Psych 2314

question

Which is unethical research behavior?
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Changing the data to support the hypothesis
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What does it mean when a correlation exists between two variables?
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There is a relationship between two variables
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In the dynamic-systems approach the word \”systems\” emphasizes that:
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a change in one area of a person’s life impacts other areas
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Which step of the scientific method involves making a specific prediction?
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Develop a hypothesis
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Other names for the nature vs. nurture debate include:
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heredity vs. environment
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According to social scientists, race is:
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a social construction
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Which of the following is TRUE of scientific observation?
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It involves observing and recording behavior in a natural setting
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Human development includes includes insight and information from diverse academic disciplines referred to as:
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multidisciplinary
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The only research method that establishes a possible cause-and-effect relationship is:
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an experiment
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The difference between one developing person and the norm is:
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not always considered a deficit.
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A multidirectional perspective enables researchers to recognize
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the gains and losses can occur simultaniously
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For which research method is the primary data source information gained from interviews and questionnaires?
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Survey
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Science is needed in the study of human development because:
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research provides data and facts that will enable people to live full lives.
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Information processing theory seeks to explore
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processes of human thought
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Scientists design studies to investigate theories because
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theories are not facts
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According to your text, theories produce _____ and generate _____
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hypotheses; discroveries
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Who argued that if psychology was to be a true science, only what can be seen and measured should be studied?
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Watson
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According to sociocultural theory, human development is the result of an interaction between developing persons and their:
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surrounding society and culture
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The behaviorists most associated with operant conditioning is
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B. F. Skinner
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The theory that most emphasizes learning through modeling is called:
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social learning theory
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According to cognitive theory, our thoughts shape our:
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attitudes and acitons
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Pavlov’s experiment in which he conditioned dogs to salivate after hearing a bell demonstrated what he called
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classical conditioning
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A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate observations that have been made about human growth is referred to as a _____ theory
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developmental
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Carl Rogers believed that we should see each other with appreciation without conditions. He referred to this as giving each other_____ regard.
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unconditional positive
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A psychologist who uses an eclectic approach during therapy:
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uses several theoretical perspectives
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According to evolutionary theory, biologically based drives for every species are:
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survival and reproduciton
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A major difference between Erikson and Freud is that:
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Freud emphasized psychosexual developement, whereas Erikson emphasized psychosocial developement
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Maslow believed that all people have the same basic needs and drives. He arranged those into what was called:
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hierarchy of needs.
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information processing theory seeks to explore
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processes of human thought
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The impact of various physical and social environments is referred to as:
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multicontextual
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Piaget’s first two stages of sensorimotor intelligence are called
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primary circular reactions
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The difference between primary and secondary circular reactions is that
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secondary circular reactions involve the infant reacting to people and objects
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Tertiary circular reactions are characterized by
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active independent exploration and experimentation
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stage four of sensorimotor intelligence is characterized by
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new adaptation and anticipation
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) indicates that infants
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have electrical activity in areas of the brain indicating that sensations are being processed earlier than proposed by Piaget
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Recent research on early affordances provides ecidence that
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even during the first year of life age makes a difference in which affordances will be perceived and then acted on.
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Most developmentalists agree that very young infants can remember if
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All of these answers are correct
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When do infants begin learning language?
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before birth
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The typical order of spoken language development is
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reflexive, cooing, babbling, simple words
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Most babies speak their first recognizable words by
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12 months
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Cultural differences in communication appear to influence
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the ratio of nouns to verbs and adjectives
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How does a child learn language?
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All of the answers could be correct
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Behaviorists believe that a mother who ______ will stimulate her child’s communication skills
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uses reinforcement
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The social-pragmatic theory of language development highlights the importance of
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social interaction
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Scientist have attempted to integrate theories of language development (social-pragmatic theory, innate abilities, and behaviorism) into one theory known as
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hybrid thoery
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The first emotional expression to emerge at birth are
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crying and contentment
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Emotions that require an awareness of other people are
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pride, shame, and embarassment
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Developmentalists agree that infants’ emotional development is directly tied to
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brain development
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Children’s personality differences that originate with nature, or genes are called
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temperamental traits
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A mutually coordinated, rapid, smooth interaction between a caregiver and an infant is called
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synchrony
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A lasting bond between an infant and a caregiver is called
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an attachment
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One of the most influential factors that determine a child’s type of attachment is the
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responsiveness of the parents
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When an infant looks to another person for information about how to react, he or she is engaging in
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social referencing
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According to the text, _____ encourage infants to explore, whereas _____ tend to be more cautious
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fathers; mothers
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The theory that connects biosocial with psychosocial development is
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psychoanalytic
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Which perspective suggests that parents mold an infant’s emotions and personality as they reinforce or punish their child?
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behaviorism
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__________ parenting involves close physical contact with a child, while _______ parenting involves engaging the child more intellectually.
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Proximal; distal
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In cognitive theory there are a set of assumptions that an individual uses to organize perceptions and experience. These assumptions are called
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a working model
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A theory that considers both infant and care givers have emotions and impulses in the social development process is
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evolutionary theory
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High-quality day care during infancy has the following essential characteristics:
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All of these answers are correct
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A typical 6-year-old in a developed nation
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All of these answers are correct
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The major nutritional deficit in early childhood in DEVELOPED countries is insufficient
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iron, zinc, and calcium
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The \”just-right\” phenomenon
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refers to young children’s insistence on routine
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The 2-year-old brain weighs ______ percent of what it will weigh in adulthood
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75
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The process by which axons become coated with a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron is
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myelination
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The specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain is
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lateralization
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Which of the following is crucial for the overall expression and regulation of emotions?
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limbic system
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Brain maturation, motivation, and guided practice make _____ skills possible
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gross motor
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Exposure to high levels of lead has not been directly correlated with
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reduced motor skill
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Fine motor skills require two _____ and thus _____ sides of the _____
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hands; two; brain
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All forms of artistic expression blossom during
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early childhood
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The most common cause of death in childhood is
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accidents
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Why do experts prefer the term \”injury control\” to the term \”accident prevention\”?
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Though accidents can be prevented, it is more useful to minimize injury
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Deliberate action that is harmful to a child’s physical, emotional, or sexual well-being is the definition of
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child abuse
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A primary-prevention measure to reduce child abuse would be to
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improve the economic climate and decrease financial instability
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What is Piaget’s term for cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6?
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preoperational intelligance
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According to Piaget, one of the reasons that logic is beyond young children is that
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young children are significantly limited by their own personal perspective.
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Vygotsky preposed that an important role of language is to
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assist with cognitive developement
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How has Vygotsky’s theory concerning language and cognition been associated with the development of math skills?
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Hearing number words in different languages can be correlated with the variation in the development of math skills from one culture to another.
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The understanding that other people can have thoughts and ideas unlike one’s own describes
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theory of mind
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Though studies comparing preschool children from various countries found some variations, what did they identify as the primary factor in development of theory of mind?
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maturation of the prefrontal cortex
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The term for the time when language learning is most easily and readily accomplished is
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a sensitive period
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The process by which children develop an interconnected set of categories for words is called
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fast-mapping
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According to your text, it benefits their intellectual flexibility when children
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become equally fluent in two languages
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Preschools benefit early childhood learning by providing opportunities for children to get practice in
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All of the answers are correct
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Which of the following has been a strategy Head Start has emphasized since the early days of operation?
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Parents and teachers must communicate and cooperate with each other
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Child-centered programs stress children’s development and growth thorugh
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self-direction and discovery
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The goal of teacher-directed early-education programs is to
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help get all children \”ready to learn\”
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Which of the following is NOT one of the long-term benefits found in the intensive, early intervention programs described in the text?
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higher IQ scores in high school
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Which was the curricular approach in the three early intervention programs described in the text?
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a combination of child-centered and teacher-directed
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One of the most outstanding psychosocial accomplishments between ages 2 and 6 is:
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emotional regulation
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Erik Erikson’s third developmental stage the stage during which a strong self-concept develops is called
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initiative versus guild
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Research consensus on whether, when, and how to reward children for a certain behavior is that
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giving an unexpected reward after a behavior has been accomplished encourages that behavior
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In which country is it especially important to teach children to control their pride, according to text?
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China
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Across cultures, impulsive children do best with parents who
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provide guidance toward \”optimal balance.\”
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Emotional regulation differs between
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All of the answers are correct
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An example of an externalizing problem is _____ and an example of an internalizing problem is ______
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attacking other people, withdrawing
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Peers provide practice in
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All of the answers are correct
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A kind of play identified by Mildred Parten is
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onlooker
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The researcher Diana Baumrind found that parents differ in four important dimensions of rearing children. Which of the following is one of those dimensions?
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Expressions of warmth
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Multicultural research on parenting styles and their effects on children has found that
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overall parental style is LESS important than parental warmth, support, and concern
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According to the text, children’s gender differences are influenced by
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All of the answers are correct
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___________ is the understanding of the feelings and concerns of others, and __________ is the feelings of anger, distrust, and dislike towards another person
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Antipathy, empathy
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When thinking about appropriate discipline for children in early childhood, it is important to consider:
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All of these answers are correct
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Longitudinal research has found that children who are physically punished
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are more likely to become bullies, delinquents, and then abusive adults
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Middle childhood is the healthiest period of the life span because
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All of these answers are correct
question

According to the text, school-age children’s growth is:
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slow and steady
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According to the text, one of the benefits of physical activity is
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improved academic achievement
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Because of obesity, today’s children may become adults that
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are less likely to attend college, get married, or find work appropriate for their abilities
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What causes childhood obesity?
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All of these answers are correct
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A chronic disease of the respiratory system in which inflammation narrows the airway is
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asthma
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What contributes to a child’s ability to increase his speed of thinking?
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All of the answers are correct
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Which one of the following statements about IQ tests is TRUE
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IQ tests predict school achievement
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The developmental psychopathology perspective assumes that
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abnormality is normal
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Which of the following is one of the lessons of developmental psychopathology that applies to all children
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disability changes year by year
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A diagnosis of ADHD indicates that a child not only has problems concentrating but also
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is inattentive, impulsive, and overactiv
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\”Learning disability\” refers to
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a marked delay in a particular area of learning
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The sign of an autistic spectrum disorder is:
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All of the answers are correct
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A document that specifies educational goals and plans for a child with special needs is referred to as a(n)
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individual education plan (IEP)
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\”Gifted\” generally refers to children:
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with IQ scores above 130.
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According to Piaget, the stage of thinking that is characteristic of middle childhood is
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concrete operational
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When Piaget referred to concrete operations, he meant logic applied in situations that
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deal with visible, tangible, real things
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A significant contribution of Piaget’s cognition theory is that he realized that school-age children become
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All of these answers are correct
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Piaget stressed the __________, whereas Vygotsky stressed the ______________`
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child’s own discovery of concepts; importance of instructions by others
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Vygotsky believed that children learn from their
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All of these answers are correct
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The information-processing perspective compares human thinking processes to
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computers
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Which aspect of memory has a very large capacity by middle childhood?
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long-term memory
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The ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one’s performance on that task, is called
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metacognition
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A child’s ability to speak formally or informally depending on the audience and the context is called
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pragmatics
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Decades of research throughout the world have found a strong correlation between academic achievement and
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socioeconomic status
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The unrecognized rules and priorities that influence a child’s learning in school are called the
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hidden curriculum
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The 2001 No Child Left Behind federal law was enacted because
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the American government wanted to promote high standards for student achievement
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The strategy in which school subjects are taught in both the learner’s original language and the second (majority) language is called
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bilingual educaiton
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A finding of international assessments is
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the issue of how best to teach children continues to be controversial in almost every nation
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According to the text, the issue with comparing and evaluating home schooling, charter schools, and voucher situations is that
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it is difficult because there isn’t agreement on what is the \”best education\” nor how to measure it
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During Erikson’s crisis of industry versus inferiority, children
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attempt to master many skills
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During middle school, a child’s self-concept
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becomes less imaginary and positive to more realistic and specific
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Many cultures expect children to be
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modest, not prideful
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A key aspect of a child’s resilience is the stressed child’s ability to
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develop relationships, activities, and skills
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Recent research on shared and nonshared environmental factors and thier influence on children’s developing temperaments has found that
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parents’ attitudes have a direct effect on children’s behavior
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Family ______ refers to the legal and genetic relationships of related people living together, and family __________ refers to the way a family works to care for its members
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structure, function
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The two factors that interfere with family function in every structure, ethnic group, and nation are
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low income, and high conflict
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The difference in the psychosocial development of preoperational children as compared to that of middle-school children is that
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preoperational children’s egocentrism makes them less likely to be affected by other children’s opinions and judgements
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The term for the particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society is
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the child culture
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Older children tend to choose best friends
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whose interests, values, and backgrounds are similar to their own
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which of the following is a characteristic of both aggressive-rejected and withdrawn-rejected children
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they tend to misinterpret social situations
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repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person is the definition of
answer

bullying
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A review of research on successful way to halt bullying found that
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the whole school must change, not just the bullies
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The theorist associated with the six stages of moral reasoning is
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Kohlberg
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__________ thinking which gives, children the ability to observe and use logic, propels them to think about morality
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Concrete operational
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he years of rapid physical growth and sexual maturation that ends childhood is called
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puberty
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Puberty begins with a hormonal signal from the ________ to the _______
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hypothalmus; pituitary gland
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A major influence on the age of onset of menarche is
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genetics
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In what way does stress affect puberty
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stress increases the hormones that start puberty
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what is important for many adolescence in every nation
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size and maturation
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the relative sudden and rapid physical growth that occurs during puberty is referred to as
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a growth spurt
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according to the text, adolescence are deficient in their intake of necessary vitamins and minerals because
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all of these answers are correct
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Which of the following is a symptom of bulimia nervosa?
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all of the answers are correct
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According to the text, what explains why many teenagers are thrill seekers
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the prefrontal cortex is not yet mature
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A beneficial result of changes in the adolescent brain can be seen in
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the speed of reaction time increasing yet inhibitions remaining slower
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which of the following is a primary sex characteristic
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maturation of the testes
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Physical traits that are not directly involved in reproduction but that indicate sexual maturity are referred to as
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secondary sex characteristics
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what has the greatest influence on a girl’s choice for her first sexual partner?
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culture
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According to the text, early adolescent sexual activity correlates with
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depression and drug abuse
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child sexual abuse
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increases in early puberty
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Which characteristics of adolescent thought is demonstrated when a teen fails to recognize that others may neither care about nor share her opinions?:
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adolescent egocentrism
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What is Piaget’s fourth and final stage of cognitive development?
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formal operational thought
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The most prominent change in adolescent thought is the ability to
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think of possibility
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Typically adolescents are _________ thinkers but adults tend to be ________ thinkers and both have their pros and cons
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quick;analytical
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Which of the following is suggested in the text as a reason that adolescents fail to use their formal operational thinking?
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egocentrism is dominant
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in our current technology explosion, adolescents can be described as
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\”digital natives\”
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what may speed up, adolescent cognitive advancement, according to text?
answer

social networking
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Which of the following statements is true about video game addiction in adolescents?
answer

even though overuse of technology was not included as an addiction in the DSM-5 it is considered problematic for some adolescents
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bullying that occurs when one person spreads insults or rumors about another by means of e-mail, text messages, or the internet is called
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cyberbullying
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\”secondary education\” refers to
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grades 7 through 12
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Developmentalists consider ___________ to be \”developmentally regressive\”
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middle schools
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Based on the case study of James, his academic decline may have been influenced by
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the egocentric and intuitive thinking pattern characteristics of adolescents
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Typically, high school teachers
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assume their students have mastered formal thinking
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In high-stakes testing situations, students are typically given
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a single test to determine success or failure
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what are some ways of encouraging adolescents to engage in their education
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all of these answers are correct
question

During the fifth stage of psychosocial development, an adolescent who is confused as to which of the many possible roles to adopt is said to be
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experiencing a crisis of identity versus role confusion
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Erikson described four aspects of identity as being the religious, the sexual, the vocational, and the
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political
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Parent and adolescent conflicts
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occur when a child’s drive for independence clashes with the parent’s supervision and control
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Which of the following adults could have an impact on an adolescent’s identity development?
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All of these answers are correct
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What support do peers provide during adolescence?
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All of these are correct
question

Which of the following statements about teen friendships is true?
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all of these answers are correct
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Destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms is referred to as
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deviancy training
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The direction of someone’s erotic desires is referred to as
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sexual orientation
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Sex education
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All of these are correct
question

serious depression among adolescents is
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more common in females than in males
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Adolescent-limited offenders who are protected from _______ have a higher likelihood of outgrowing their criminal behavior
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All of these answers are correct
question

Which of the following statements is true about adolescent anger?
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Bouts of anger are common during adolescence
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The best predictor of later drug abuse is
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drug use before age 18
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Which psychoactive drug used during adolescence is known to affect memory, language proficiency and motivation?
answer

marijuana
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Which of the following is the LEAST effective drug prevention strategy?
answer

using scare tactics and warning teens about the dangers of drinking and driving
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Currently, emerging adulthood is distinguished by
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All of these answers are correct
question

Maximum height is reached by age ___ for girls and ___ for boys
answer

16;18
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Young adults can rapidly adjust to stress and bounce back after running a marathon or missing sleep. _____ is quick and efficient during young adulthood
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Homeostasis
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Reasons for exercise among emerging adults include all of the following EXCEPT
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to increase organ strength
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The sexual-reproductive system is at its strongest during
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emerging adulthood
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The spread of STIs is a result of
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All of these answers are correct
question

With sexual relationships among emerging adults, which of the following may lead to increased emotional pain and frustration?
answer

different assumptions about the purpose of sex
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The view that psychological disorders are produced by a genetic vulnerability and stressful environmental factors is the
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diathesis-stress modelcci
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Emerging adults who suffer from depression may fail to get help because
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they feel that nothing will help them
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Anxiety is a normal part of emerging adulthood. However, anxiety can become a disorder as a reult of
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All of these answers are correct
question

Which disorder is characterized by having irrational thoughts, delusions, and hallucination?
answer

schizophrenia
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Which are three leading causes of death among people age 15 to 25
answer

accidents, homicide, and suicide
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Drug abuse and extreme sports are similar in that they both involve
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impulsive behavior
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Customs for usual behavior within a particular society are
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social norms
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Mark, a middle-aged executive, looks back on the reckless behaviors he engaged in during his college days with pride. Like many adults, Mark:
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has probably forgotten about friends who engaged in similar reckless behavior but had bad outcomes
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The ___ approach studies how the brain encodes, stores and retrieves information and the ___approach evaluates whether a new level of cognition is reached by adults
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information-processing; stage
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Whereas Piaget focused on problem solving in child and adolescent cognitive development, post formal thought focuses on
answer

anticipating problems
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while subjective thought ____, objective thought ___
answer

arises from personal experiences; follows abstract, impersonal logic
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To predict, plan, and combine objective and subjective mental processes is the cognitive ability to be _____ while the ability to see multiple solutions to a problem is the cognitive ability to be ____
answer

practical, flexible
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The ability to change stereotyped assumptions that one made in childhood is
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All of the answers are correct
question

An adult who recognizes both that relationships continuously change and that he or she is also changed by the relationship is a ____ thinker
answer

dialectical
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Which of the following affects moral reasoning and religious beliefs?
answer

All of the following are correct
question

Moral values are powerfully affected by
answer

culture and era
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Emerging adults often experience dilemmas that seem to raise moral issues because
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they are in between their family of origin and a family of their own
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The Defining Issues Test was developed by ____ to asses moral reasoning through ranking possible solutions to moral dilemmas
answer

Rest
question

Troy, because of his intellectual detachment from cultural values and from the approval of those around him, is displaying which stage of faith?
answer

Stage 4: individual-reflective faith
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The primary reason for attending college is to ____ and the secondary reason for attending college is to ____
answer

secure better jobs and learn specific skills; obtain general education
question

College graduates seem to be
answer

all of the answers are correct
question

All of the following are changes in institutions of higher education EXCEPT
answer

offering fewer career programs
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Which of the following statements about diversity on college campuses is TRUE?
answer

The increased diversity of the student body on campuses leads to increased intellectual challenge and deeper thought.
question

Psychosocial development in contemporary adult life _____social clock
answer

doesn’t follow a set
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The fifth of Erik Erikson’s eight stages of development (identity versus role confusion) starts in adolescence; but unlike the past it is completed
answer

later during adulthood
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Emerging adulthood is an important stage for acquisition of resources needed for life-long family and career success. These resources include
answer

All of these are correct
question

Research on personality reveals tat it is
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All of these answers are correct
question

According to Erikson’s theory, the crisis that follows identity achievement is called
answer

intimacy versus isolation
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Friends are crucial during emerging adulthood because they
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All of these answers are correct
question

According to Sternberg, ____ involves reciprocal emotional closeness and sharing private thoughts and feelings and ____ involves mutual caring giving and forgiveness
answer

intimacy, committment
question

Couples who cohabitate prior to marriage
answer

are more likely to divorce
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The fact that currently, most people 20 to 30 years old are not married, that fewer adults marry, and that divorce is more common are all indications that
answer

the relationship between love and marriage has changed
question

______ is when a married couple has similar attitudes, interests, goals, and religious background
answer

Homogamy
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International research on the importance of communication between two partners found that
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Women can be more demanding and men more withdrawing
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\”our most important individual support system\” is our
answer

families
question

Despite striving for independence and achievement, most emerging adults today continue to have \”linked lives\” with their parents by
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receiving money and gifts of time from their parents
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Which country has the fewest number of emerging adults living at home
answer

United States
question

Enmeshment refers to
answer

parents always knowing what their emerging adults are doing
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According to research on adults, most of them reported feeling ____ than their chronological age
answer

5 to 10 years younger
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Which of the following could contribute to severe brain loss in adulthood
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all of the answers are correct
question

One of the first visible signs of senescence is/are
answer

wrinkles
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Which of the following visual skills are impacted by aging?
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

Specific contraceptive patterns are influenced by
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all of these terms are correct
question

sexual arousal and responsiveness tends to ______ with age
answer

slow down
question

What is most commonly the source of infertility
answer

both sexes are equally likely to be the source
question

Menopause refers to
answer

the cessation of menstration
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What is the leading cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in the U.S.?
answer

smoking cigarettes
question

The percentage of adults in the U.S. who are obese has
answer

stabilized
question

Regular exercise protects against serious illness during which stage of development?
answer

at every stage of life
question

Morbidity ________ mortality
answer

does not necessarily correlate with
question

What is the hallmark of disability?
answer

limitation of functioning
question

The most important measure of health in terms of how healthy and energetic an individual feels is
answer

vitality
question

Researchers have found that morbidity and disability have _________ correlation to ____________
answer

a negative; SES
question

How did Spearman measure general intelligence (g)?
answer

He inferred g from tests of various abilities, such as vocabulary, memory, and resoning
question

which of the following is a factor that many developmentalists thing might influence general intelligence?
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

What enabled researchers to finally discover that intelligence does not inevitably decline in early adulthood?
answer

longitudinal research
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Relying on cross-sectional research for conclusions is problematic because
answer

cohort effects may lead to false conclusions
question

The Seattle Longitudinal Study came to what conclusion?
answer

Most of people’s mental abilities improve during adulthood
question

Who proposed the existence of fluid and crystallized intelligences?
answer

Cattell and Horn
question

As we age, our ____ intelligence becomes aging-resistant, and our ___ intelligence becomes aging-sensitive
answer

crystallized; fluid
question

Which of the following is NOT one of Sternberg’s three fundamental forms of intelligence?
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fluid
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When is analytic intelligence usually valued?
answer

in high school and college
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The kind of intelligence that is most valued depends on
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age and culture
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Which of the following affects adult cognition?
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

What do many developmentalists believe is essential for successful aging?
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the capacity to accommodate to changes over time
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Selective optimization with compensation
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is a theory that proposes that we seek to compensate for losses by getting better at that which we already do well
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which of the following affect expertise?
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

The skill, flexibility, and strategies needed to raise a family most likely require
answer

expertise.
question

According to the text, personality
answer

All of these are correct
question

Erikson’s stage of intimacy versus isolation is similar to Maslow’s stage of
answer

love and belonging
question

International research on personality supports the general belief that
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characteristics can be clustered into the Big Five personality traits
question

Some social scientists believe that personality is shaped by ____ and there is support for that view from the study of the Big Five scores
answer

cultural context
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Members of our social convoy that provide the more reciprocally balanced relationships are
answer

friends
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An advantage of having close friends is that they
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

As individual move into adulthood and become parents, their relationships with their siblings typically
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become closer
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Research indicates that married people have
answer

slightly higher levels of happiness than single persons have
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A reason that commitment in partnerships is crucial is
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All of these are correct
question

When comparing homosexual partners with heterosexual partners, research indicates that
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both types of relationship experience the same advantages and conflicts
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Divorce results in
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

A characteristic of second marriage is that
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people who were chronically unhappy in their first marriage often become unhappy in their second one
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An adult expresses generativity by
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caring for others, such as young children
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One who takes responsibility for intergenerational care giving and communication is called
answer

kinkeeper
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The workplace is changing. New features include
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

Ageism is a form of prejudice in which people
answer

categorize and judge people only on the basis of their chronoligical age
question

Ageism can prevent depressed elderly people from
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getting medical assistance for treatable conditions
question

Fewer births and increased survival rates are changing the shape of the population from a pyramid to an
answer

rectangle
question

When researchers used the \”grounded theory\” method to study sexual activity in the elder population they found that
answer

All of these are correct
question

Which of the following age groups has the most motor-vehicle accidents?
answer

under 20
question

What percentage of those over age 65 can see well without eyeglasses?
answer

10 percent
question

According to the text, advocates who have suggested that designers and engineers should create more universal designs have posed which of the following questions?
answer

All of these are correct
question

The universal and irreversible physical changes that occur to all living creatures as time passes is referred to as
answer

primary aging
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What is the relationship between primary aging and disease?
answer

Primary aging makes disease more likely
question

\”compression of morbidity\” refers to
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a shortening of the time spent ill or infirmed
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The wear and tear theory is most likely applicable to
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some body parts that wear due to repeated stress or exposure to elements
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Which of the following is a genetic condition that provides evidence for genetic aging?
answer

Hutchinson-Gilford
question

The _______ theory proposes that toxins in the environment and the need for the body to repair the damage they create is responsible for the aging process.
answer

cellular aging
question

Pitskhelauri found that long-lived people share all of the following characteristics except
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a commitment to retirement from work
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Historically, dramatic increase in average life expectancy around the world has occurred due to
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public health measures that prevented the deaths of many infants and children.
question

Which of the following statements about the brain in adulthood is true?
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New neurons form and new dendrites grow throughout adulthood
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The slowing down of the brain in primary aging may be attributed to
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

__________ cause(s) some late adults to have difficulty deciphering emotional cues
answer

Sensory-input problems
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Which type of information is the most likely to decline with age?
answer

recalling names and new words
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Processing information in the conscious mind is to _______ memory as knowledge base is to ________ memory
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working; long term
question

Relying on prior knowledge and general principles in decision making is considered a problem in which step of information processing?
answer

control process
question

Researchers need to consider _______ when measuring memory
answer

ecological validity
question

Neurocognitive impairment is characterized by
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

Individuals with Alzheimer disease show ______ cognitive decline compared to those with vascular dementia who have _____ decline
answer

gradual; sudden
question

Recent studies have revealed that _____ is the most important nongenetic factor that can actually slow brain deterioration
answer

exercising more
question

Dementia that is more likely to be reversible can be related to all of the following EXCEPT:
answer

strokes
question

Erik Erikson was interested in the ______ of the elderly
answer

perspective
question

Researchers have found that cognitive abilities can be improved
answer

by playing video games
question

Encouraging older adults to engage in creative and intuitive endeavors may help their
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

Wisdom
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

Research shows that, in general, older adults who remain active
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

A beanpole family is
answer

a span of generations of a family that has only a few members in each generation
question

A possible living arrangement for an elderly person who is not self-sufficient is
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

Long-term marriages are generally characterized by
answer

people who are healthier, wealthier, and happier than unmarried people their age
question

The elderly are more politically active than younger people in every way EXCEPT
answer

turning out for massive rallies
question

Older adults seeking to integrate their unique experiences with their vision of community is what happens during
answer

integrity vs dispair
question

Religious faith correlates with reduced risk of illness in the elderly because faith
answer

encourages people to have a healthier lifestyle
question

A preference of the elderly to remain in the same home and community, adjusting but not leaving when health fades is called
answer

aging in place
question

Psychosocial development in late adulthood is best understood by looking at clusters of theories such as
answer

self-theories and stratification theories
question

An important task for successful aging requires that people
answer

not be socially isolated
question

Most older people
answer

consider their personalities and attitudes to have remained quite stable over the years
question

Many people keep working long after retirement age because work
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

______ grandparent demand respect and obedience and instill traditional values, whereas ______ grandparents who strive for love and friendship with their grandchildren
answer

remote, compassionate
question

Family caregivers of the frail and elderly
answer

All of these answers are correct
question

The difference between activities of daily life (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily life (IADLs) is that
answer

IADL ability is more critical of independent living than is ADL ability

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