PSYC 2314 Chapter 1

Which most accurately reflects the nature of the scientific study of human development?
multidisciplinary
Which term does not belong with this group?
hereditary
Since Dr. Kim takes a strong nature position concerning the origins of mental retardation, she would most likely hypothesize that her son’s retardation is due to what?
her genes
The notion that development is best described in terms of a series of abrupt shifts in behavior best fits with the ___ approach
discontinuity
Yacef is interested in determining whether children develop virtually the same way in Algeria as they do in other parts of the world. Yacef’s research deals with the ___ issue of human development
universal vs context-specific
Sophia notices that children seem to mature socially much faster in Argentina than in the United States. Sophia is most likely to support a ________ position regarding human development
context-specific
Dr. Arantes uses a biopsychosocial framework for understanding human development. Which position is she most likely to endorse on the nature versus nurture issue
nature and nurture both play important roles
Because Dr. Jefferson is interested in researching how people of different ages are affected by events, it would be most accurate to say that Dr. Jefferson is most interested in studying _____ forces
life-cycle
Benoit is interested in studying the effects of various biological forces on human development. Which of these topics is probably of least interest to him
cognition
Which does not constitute a “psychological force?
heredity
Daisy and Rose are identical twins who were separated at birth. Daisy was raised in the United States, Rose in Austria. Which force would explain the differences between their behaviors as teens?
sociocultural
Which best describes the relationship between biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces in human development
interactive
A _________ is an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development
theory
When asked to explain why children sometimes act violently, Dr. Zylar responds, “Generally speaking, these children are driven by conflicts between what they wish to do and what society wishes them to do.” It is most likely that Dr. Zylar would be a proponent of _________ theory
psychodynamic
Who is best associated with psychosocial theory
Erikson
The epigenetic principle is a key component of ____ theory
psychosocial
What would Erikson say is the stage in life where the biggest challenge involves committing to another in a loving relationship?
young adult
The basic premise of _____ is that the consequences of a behavior determine the likelihood of the behavior being repeated in the future
operant conditioning
After completing his history assignment, Nico is excused from having to wash the dishes, a task he detests. Nico’s parents are attempting to use _________ to increase Nico’s studying
negative reinforcement
If a behavior is effectively being reinforced it will
increase in frequency
An effective punishment
reduces the likelihood of it happening in the future
Morticia finds that whenever she talks to her daughter about her obnoxious behavior, the obnoxious behavior increases in frequency. Apparently, Morticia’s talks are ____ her daughter’s obnoxious behavior.
having no effect on
Imitation is most closely related to the concept of
observational learning
Melissa is doing a study where volleyball players are interviewed about their role on the team and perceived capabilities for playing in Saturday’s game. Melissa seems to be assessing the ___________ of the volleyball players
self-efficacy
Who developed social cognitive theory?
Bandura
Social cognitive theory and operant conditioning are similar in that they both
believe that experience is important in determining behavior
What is the correct order of Piaget’s stages of development
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete
When describing the development of his son Pitt, Brad says, the best way to describe it is in terms of a slow computer with a small memory
information- processing
Dr, strauss is a developmental physcologist who is interested in Vygotsky’s theory, What sort of forces are probably of most interest to him?
sociocultural
The biggest difference between Vygotsky;s approach to development and that of Piaget and the information processing approach is that Vygotsky places more emphasis on
the impact of culture
Which theorist is best associated with an ecological approach to human development
Brofenbren
According to ecological theory, development, the people closest to a developing child represent their
microsystem
The AIDS epidemic has dramatically influences dating behavior. This influence is best thought of as part of the culture’s ____
exosystem
Matti finds himself unable to adjust to college because he doesn’t seem to have the study skills necessary to earn passing grades. This predicament is best explained by
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory
Whose theory is best associated with a life-span perspective emphasizing research on adult development
Baltes
Multidirectionality, plasticity, historical context, and multiple causation are all key features of the ____ perspective
life-span
The selective optimization with compensation model is primarily associated with the ___ perspective
life-span
Professor Linwood always makes a point of learning the names of her students. She was always able to do this is her head but has recently found that she needs note cards to help her remember. This change is best described as
loss-based selection
Which research study would you most expect to see from a researcher with a life-course perspective?
growing up in the 60’s and its influence on drug behavior
Patti studies the bahavior of preschool kids by watching them play at a local day-care center…
naturalistic observation
Dr. Lund stages a fire drill at the elementary school in order to study how kids respond to emergency situations
structured observation
Which method of measuring behavior is most effective at directly studying brain activity?
psysiological measures
Dr Simpson’s students are upset when he used a very accurate weight scale to determine their grades
validity
Validity is to reliability as
accuracy is to consistancy
Which statement is always true
a population is large than a sample
Harvey is interested in doing a study to determine whether or not a statistically significant relationship exists between participating in college athletes and self-efficacy for academic work. he doesn’t want a cause and effect relationship, he should do a _____ study
correlational
Which variable is manipulated by an experimenter
interdependent
In an experiment the dependent variable is the behavior that is being ____
observed
Denise is studying how attitudes toward gov change over the course of life
longitudinal
In the Fujita and Diener study, which variable was most likely to change over time?
life satisfactional
Which researcher is most likely doing a cross-sectional study?
Jim, who is studying several differenct-ages groups at the same time
According to the APA, researchers much
minimize risk to participants