotional experience.
facial feedback
Although there are six universal emotions, the norms regulating how emotions are expressed vary across cultures. These norms are called _____.
display rules
An emotional expression must be:
observable
The facial-feedback hypothesis is reminiscent of the _____ theory of emotion in that it suggests that the feeling of an emotion follows the body’s behavior.
James-Lange
According to the _____ hypothesis, the act of smiling will probably make you feel happier.
facial feedback
Recall that smiling involves the action of the zygomatic major and the orbicularis oculi. Of these two muscles, only the _____ is a reliable muscle.
orbicularis oculi
_____ refers to the purpose for or cause of an action.
Motivation
In 1890, the early American functionalist _____ referred to instincts as inherited tendencies to seek particular goals.
William James
What is the substance produced in the stomach that signals the brain to switch on hunger?
ghrelin
Select the correct alternative to make this sentence true: Human sexual desire is _____ free of hormonal control.
mostly
The ability to delay gratification at age 4 is _____ related to social competence in adolescence and _____ related to SAT scores.
posiitively, positiveyl
Rather than struggle with a difficult problem set in one of her science courses, Emma watched a lighthearted romantic comedy. Emma’s behavior is most consistent with:
hedonic principle
In terms of sexual behavior in animals, researchers believe that the behavioral effects of testosterone and estrogen are mediated by receptors in a brain structure called the _____.
hypothalamus
Rhonda works out daily because it makes her feel good. Her friend Denise works out daily so that men will find her attractive. Denise is showing _____ motivation.
extrinsic
According to \”new behaviorists,\” an internal state that motivates behavior is known as a(n) _____.
drive
Charlotte meets Will, an old high school friend, at a party and is startled to learn his weight increased from 150 to 280 pounds in the year since his automobile accident. Which portion of the hypothalamus was damaged that might account for his weight gain?
ventromedial
People most often work harder when they are:
intrinsically moticated
Which alternative best expresses the relationship between emotion and motivation?
closely related
Gneezy and Rustichini (2000) reported that day care centers experienced an increase in late pick-ups when they started fining parents who failed to collect their children on time. In operant conditioning terms, then, a consequence called negative _____ is sometimes ineffective.
punishment
Based on your text’s discussion, which of the following terms best completes this sentence: Emotion _____ decision making.
enables
According to your text, behaviorists believed that behavior should be explained not by instincts, but by the external stimuli that evoke behavior. Think back to your text’s chapter on learning. In _____ conditioning, these stimuli are termed unconditioned and conditioned stimuli.
classical
You hear a psychologist remark, \”Culture is basically a defense mechanism, reducing the anxiety we feel when we become aware of our mortality.\” This statement is MOST compatible with the _____ perspective in psychology.
psychodynamic
Rather than struggle with a difficult problem set in one of her science courses, Emma watched a lighthearted romantic comedy. Seeking pleasure and avoiding pain, Emma illustrates the _____ principle.
hedonic
According to Maslow, our highest level need is the need for self-_____.
actualization
You are completing a survey of questions, such as, \”Anger is more like tense than happy.\” This best illustrates the _____ technique for studying emotion.
multidimensional scaling
In the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, physiological reactions _____ emotional experiences.
occur simultaneously with
Which part of the brain is MOST associated with emotional experiences?
the limbic system
\”I’m tired, but it’s a good tired,\” Greta remarks. \”Me, I’m just exhausted,\” Suzanne responds. The experience of the two women differs in:
valence
Which alternative correctly identifies one of the results in Schachter and Singer’s experiment?
The confederate’s behavior had a significant effect on participants’ emotional state.
After an upsetting day at work, Al stops at the bar for a few drinks. Because he is trying to feel better, Al is engaged in a process termed _____.
emotion regulation
\”God, grant me the serenity . . .\” The serenity prayer encourages one to remain serene and calm in situations that might normally make one angry, annoyed, or frustrated. The objective of the prayer, therefore, is to:
change the valence of one’s experience, as well as to decrease one’s arousal.
The James-Lange theory of emotion asserts that feelings:
result from bodily changes
Lee was walking home at night and saw something moving out of the corner of his eye. He was initially startled, but when he turned to look he noticed a cat in the shadows. He kept walking and was no longer anxious. Lee’s evaluation of the movement as something innocuous illustrates a(n) _____.
appraisal
Suppose you wish to depict the diverse array of emotions we experience using a two-dimensional graph. You label the y-axis with the term \”arousal.\” You label the x-axis with the term \”_____.\”
valence
Schachter and _____’s two-factor theory suggests that emotions are the result of your brain trying to make sense of your body’s physiological response to a situation.
Singer
The amygdala triggers an initial emotional response to a stimulus, while the cortex will later _____ if after fully processing the stimulus the initial emotion was not accurate.
inhibit the response
Excited is to relaxed as high is to low _____.
arousal
The quote, \”Bodily changes follow directly the perception of the exciting fact\” is representative of what theory of emotion?
James-Lange theory
When you are presented with a stimulus, your brain processes the information in two pathways. The \”slow\” pathway passes through the _____ before reaching the amygdala.
cortex
One of the most effective strategies for emotion regulation is to change the way you think about an event, which is known as:
reappraisal
Which of the following sets contains a discrepant element?
low arousal, alarmed, bored
Which of the following sequences reflects the order in which the major theories of emotion discussed in your text appeared in psychology’s history, from the earliest to the most recent?
James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, two-factor
Lying in bed at night, Cassie tries not to feel sad about the death of a close friend by thinking of the positive legacy of her friend’s life. Cassie is engaged in an emotion regulation strategy called:
reappraisal
The _____ theory of emotion would suggest that when you are happy while visiting with some friends your emotional experience of happiness occurs at the same time as activity in your autonomic nervous system.
cannon-bard
Regarding emotion regulation, which of the following is the most specific statement you can make with confidence in its accuracy?
The vast majority of people try to regulate their emotional experience every day.
In research on fear and visual priming, seeing fearful faces:
improved performance in low spatial-frequency conditions, but disrupted it in high spatial-frequency conditions.
improved performance in low spatial-frequency conditions, but disrupted it in high spatial-frequency conditions.
James-Lange
After an upsetting day at work, Hal stops at the bar for a few drinks. Beth views her recent layoff as a chance to pursue her dream career, not the one that would please her parents. Which of these individuals is engaged in emotion regulation? Which is engaged in reappraisal?
Both Hal and Beth are engaged in emotion regulation. Only Beth is engaged in reappraisal.
Emotions can be compared based on their _____, which is how positive or negative the experience is, and their _____, which is how active or passive the experience is.
valence, arousal
Dustin has successfully reinterpreted a stressful experience as a challenging learning opportunity. What has probably happened in his brain?
Activity in the cortex has increased and activity in the amygdala has decreased.
Which of the following is NOT among the criticisms of the James-Lange theory of emotion?
Emotion is not associated with physiological arousal.
One of Walter _____’s major objections to the James-Lange theory of emotion was that different emotions produce the same bodily changes, so it is therefore difficult to tell how a person knows what he or she feels.
cannon
In a study of emotion, a large sample of participants use a 5-point scale to rate their agreement with items such as, \”Disgust is more like contempt than sadness.\” This study exemplifies the use of the _____ technique in psychological research.
survey
Consider these two statements: 1) The patterns of physiological responses differ among the emotions; 2) However, people are not always very sensitive to these patterns of responses. Which of the following statements is true?
statement 2 is consistent with the two factor theory of emotion
One way to understand and categorize the range of emotions possible in the human experience is to group them according to similarity in a kind of map. This is known as:
multidimensional scaling
According to the James-Lange theory of emotions:
our behavioral and physiological responses to a situation precede and determine the emotion we feel in that situation.
The emotion of excitement has _____ and _____.
high arousal, positive valence
Contentment, says Dr. Wong, is a combination of positive valence and low arousal. Dr. Wong probably uses a technique called _____ to understand emotional experience.
multidimensional scaling
The amygdala is part of the _____ system, a group of brain structures associated with primitive, emotional responses.
limbic
People can accurately judge the facial expressions of members of other cultures and people who have never seen a human face make the same facial expressions as sighted individuals. These observations support the:
universality hypothesis.
Polygraph tests are _____ at detecting a lie.
significantly better than most people
Which of the following is not an emotional expression?
coughing
In 1872, Charles Darwin published his book \”The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals,\” in which he suggested that emotional expression has evolutionary significance. The fact that emotions seemed to have similar meanings for everyone led him to propose the:
universality hypothesis.
Which of the following is NOT a source of information about people’s emotional state?
temperature
Your text describes research (e.g., Ekman, 1972) in which Japanese and American college students watch gruesome film footage. Participants were aware or unaware that they were being observed. Which alternative expresses one result of the study?
The Japanese students hid their disgust when they were aware that they were being observed. The Americans did not hide their disgust when they knew they were being observed.
In 1872, Charles Darwin published his book \”The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals,\” in which he suggested that emotional expression has evolutionary significance. The fact that emotions seemed to have similar meanings for everyone led him to propose the _____ hypothesis.
universality
An emotional expression must be:
observable
Although there are six universal emotions, _____ vary across cultures.
display rules
Darwin believed that facial and postural expressions were used to:
communicate useful information about internal states.
_____ are the norms that cause us to regulate how we express our emotions.
display rules
The facial-feedback hypothesis is reminiscent of the _____ theory of emotion in that it suggests that the feeling of an emotion follows the body’s behavior.
James-Lange
The norms that cause us to regulate how we express our emotions are termed _____.
display rules
Which statement MOST accurately reflects scientists’ conclusions regarding the polygraph?
The polygraph is better than chance at detecting lies, but has a high error rate.
If you tell a joke to your friend and they smile with one side higher than the other for 7 seconds, they are likely:
faking a smile
The words \”emotion\” and \”motivation\” share a common linguistic root meaning to _____.
move
Who organized human needs into a hierarchy ranging from physiological needs to the need for self-actualization?
Maslow
What area of the brain is primarily responsible for receiving signals of hunger?
hypothalamus
In terms of sexual behavior in animals, researchers believe that the behavioral effects of testosterone and estrogen are mediated by receptors in a brain structure called the _____.
hypothalamus
The ability to delay gratification at age 4 is _____ related to social competence in adolescence and _____ related to SAT scores.
positively, positively
In 1890, the early American functionalist _____ referred to instincts as inherited tendencies to seek particular goals.
William James
Valerie is obese; that is, her BMI exceeds _____.
30
In human females, the menstrual cycle is regulated by the sex hormone _____.
estrogen
Declan, a Ph.D. candidate, tells his department’s undergraduate student organization that his dissertation research is in the area of motivation. Declan is investigating:
the psychological causes or purposes of behavior.
William James called the inherited tendency to seek a particular goal a(n):
instinct
When we diet our bodies respond by decreasing our _____.
metabolism
According to the mortality salience hypothesis, being reminded of the inevitability of our own mortality:
strengthens cultural worldviews
If you are gambling in Las Vegas, your motivation to avoid losing is likely _____ your motivation of winning.
greater than
According to \”new behaviorists,\” an internal state that motivates behavior is known as a(n) _____.
drive
Dr. DeRidder lesions, or damages, the ventromedial hypothalamus in one group of rats and the lateral hypothalamus in another group. What effect might he expect on the eating behavior of each group of rats?
Rats with ventromedial lesions should begin overeating; rats with lateral lesions should stop eating.
When college students are asked why they have sex, the most common answer is that they are attracted to the other person. Tap into your knowledge of descriptive statistics. With respect to the measures of central tendency, this answer reflects the _____.
mode
Elle works so that her car is not repossessed. Fallon works to build a college fund for her son. Concerning their motivations, Elle illustrates _____, whereas Fallon reflects _____.
avoidance motivation; approach motivation
Dr. Schmidt studies the psychological causes or purposes of behavior. Dr. Schmidt studies:
motivation
According to Abraham Maslow, a major prerequisite for becoming self-actualized is having:
all of one’s lower-order needs fulfilled.
Carrie’s body expends substantial energy at rest. Mandy’s body expends less energy at rest. Carrie and Mandy have different _____.
metabolisms
When college students are asked why they have sex, the most common answer is that they are attracted to the other person. Tap into your knowledge of descriptive statistics: This answer is the _____ response.
modal
Dr. Fiore conducts a study in which two groups of participants work on challenging puzzles: one group is paid for its participation, whereas the other is not. Dr. Fiore records the length of time each participant spent working on the puzzle and how enjoyable each participant rated the puzzle. Based on your text’s discussion of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, what might you expect?
The paid group would not work as long on the puzzle and like it less than the unpaid group.
Karen does things that make her feel good, and she avoids things that make her feel bad. Her way of living is consistent with the _____ principle.
hedonic
Which of the following statements best expresses the fate of instinct approaches to motivation within mainstream psychology?
Instinct approaches to motivation have been abandoned and are really of only historical interest in psychology.
Which of the following brain structures has been implicated in influencing food intake?
hypothalamus
When are you most likely to believe that you are going to get the highest grade on your next psychology test?
on a bright sunny day
According to Abraham Maslow, a major prerequisite for becoming self-actualized is having:
all of one’s lower-order needs fulfilled.
Complete the following sequence to express the order in which the needs in Maslow’s pyramid must be fulfilled, from the first to the last: _____ needs, love and belongingness, esteem, self-actualization.
physiological
In 1890, the early American functionalist _____ referred to instincts as inherited tendencies to seek particular goals.
William James
Which alternative best expresses the relationship between emotion and motivation?
Emotion and motivation are closely related.
Which of the following sequences best expresses the order in which the needs in Maslow’s pyramid must be fulfilled, from the first to the last?
physiological and safety needs, love and belongingness, esteem, self-actualization
Following a stroke, Dorothy’s ability to experience emotion seems impaired. How might her decision-making be affected?
She may make riskier decisions.
Recall the goals of psychology: the description, prediction, explanation, and control of behavior and mental processes. With these goals in mind, which of the following statements about instinct theory is most accurate?
Instinct theory describes but does not explain behavior.
When will you feel that you are most likely to win the lottery?
good mood
Dr. DeRidder lesions, or damages, the ventromedial hypothalamus in one group of rats and the lateral hypothalamus in another group. What effect might he expect on the eating behavior of each group of rats?
Rats with ventromedial lesions should begin overeating; rats with lateral lesions should stop eating.
Charlotte meets Will, an old high school friend, at a party and is startled to learn his weight increased from 150 to 280 pounds in the year since his automobile accident. Which portion of the hypothalamus was damaged that might account for his weight gain?
ventromedial
The first two theoretical approaches to motivation that attained prominence in the history of modern psychology were _____ theory, then drive theory.
instinct
To better understand the relationship between emotion and cognition, Dr. Lexington is collecting detailed, systematic observations of a single individual with Capgras syndrome. With respect to the research methods used in psychology, Dr. Lexington is conducting a(n) _____ study.
case
Think back to the chapter in your text on learning. Through which process are behaviors fueled by drives most likely maintained?
negative reinforcement

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