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Psych 1010-Ex4

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1. What is the link between exercise and physical and mental health?
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An inverse relationship. When exercise increases psychopathology decreases.
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What is subjective well-being?
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Subjective well-being evaluations reflect how we evaluate and interpret our experiences – all about attitude/perception (Example: Personality traits, attitudes, and cognitions).
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What factors have been found to be clearly related to feelings of general happiness or life satisfaction?
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Having an active religious faith
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What is the relationship between internal and external locus of control with depression?
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External Locus of Control: the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate Internal Locus of Control: the perception that you control your own fate
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What is pessimism and how does it impact mental health?
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a tendency to see the worst aspect of things or believe that the worst will happen; a lack of hope or confidence in the future.
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Research on stressful life events indicates that:
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those who have been widowed, fired, or divorced are more vulnerable to disease.
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How can you improve your subjective well-being?
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Faith, Excersise, Socialize, Family
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Undergraduate women who had been sexually abused as children were especially likely to report health problems if they had
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kept the abuse a secret
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Daily pressures compounded by racism and prejudice take a toll on many african americans in the form of
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high blood pressure
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Laura fails to recognize any connection between her unsafe sexual practices and the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. Laura’s lack of perceptiveness best illustrates the dangers of
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an external locus of control.
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What does the stress-moderating hormone Oxycontin do?
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It is a stress/stimulating-moderating hormone
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What are the characteristics associated with A-Type/B-Type personalities?
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Characteristics of Type A Personality: – Time Pressured. – Competitive. – Angry and hostile. Characteristics of Type B Personality: – They are more chilled out, kind and patient than people with type A behavior. – They rarely get stressed. – This however can cause problems in exam situations as they, for example, won’t feel the need to revise or prepare as it’s not a big deal to them.
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What is type A and type B personality?
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Type A and Type B personality theory was devised by doctors Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman in the 1950s.
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Compared with those who perceive an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are more likely to
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cope effectively with stress
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Psychological Disorder
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An ongoing dysfunction pattern of thought, emotion, and behavior that causes significant distress, and that is considered deviant in that person’s culture or society.
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Which psychologist(s) have played a leadership role in the recent development of positive psychology?
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Martin Seligman
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Regarding OCD, what is an obsession and what is a compulsion?
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repeated, intrusive, and unwanted thoughts that cause anxiety, often accompanied by ritualized behaviour to relieve this anxiety Actions = Compulsions Obsessions = Behavior
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What is seasonal affective disorder?
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where someone will become depressed during certain times in the year
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Those most vulnerable to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are those who ________ value thinness and have the ________ body dissatisfaction.
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Most, Greatest
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What is the difference between anorexia and bulimia?
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Restriction; Binge/ Purging
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What are the different perspectives of why anorexia occurs in Western cultures?
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The ideals of beauty/ popularity
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An adopted child’s chances of developing schizophrenia ________ if the biological parents have schizophrenia. The child’s chances ________ if the adopted parents have schizophrenia.
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increase; do not increase
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What are the characteristics of multiple personality?
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Patients have two or more distinct personalities or identities within themselves, each of which when present may dominate the person’s attitudes, behavior, and self-view as though no other personality existed
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What disorder is associated with low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin?
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Lower levels are associated with depression
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What are examples of negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
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Delusions (+), Ambivalence (+), Flight of Ideas(+) Flat affect (-) Apathy (-) Lack of Volition (-)
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What is a phobia?
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FEAR, DISLIKE, AVERSION
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What is psychosis?
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Inability to distinguish subjective experience from external reality
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The neurotransmitter believed to be associated with schizophrenia is
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Dopamine
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During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to
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Be overactive
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Those with an avoidant personality disorder are most likely to display
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A fear of social rejection
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Anthony is 32 years old, well above average intelligence, and quite charming. He has swindled several older people out of their life savings, and he seems to have little feeling for his victims, nor does he fear the consequences of getting caught. His behavior is evidence of
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A personality disorder
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Drugs that alleviate mania tend to reduce levels of the neurotransmitter:
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norepinephrine
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A treatment approach that aims at changing cognition that are leading to psychological problems.
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Cognitive behavior therapy
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Client Centered Therapy
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Non-directive therapy, client centered, and person centered approach. Congruent therapist who expresses attitudes of unconditional positive regard and empathetic understanding within a genuine relationship will catalyze psychotherapeutic personality change in a vulnerable incongruent way
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Psycho-dynamic Therapy
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therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that view individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences and that seeks to enhance self-insight
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Which therapy approach uses a token economy as one part of treatment?
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Behavioral Therapy
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eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
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A psychotherapy in which the patient recalls a traumatic event while undergoing bilateral stimulation, such as moving their eyes from side to side or listening to tones delivered to one ear and then the other, in order to reduce anxiety
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repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
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the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
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systematic desensitization
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a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
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Psychosurgery
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medical procedure that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
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psychoanalysis
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a set of techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders
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Family Therapy
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Case Conceptualization Life Cycle Interaction Patterns Cultural Factors (even the culture of the family) Ethical Concerns (family secrets) (How am I ethically obligated to handle certain information?)
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client-centered therapist
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Non-directive therapy, client centered, and person centered approach. Congruent therapist who expresses attitudes of unconditional positive regard and empathetic understanding within a genuine relationship will catalyze psychotherapeutic personality change in a vulnerable incongruent way
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Ativan
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Anxiety, insomnia, premedication for anesthetic procedure, status epilepticus
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Thorazine
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schizophrenia treatment
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Depakote
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Bipolar-Disorder Treatment
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Zoloft (Therapeutic)
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depression OCD PTSD social anxiety
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Counter conditioning
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Joseph Wolpe: certain thoughts and behaviors are incompatible so we replace the undesired behavior by having its opposite (that which is incompatible) be done at the time in which the normal reaction would occur
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Cognitive Therapy
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Cognitive therapy is a type of psychotherapy based on the concept of pathological mental processing. The focus of treatment is on the modification of distorted cognitions and maladaptive behaviors.
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Transference
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the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
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The Placebo Effect
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this is a positive non-specific / contextual effect of therapy (does not have to do with the active ingredient or the procedure itself)
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Which form of therapy has been found to be especially effective in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder?
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
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Biomedical Therapy
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The use of medications, electro-convulsive therapy, or other medical treatments to treat the symptoms associated with psychological disorders.
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Cognitive Therapy
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Cognitive therapy is a type of psychotherapy based on the concept of pathological mental processing. The focus of treatment is on the modification of distorted cognitions and maladaptive behaviors.
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Behavior Therapy
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focus on directly observable behavior, current determinants of behavior, learning experiences that promote change, tailoring treatment strategies to individual clients, and rigorous assessment and evaluation
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humanistic therapy
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Therapy that emphasizing the tendency toward healthy growth within each individual.
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psychoanalystic therapy
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set of techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders
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What is behavior modification?
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systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess and improve an individual’s covert & overt behaviors to enhance daily functioning