According to Hofstede’s research, ________ scores high on uncertainty avoidance.
4. the United States
Which of the Big Five factors of personality seems to be associated with increased volume in the medial orbitoprefrontal cortex area of the brain?
While on a dinner date, John tells the waitress that he’d like to order a number “sex.” Freud would more than likely propose that John’s misstatement was a product of his _______ mind.
Della and Sam decided to see a couples therapist to help them work through issues within their marriage. During their first meeting, Sam seemed to make a positive impression on the therapist. From that point, the therapist seemed to agree with everything Sam argued, often disregarding negative statements indicating how bad a partner Sam is. The effectiveness of therapy for Della and Sam may likely be most influenced by which of the following interferences?
1. fundamental attribution error
2. the halo effect
3. impression management
4. self-serving bias
the halo effect
Shawna is persistent when it comes to completing a task. Not only does she refuse to give up when things become a bit challenging, but she believes that as long as she puts forth the effort, she will be able to reach her goals successfully. Albert Bandura might say that Shawna has a high level of ________.
Jonah and Jonathan are twin brothers. Jonah is a compulsive gum chewer and nail-biter, while his brother Jonathan is a two-pack-a-day smoker and heavy drinker. Freud would say that both brothers appear to be stuck in the _______ stage of personality development.
If your instructor describes a culture as emphasizing “collectivism,” she is saying that the culture’s values emphasize _______.
1. individual security
2. personal achievement
3. group interdependence
Nesreen believes that humans are in control of their own fates, and that an individual’s personality is shaped by the decisions he/she makes throughout his/her life. Nesreen’s belief in how personality is formed best supports the ______ perspective of personality development.
In Rogers’ view, problems arise when:
1. the ideal self is impossible to attain.
2. a person is out of alignment with the persona.
3. a person is fixed within a certain stage.
4. the real self and the ideal self are too similar.
the ideal self is impossible to attain
Maslow thought that Einstein and Gandhi were:
Self-actualizing tendency refers to:
1. a person’s subjective feeling that a particular behavior will lead to a reinforcing consequence.
2. the image of oneself that develops from interactions with important, significant people in one’s life.
3. striving to fulfill one’s innate capacities and capabilities.
4. one’s perception of what one should be or would like to be.
striving to fulfill one’s innate capacities and capabilities
Personality may be defined as the sum total of who you are and the unique ways that you think, feel, and:
1. morally evaluate a situation.
What is the difference between personality and character?
1. Personality is the unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life, whereas character refers to value judgments made about a person’s morals or ethical behavior.
2. Personality refers to value judgments made about a person’s morals or ethical behavior, whereas character is the unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life.
3. Personality is the unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life, whereas character refers to the enduring characteristics with which each person is born.
4. Personality refers to the enduring characteristics with which each person is born, whereas character is the unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life.
Personality is the unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life, whereas character refers to value judgments made about a person’s moral or ethical behavior
If a test measures what it is supposed to measure, that test has:
Devon is taking a personality test that includes a long list of questions. For each question, Devon must choose from a limited set of answers. Devon is taking a:
1. personality inventory.
2. subjective test.
3. projective test.
4. behavioral exam.
Sophie has a chance to interview for a promotion at work. She is sure she will do poorly anyway, so she decides against it. Bandura would say that Sophie has:
1. an external locus of control.
2. low self-efficacy.
3. a neurotic personality.
4. a negative self-concept.
According to Rotter, the key factors influencing a person’s decision to act in a certain way in a particular circumstance are reinforcement value and:
1. the pleasure principle.
2. locus of control.
One way in which the social cognitive view differs from psychoanalytic theory is that it:
1. centers on the effects of internal conflicts on personality.
2. can be and has been tested under scientific conditions.
3. is still in use today.
4. focuses mostly on internal processes.
can be and has been tested under scientific conditions
Walter Mischel believed that different circumstances influenced how traits were expressed, an assumption know as:
1. environment-emotion interaction.
2. trait-situation interaction.
3. trait-environment interaction.
4. trait-emotion interaction.
In examining the five-factor model (or the Big Five), Costa and McCrae believed that these traits are not ________. In other words, knowing someone’s score on one trait would not give any information about scores on the four other traits.
1. genetically endowed
Shortly after her daughter is born, Anna’s 3-year-old son wants to start sleeping in the crib again. This is an example of:
The process girls experience with their father as the object of their affections and their mother as the rival is called:
1. the Electra complex.
2. penis envy.
4. the Oedipus complex.
the Electra complex
One criticism of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is that it:
1. lacks creativity.
2. is too standardized.
3. has many ambiguous concepts that are difficult to evaluate and are not based on sound research.
4. is too broad to be used in treatment.
has many ambiguous concepts that are difficult to evaluate and are not based on sound research
According to Adler, humans’ driving force was not the pursuit of pleasure but the pursuit of:
2. personal success.
4. connection to the divine.
Freud’s ideas, as presented in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life:
1. focused on the social influences on psychology.
2. were a shock to the society in which he lived.
3. were quickly embraced by the European medical community.
4. represented an expansion of the accepted beliefs of the Victorian Era.
were a shock to the society in which he lived
Personality tests can be used to help people in a number of ways, including ______________.
1. how to save money
2. how to think more positively
3. how to find a good doctor
4. how to choose a career path
how to choose a career path
_____________ are personality tests found online or in magazines that are entertaining but not scientifically valid.
1. Over-the-counter assessments
2. Under-the-bridge assessments
3. Shelf-life assessments
2. Off-the-shelf assessments
When everyone in a study was given exactly the same vague description of personality traits, participants found the the results to be accurate for them personally. This phenomenon has been called the _______ effect.
3. Buyer beware
Studies show that the most satisfied romantic partners have a high degree of similarity in _____________.
1. age, political and religious beliefs
age, political, and religious beliefs
Research shows that most people want mates that _______________.
1. have very similar personalities to their own
2. are less educated than they are
3. are similar to their ideal selves, not their actual selves
4. are similar to their actual selves, not their ideal selves
are similar to their ideal selves, not their actual selves
The psychodynamic model sees anxiety as the result of:
1. inappropriate urges threatening to surface. 2. learned behaviors in response to environmental stimuli.
3. illogical, irrational thought processes.
4. an imbalance in several neurotransmitters in the nervous system.
inappropriate urges threatening to surface
_________ results from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems concentrating, and flashbacks for as long as one month following the event.
2. Posttraumatic stress disorder
3. Panic disorder
4. Acute stress disorder
Acute stress disorder
A child who witnessed the death of his mother experiences symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems as late as three years after the event. The child is suffering from:
1. acute stress disorder.
2. generalized anxiety disorder.
3. posttraumatic stress disorder.
4. a panic disorder with agoraphobia.
posttraumatic stress disorder
Behavioral theorists link depression to:
1. learned helplessness.
2. the effects of brain chemicals such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
3. posttraumatic stress disorder.
Natasha has severe mood swings. One week she’s energetic and excessively happy and then the following week she has a major depressive episode. Natasha may be exhibiting:
1. bipolar disorder.
2. unipolar disorder.
3. binary personality disorder.
Hannah is a 16-year-old female whose weight is within the normal range. However, she is depressed, has a strong fear of becoming overweight, and is preoccupied with food. For over a year, she has been bingeing on fast food and then using a laxative or vomiting to rid herself of the food. Hannah appears to be suffering from _______.
4. binge eating disorder
Andre was diagnosed with schizophrenia after reporting that he had been hearing voices coming through the lamp in his room. While other symptoms were also present, Andre’s hearing of voices seemed to escalate, moving from his lamp to his chair, and then to his pillow. The voices that Andre was hearing are referred to as _______.
Every time Drew gets into an elevator, or walks into his closet, or enters any small, enclosed space, he begins to hyperventilate and feels as if he is going to die. Drew may be suffering from _______.
Phyllis was bitten by a mosquito and became convinced that she had contracted the West Nile virus. Though no symptoms of the virus were evident, Phyllis exclaimed that she felt faint and nauseous and constantly nervous since being bitten. Also, she was sure that her entire body was starting to swell. Cognitive-behavioral therapists might refer to Phyllis’s irrational behavior as _______.
1. all-or-nothing thinking
Jan feels euphoric and “on top of the world.” She has tremendous energy and is only sleeping a couple of hours a night. However, she is also very impulsive and has been spending her life savings in a wild buying spree. Jan is experiencing _________.
1. a manic episode
a manic episode
Dr. Fields practices therapy within the United States and often refers to a resource that helps her to classify and diagnose various disorders. The resource to which Dr. Fields might refer today is the _______.
1. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fourth Edition
2. World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Fifth Edition
3. World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Tenth Edition
4. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM), Fifth Edition
Severe tooth decay, erosion of the esophagus, potassium, calcium and sodium imbalances, damage to the intestinal tract, heart problems, fatigue, and seizures are all severe consequences of:
1. attempted suicide.
3. bulimia nervosa.
4. anorexia nervosa.
Research has found that lower levels of dopamine produced by the ________ are associated with attention deficits and poor organization of thought, two negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
1. parietal lobes
2. prefrontal cortex
3. temporal lobes
4. corpus callosum
_______ are false beliefs about the world that a person holds and that tend to remain fixed and unshakable even in the face of evidence that disproves them.
2. Flat affects
3. Multiple personalities
A “delusion of reference” best characterizes disordered thinking when an individual with schizophrenia believes:
1. others are trying to hurt them in some way.
2. other people, television characters, and books are speaking directly to them.
3. they are being controlled by external forces.
4. they are powerful people, or have special powers, and have been chosen to save the world from a catastrophe.
other people, television characters, and books are speaking directly to them
Teri, a woman suffering from schizophrenia, believes that she is a queen of a far-off land and she has a mission to save the world from an evil force. Teri is experiencing:
1. delusions of reference.
2. delusions of influence.
3. delusions of grandeur.
4. delusions of persecution.
delusions of grandeur
A man wakes up on a beach with no memory of how he got there, who he is, where he lives, or of any sense of identity whatsoever. The man has experienced a:
1. dissociative amnesia.
2. dissociative fugue.
3. catatonic schizophrenia.
4. dissociative identity disorder.
Approximately what percentage of people over the age of 18 suffers from mental disorders in any given year?
1. 26 percent
2. 30 percent
3. 38 percent
4. 17 percent
The study of abnormal behavior is:
Dr. Sutton performed some tests and believes the abnormal behaviors Richard are displaying are caused by a chemical imbalance. She is writing a prescription for a pill she believes will restore the balance that he needs. Dr. Sutton is in favor of a _____ treatment.
Archaeologists have found human skulls that bear the signs of ancient surgeries. This surgery has been termed:
1. oral surgery.
2. sinus entry lobotomy.
4. frontal cingulotomy.
In the United States, the term ______ is not a psychological term; it is a legal term used to argue that a mentally ill person who committed a crime should not be held responsible for his or her actions because he or she could not understand the difference between right and wrong.
2. mentally unstable
The ______ model of abnormality explains disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia as caused by chemical imbalances, genetic disorders, and brain damage.
Sociopaths who habitually break the law, disobey rules, tell lies, and use others without remorse would be diagnosed with ______ personality disorder.
The disorder in which a person adopts a persistent, rigid, and maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactions is ______ disorder.
According to NEDA, how many females are affected by an eating disorder?
1. 1 million
2. 10 million
3. 10 thousand
4. 100 million
What are the characteristics of anorexia nervosa?
1. being severely underweight, restricting food intake so that you are underweight, and being very afraid of becoming fat
2. restricting your food intake, eating a large amount of food in a short period of time, then vomiting
3. exercising twice a day, eating normal portions of food, then vomiting
4. exercising every day and vomiting after every meal
being severely underweight, restricting food intake so that you are underweight, and being very afraid of becoming fat
What are the three major categories of eating disorders?
1. emotional, physical, and a combination of the two
2. psychotic, borderline, and a combination of the two
3. anorexia, bulimia, and a combination of the two
4. addictive, abusive, and a combination of the two
anorexia, bulimia, and a combination of the two
What do all people with eating disorders have in common?
1. They are uncomfortable with feeling in control.
2. They were heavily criticized by family members.
3. They were physically or sexually abused at home.
4. They are overly concerned with weight and body image.
they are overly concerned with weight and body image
What is typically the first challenge in treating someone with an eating disorder?
1. stopping them from exercising
2. getting them to agree to being treated
3. keeping them from throwing up
4. making them eat
getting them to agree to being treated
Don’s psychoanalyst believes that if she and Don can correctly interpret the hidden meanings behind the events in Don’s dreams, they will reveal:
1. that Don is just having nightmares.
2. ideas for creating a contingency contract to change Don’s behavior.
3. the unconscious conflicts that are causing Don’s mental disorders.
4. the unrealistic thoughts that are leading Don into maladaptive behavior.
the unconscious conflicts that are causing Don’s metal disorder
The method of free association was developed by:
1. Josef Breuer.
2. Sigmund Freud.
3. Adolph Meyer.
4. Philippe Pinel.
Which of the following is NOT true of the evaluation of the effectiveness of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies?
1. They are more expensive and time-consuming to reach effectiveness with the client.
2. They have been criticized for treating the symptom, rather than the cause, of the disorder.
3. These types of therapies have been successful in treating some forms of schizophrenia.
4. There is potential for bias when the therapist must be the judge of which thoughts are rational and which are not.
They are more expensive and time-consuming to reach effectiveness with the client
Abby’s husband comes home from work acting distant and grouchy. He tells her he’s angry about how a presentation with a client went because his team forgot a section of their display and they lost the client. However, Abby is hurt because she assumes he’s lying to her about the source of his anger and believes he’s really angry with her. This type of distorted thinking is called:
1. magnification and minimization.
2. arbitrary inference.
4. selective thinking.
Up until ______, people suffering severe mental illnesses were sometimes thought to be possessed by demons or evil spirits.
1. the late 1500s
2. the late 1800s
3. the early 1600s
4. the late 1700s
the late 1700s
The type of therapy where the goal is for patients to better understand the motives behind their actions is called ______ therapy.
The type of therapy that uses biological treatments such as drugs, surgical methods, and electric shock methods is known as:
The removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a particular response is called:
3. partial reinforcement.
An action therapy that is based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behaviors is _________ therapy.
While treating a child with a fear of swimming, the therapist first approaches the water, then touches the water, then stands in the water waist-deep, and finally floats in the water. The therapist then repeats the steps with the child. This is an example of:
1. aversion therapy.
2. classical conditioning.
4. participant modeling.
Dr. Alden uses free association, transference, resistance, and dream interpretation in his work. Dr. Alden practices which kind of therapy?
Armanda is afraid of crowds. If her therapist uses the flooding technique to help her conquer her fear, which of the following will Armanda be asked to do?
1. expose her fear to a therapy group
2. attend a sold-out rock concert
3. imagine being on a beach with other people
4. learn to relax
attend a sold-out rock concert
Deirdre is having problems with depression following the recent birth of her baby. Her therapist believes Deirdre would gain emotional support and practical coping skills from other women who are also facing postpartum depression. Her therapist is recommending:
1. cognitive therapy.
2. group therapy.
3. family counseling.
4. aversion therapy.
Which of the following is an advantage of group therapy?
1. the opportunity for the therapist and the client to observe how the client interacts with others
2. fostering confrontation for people to transfer their hostilities in a safe environment
3. forcing shy people to overcome their issues
4. the work of the therapist is essentially done by the other participants
the opportunity for the therapist and the client to observe how the client interacts with others
Which of the following was the first of the typical antipsychotics to be developed?
_____ drugs are used to treat symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior.
Electroconvulsive therapy is still used to treat:
3. severe depression.
Nora suffers from depression. Her doctor prescribes antidepressant medication. Her doctor is using _____ to treat her.
1. biological therapy
3. psychodynamic therapy
Which of the following is a danger of seeking psychological treatment over the Internet?
1. The potential for identity theft increases.
2. The long amounts of time a client spends on the computer causes an increase in personality disorders due to lack of interpersonal communication.
3. There is no guarantee that a cybertherapist has any credentials or training in psychotherapy.
4. The lack of interpersonal communication causes a higher suicide rate for people seeking treatment online.
There is no guarantee that a cybertherapist has any credentials or training in psychotherapy
In his study of the effectiveness of psychotherapy, what was the conclusion Hans Eysenck made about the reason why people who had received therapy showed improvement?
1. He found that Carl Rogers’s unconditional positive regard provided a more conducive environment than Sigmund Freud’s approach of simply having the client lie on a couch.
2. He determined that dream interpretation and free association were the most effective methods.
3. He found that the passage of time alone could account for all recovery.
4. He found that psychodynamic and behavioral therapies were the most effective.
He found that the passage of time alone could account for all recovery
One of the four barriers to effective psychotherapy regarding different cultures or ethnic backgrounds is:
1. differences in nonverbal communication.
2. religious concerns.
3. lack of respect.
4. clients having little or no confidence in the doctor’s methods.
differences in nonverbal communication
Humanistic therapy can be impractical in the treatment of:
1. people with severe mental disorders in which they are not verbally expressive.
2. people who are struggling to make life choices.
3. people who have been abused.
4. people who are seeking marriage counseling.
people with severe mental disorders in which they are not verbally expressive
Meredith tells her therapist, Dr. Shepherd, that her mother recently died and she’s been experiencing suicidal thoughts. Dr. Shepherd responds by explaining that he can imagine that she must be feeling angry and abandoned. Dr. Shepherd is displaying ______, a key element in person-centered therapy.
1. unconditional positive regard
According to humanistic therapists, the ideal self and the real self should match as closely as possible. This is achieved through:
1. rational emotive therapy.
3. unconditional positive regard.
4. free association.
unconditional positive regard
In the Middle Ages, mental illness was thought to be caused by
1. poor nutrition.
2. bacterial infections.
3. demonic possession.
4. isolation during childhood.
Although psychologists have discovered both drug treatments and psychological treatments that are effective in treating anxiety disorders, drug treatments
1. are more enduring in their effects than psychological treatments.
2. do not work as quickly in providing relief from anxiety.
3. can have fewer negative side effects than psychological treatments.
4. are not as enduring in their effects as psychological treatments.
are not as enduring in their effects as psychological treatments
Which of the following types of therapy were introduced during the 1960s and 1970s?
1. humanistic and psychodynamic therapies
2. cognitive and behavioral therapies
3. humanistic and brain imaging therapies
4. cognitive and psychoanalytic therapies
cognitive and behavioral therapies
In the mid-twentieth century, treatments such as _______________ and _______________ were used to treat severe, persistent mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and depression.
1. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); lobotomies
2. brain imaging and anti-psychotic drugs
3. burning; torture
4. isolation; tranquilizer chairs
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); lobotomies
In the 1950s, scientists discovered ______________, and over time, due to the effectiveness of this treatment, many institutionalized patients were released and treated on an outpatient basis.
1. cognitive behavioral therapy
2. tranquilizer chairs
3. anti-psychotic drugs
Which of the following is NOT true about self-help/support groups?
1. They are free.
2. They are formed around a particular problem such as alcoholism or drug abuse.
3. The leader of the group has the same problem as the rest of the group members.
4. A therapist leads the group meetings.
A therapist lead the group meetings