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Psyc 170 (Abnormal Psychology) Exam 1

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asylum
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A type of institution that first became popular in the sixteenth century to provide care for persons with mental disorders. Most became virtual prisons.
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Bedlam
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Originally the local name for Bethlehem Hospital, an asylum in London. It now means a chaotic uproar.
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Benjamin Rush
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The person responsible for bringing moral treatment of mentally ill patients to the US
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Dorothea Dix
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A Boston schoolteacher advocated for humane care of the mentally ill. She addressed various state legislatures and eventually US Congress. This lead to new laws for treatment, including the institution of state hospitals.
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Emil Kraepelin
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A German researcher who took the somatogenic perspective (vs. the psychogenic perspective), that abnormal psychological functioning is rooted in physical causes. He published a textbook on the subject and led this viewpoint to prominence. He also created the first modern classification system for abnormal behavior, his definition of schizophrenia is so accurate it is still used today.
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exorcism
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The practice in early societies of treating abnormality by taxing evil spirits to leave the person’s body
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moral treatment
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A nineteenth-cemtry approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment
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positive psychology
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The study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities
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psychogenic perspective
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The view that the chef causes of abnormal functioning are psychological
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trephination
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An ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull, perhaps to treat abnormal behavior
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anti anxiety drugs (aka anxiolytics)
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Psychotropic drugs that help reduce tension and anxiety
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anticonvulsant drugs (aka mood stabilizers)
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Psychotropic drugs that help stabilize the moods of people suffering from a bipolar mood disorder
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antidepressant drugs
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Psychotropic drugs that improve the mood of people with depression
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antipsychotic drugs
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Drugs that help correct grossly confused or disordered thinking
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axon
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A long fiber extending from the body of a neuron
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biobehavioral model
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The dominant perspective used to create the descriptions (diagnoses) of mental disorders in the diagnostic system used by the American Psychiatric Association
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biological model
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The theoretical perspective that points to biological processes as the key to human behavior
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biopsychosocial
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Explanations that attribute the cause of abnormality to an interaction of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, social, and society influences
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cognitive-behavioral therapies
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Therapy approaches that seek to help clients change both counterproductive behaviors and dysfunctional ways of thinking
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culture-sensitive therapies
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Approaches that seek to address the unique issues faced by members of minority groups
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defense mechanisms
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A mental process (e.g., repression or projection) initiated, typically unconsciously, to avoid conscious conflict or anxiety
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dendrite
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An extension located at one end of a neuron hat receives impulses from other neurons
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ECT (Electroconvulsive therapy)
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A treatment for depression in which electrodes attached to a patient’s head send an electrical current through the brain, causing a seizure. This was done poorly in the past but is now used effectively when severely depressed patients do not respond to other types of treatment.
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humanistic-existential model
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Both focus on the broader dimension of human existence but are not the same humanistic model: the theoretical perspective that human beings are born with a natural inclination to be friendly, cooperative, and constructive and are driven to self-actualize existential model: the theoretical perspective that human beings are born with the total freedom either to face up to one’s existence and give meaning to one’s life or to shrink from that responsibility
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glial cell
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Brain cells that support the neurons
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multicultural perspective
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The view that each culture within a larger society has a particular set of values and beliefs, as well as special external pressures, that help account for the behavior and functioning of its members.
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neuron
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A cell in the brain that is responsible for releasing neurotransmitters
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psychodynamic model
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The theoretical perspective that sees all human functioning as being shaped by dynamic (interacting) psychological forces and explains peoples’ behavior by reference to unconscious internal conflicts
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receptor
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A cite on a neuron that receives a neurotransmitter
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receptor site
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The place at which a neurotransmitter can be received
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serotonin
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A neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is linked to depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders
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synapse
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The tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another
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synaptic vesicle
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The holes on a synapse from which neurotransmitters are released
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synaptic cleft
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The space between neurons into which neurotransmitters are released
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assessment
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The process of collecting and interpreting relevant information about a client or research participant
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BDI (Beck Depression Inventory)
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An affect inventory (response inventory) that tests a range of depressive emotions
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diagnosis
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A determination that a person’s problems reflect a particular disorder
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DSM-5
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The newest edition of the DSM, published in 2003
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intelligence test
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A test designed to measure a person’s intellectual ability (e.g. WAIS, Wechsler tests)
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IQ (intelligence quotient)
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An overall score derived from intelligence tests
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mental status exam (MSE)
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A set of interview questions and observations designed to reveal the degree and nature of a client’s abnormal functioning
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MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
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A widely used personality inventory consisting of a large tuber of statements that subjects mark as being true or false for them
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personality inventories
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Tests designed to measure broad personality characteristics, consisting of statements about behaviors and feelings that people evaluate as either characteristic or uncharacteristic of them
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projective tests
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A test consisting of ambiguous material that people itnerpre or respond to (e.g. Rorschach test, Thematic Apperception Test-TAT, sentence-completion test, and drawings)
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response inventories
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Tests designed to measure a person’s responses in one specific area of functioning, such as affect, social skills, or cognitive processes
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dopamine
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The neurotransmitter whose high activity has been shown to be related to schizophrenia
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five classes of psychoactive medications
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1) Anxiolytics 2) Antidepressants 3) Mood stabilizers/anticonvulsants 4) Psychostimulants 5) Antipsychotics
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GABA
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The neurotransmitter gamma-amniobutyric acid, whose low activity has been linked to generalized anxiety disorder
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glutamate
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A common neurotransmitter that has been linked to memory and to dementia
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myelin
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The cells that coat the axon of a neuron in order to speed up the flow of electrons
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neurotransmitter
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A chemical that, released by one neuron, crosses the synaptic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons
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Nodes of Ranvier
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The spaces between myelin cells
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norepinephrine
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A neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is linked to depression and panic disorder and depression
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oligodendrocyte
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Another name of myelin cells in the brain
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reuptake mechanism
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The cells that recycle neurotransmitters that are left over in the synapse
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soma (cell body)
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The nucleus of a neuron
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acute stress disorder (ASD)
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An anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms are experienced soon after a traumatic event and last less than a month
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adjustment disorder
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Disorders characterized by clinical symptoms such as depressed mood or anxiety in response to significant stressors
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ANS (autonomic nervous system)
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The network of nerve fibers that connect the central nervous system to all the other organs of the body
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combat trauma
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Trauma caused by war
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corticosteroids
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A group of hormones, including cortisol, released by the adrenal glands at times of stress
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dissociation
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A feeling in which some parts of one’s memory or identity seem to be associated, or separated, from other parts of one’s memory or identity
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HPA (Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) pathway
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One route by which the brain and body produce arousal and fear
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(PNS) parasympathetic nervous system
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The nerve fibers of the autonomic nervous system that help return bodily processes to normal
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post-traumatic stress disorder
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An anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms continue to be experienced long after a traumatic event
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psychological factors affecting physical conditions (psychophysiological disorders)
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Disorders in which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors interact to cause or worsen a physical illness
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trauma
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A deeply depressing or disturbing experience
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ADHD
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A disorder marked by inability to focus attention, overactive and impulsive behavior, or both
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anxieties of childhood
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Separation anxiety Overanxious disorder of childhood Selective mutism Disinhibited social engagement Reactive attachment disorder
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autism and the autism spectrum
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A developmental disorder marked by extreme unresponsiveness to others, severe communication deficits, and highly repetitive and rigid behaviors, interests, and activities
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behavior therapy
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A therapeutic approach that seeks to identify problem-causing behaviors and change them
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communication disorders
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Disorders characterized by marked impairment in language and or speech
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conduct disorder
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A childhood disorder in which the child repeatedly violates the basic rights of others and displays aggression, characterized by symptoms such as physical cruelty to people or animals, the deliberate destruction of other people’s property, and the commission of various crimes
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Down syndrome
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A form of intellectual developmental disorder caused by an abnormality in the twenty-first chromosome
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enuresis
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A childhood disorder marked by repeated bed-wetting or wetting of one’s clothes
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encopresis
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A childhood disorder characterized by repeated defecation in inappropriate places, such as one’s clothing
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Intellectual disability and mental retardation (aka intellectual developmental disorder)
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A disorder marked by intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that are well below average
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life skills
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Abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable humans to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life
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methylphenidate
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A stimulant drug, know better by the trade name Ritalin, commonly used to treat ADHD
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motor disorders
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Disorders of the nervous system that cause abnormal and involuntary movements
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oppositional defiant disorder
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A childhood disorder in which children are repeatedly argumentative and define, angry and irritable, and, in some cases, vindictive
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parent training
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Training for parents whose children are not behaving normally
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specific learning disorders
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A developmental disorder marked by impairments in cognitive skills such as reading, writing, arithmetic, or mathematical skills
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insomnia
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Difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep
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internalizing and externalizing spectrum (with anxiety)
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Types of disorders that begin in childhood and persist into adulthood
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mental disorder
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a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning
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psychopathology
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pathology: the process (physiology, structure, results, prognosis… etc.) of disease psychopathology: pathology in psychological processes
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psychosocial
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The inseparable interplay between psychological experience and social/cultural contexts (e.g. temperament, developmental, personality, stress, environmental problems, relationships)
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psychosocial interventions
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Interventions that recognize the importance of safe and supportive contexts for living and healing. Spiritual, community, marital, family, economic, political, and educational change are all possible tactics to use in psychosocial healing. Psychosocial programs seek individual and community change by reducing risk and vulnerability, increasing protection and self-efficacy
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risk
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The probability or occurrence of a negative outcome
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resilience
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Successful adaptation under adverse conditions, and the ability to recover from stress or trauma
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Zelda and her symptoms
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Zelda was a Holocaust survivor who survived a fire in a factory and the smell brought on delayed PTSD of her time in a concentration camp. Her symptoms were: abdominal pains, nausea, palpitations, she felt depressed, and so frightened about leaving her apartment that she was unable to go to work, lack of interest, recurrent nightmares of her experiences in a concentration camp, dwelling, unable to concentrate, feels that she is “a dead person”
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Separation Anxiety Disorder Checklist
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1) Developmentally inappropriate and excessive fear or anxiety concerning separation from those to whom the individual is attached. Symptoms include recurrent separation-related fears, worries, refusal to leave home, nightmares, and/or physical symptoms 2) The symptoms are persistent, lasting at lest 4 weeks in children and adolescents and typically 6 months or more in adults 3) Significant distress or impairment
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Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Checklist
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1) Severe and recurrent temper outbursts (verbal or behavioral) that are grossly out of proportion to the situation 2) Outbursts occur three or more times per week, for at least one year 3) Persistent irritable or angry mood is displayed between outbursts 4) Symptoms are present in a least two setting (home, school, with peers) 5) Individual is between 6 and 18 years of age
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Conduct Disorder Checklist
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1) Repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated 2) At least three of the following features are present in the past 12 months (and at least one in the past 6 months): Frequent bullying or threatening of others, Frequent provoking of physics fights, Using dangerous weapons, Physical cruelty to people, Physical cruelty to animals, Stealing while confronting a victim, Forcing someone into sexual activity, fire-setting, Deliberately destroying others’ property, Breaking into a house, building, or car, Frequent lying, Stealing items of nontrivial value without confronting a victim, Frequent staying out beyond curfews, beginning before the age of 13, Running away from home overnight at least twice, Frequent truancy from school, beginning before the age of 13
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ADHD Checklist
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1) Either of the following groups of symptoms: A. At least six of the following symptoms of inattention, persisting for at least six months, to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level: Frequent failure to give close attention to details, or making careless mistakes, Frequent difficulty in sustaining attention, Frequent failure to listen when spoken to directly, Frequent failure to follow through on instructions and failure to finish work, Difficulty organizing tasks that require sustained mental effort, Frequent loss of items necessary for tasks or actives, Easy distraction by irrelevant stimuli, Forgetfulness in daily activities B. At least six of the following symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, persisting for at least six months, to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level: Fidgeting with or tapping of hands or feet or squirming in seat, Frequent wandering from seat in classroom or similar situation, Frequent running about or climbing excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate, Frequent difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly, Frequent “on the go” activity or active as if “driving by a motor”, Frequent excessive talking, Frequent blurting out of answers before question have been completed, Frequent difficulty awaiting turn, Frequent interrupting of or intruding on others 2) Presence of some of the symptoms before the age of 12 3) The symptoms occur in at least two settings 4) Significant impairment
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Autism Spectrum Disorder Checklist
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1) Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction, featuring all of the following: Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interactions, Deficits in developing and maintaining relationships 2) Restricted and repetitive patters of behaviors, interests, or activities, featuring two of the following: Stereotyped or repetivit speech, motor movements, or use of objects, Excessive adherence to routines ,ritualized patters of behavior, or excessive resistance to change, Highly restricted, fixated, and abnormal interests, Hyper-reactive or hypo-reactive responses to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspect of environment 3) Onset by early childhood 4) Significant impairment
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Intellectual developmental Disorder (Intellectual Disability) Checklist
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1) Deficits in general mental abilities such as reasoning, problem-solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgement, academic learning, and learning from experience 2) Impairment in adaptive functioning in at least one aspect of daily life activities, such as communication, social participation, functioning at school or work, or personal independence at home or in the community. The limitations necessitate ongoing support at school, work, or independent life. 3) Onset during the developmental period (before age 18)
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PTSD Checklist
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1) Exposure to a traumatic event-actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violation 2) One or more of the following intrusive symptoms: Recurrent, involuntary, and distressing memories, Recurrent distressing dreams, Dissociative reactions, such as flashbacks, Significant distress at exposure to cues of the events(s), Marked physiological reaction to reminder of the event(s) 3) Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the event(s) 4) Negative changes in cognitions and moods, such as the inability to remember important aspects of the event(s), exaggerated negative beliefs about oneself, or persistent negative emotions 5) Marked changes in arousal and reactivity, such as hyper vigilance, extreme startle response, or sleep disturbances 6) Signifiant distress or impairment, with symptoms lasting more than one month
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Dissociative Amnesia Checklist
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1) Inability to recall important autobiographical information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature, that is beyond ordinary forgetting 2) Significant distress or impairment 3) Symptoms are not attributable to a substance or medical condition
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Dissociative Identity Disorder Checklist
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1) Disruption of identity, characterized by two or more distill personalty states or by an experience of possession 2) Recurrent gaps in the recall of everyday events, important persona information, and/or traumatic events, beyond ordinary forgetting 3) Significant distress or impairment 4) Symptoms are not attributable to a substance or medical condition
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Essay Prompt 1: Describe and critique two of the following models of psychopathology: the biological model, the psychodynamic model, the behavioral model, the cognitive model, the humanistic-existential model, or the sociocultural model. What is meant by an interdisciplinary approach to abnormal behavior? Why might it be preferred?
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Biological Model: psychopathology is entirely a biological process and can be explained by physiology, this leads to medication being the sole form of treatment Psychodynamic Model: psychopathology is routed in past experiences meaning that the key to treating them is discovering those memories, this leads to a lack of focus on biological or genetic factors in a disorder Interdisciplinary Approach: depending on the client the cause and best treatment varies and usually will consist of aspects of all of the models, it is preferred because is covers all possible causes and treatments and allows customization to the client
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Essay Prompt 2: State the modern definition of mental disorder. Define and describe the “four D” model of mental disorder and state how the model assists in determining how a person could have a mental disorder. Then critique at least three aspects of the definition of mental disorder (you can be positive or negative, e.g.: is it sufficient? inclusive? well-done? overbroad? labeling? stigmatizing?)
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Mental Disorder: a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s “cognition, emotion, or behavior” that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning. Four Ds: -distinct or deviant: notably different and clearly causing difficulty -distressful: the person is experiencing negative side effects or is negatively impacting others around them -dysfunctional: there is significant impairment -dangerous: possibility of harm to self or others This model assists by giving clear guidelines by which to judge a mental disorder Three critiques: -The process of labelling is stigmatizing because it creates an us/them mentality -It is broad, some people might not be dangerous, others may not seem deviant when they are out in the world -It does not provide for differences in severity which lumps everyone into the category of severely mentally ill
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Essay Prompt 3: Define adjustment disorder (i.e., summarize the important symptoms and dysfunction in the DSM or ICD description) and give two examples of typical adjustment problems. By definition, these are dysfunctional reactions to many typical life stressors. Why should adjustment problems be considered “mental disorders”? Why not? Suggest how this diagnosis should or should not be used, in your opinion.
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Adjustment Disorder: Any disorder can be precipitated by stress; the stress disorders are mild disorders that do not constitute more serious disorders. These are adjustment disorders (AKA “adjustment reactions” or “stress reactions”) Symptoms/Problems: marked distress that is in excess of what would be expected from exposure to the stressor, or significant impairment in social or occupational (academic) functioning Diagnosis: This should not be considered a mental disorder because having moments or severe stress is normal
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Essay Prompt 4: Describe four principal aspects of a good clinical diagnostic interview. What is the purpose of a mental status examination (MSE)? Describe five categories of a MSE. Give an example of how an MSE might be helpful with mental disorder you have seen in others, and suggest what might be useful about the information obtained.
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Four Aspects of a Clinical Interview: -Conversation -Exploration -Observation -Testing Five Categories of an MSE: -Appearance -Mood/Affect -Insight -Behavior (verbal, nonverbal, interaction) -Memory Disorder: major depressive disorder
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Essay Prompt 5: Describe four of the five main mechanisms of action for psychotropic drugs and their therapeutic effects. Use a drawing to explain how they work, and be sure that at each description explains at least two aspects of the way each action occurs, and one or more therapeutic effects.
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Four Mechanisms of Action for Drugs: -Increasing/Stimulating Neurotransmission: more neurotransmitters -Reuptake Inhibition: does not get rid of leftover neurotransmitters so more reach the receptors -Increase Receptor Sensitivity: the dendrites respond more to the neurotransmitter -Reducing Receptor Sensitivity: the dendrites respond less to a neurotransmitter
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Essay Prompt 6: Define “intellectual disability” (mental retardation) (i.e., summarize the important symptoms and dysfunction in the DSM or ICD description). Describe the differences between mild, moderate, severe, and profound intellectual delay. List and describe at least three diseases/conditions that cause these delays. Give a brief description of some difficulties a mildly retarded person may have, and give a brief description of some of the difficulties a profoundly retarded person may have.
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Intellectual Disability: A disorder marked by intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that are well below average -Mild: (IQ 50-70) only slightly below average, usually little deficit in play or speech, need help under stress, improves with age, should be able to function on their own and hold a low-skilled job -Moderate: (IQ 35-39) quite below average, see deficits in play and speech, might be able to function on their own but will need assistance, may be able to hold an unskilled or low-skilled job -Severe: (IQ 20-34) with basic motor and communication deficits, increased risk for brain seizure disorder, need lots of care, can sometimes do vocational work with supervision -Profound: (IQ below 20) may be able to walk, talk, or feed themselves with training, need constant care Causes: -Trisomy 21 (Down) -Tay-Sachs is a metabolic disorder in which one progressively loses mental functioning, vision, and motor ability and eventually dies -Fetal alcohol syndrome in which a mother drinks during pregnancy
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Essay Prompt 7: Define attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (i.e., summarize the important symptoms and dysfunction in the DSM or ICD description). Discuss at least two causes. What are two social/cultural problems with this diagnosis? Describe the rate of ADHD in childhood and adulthood, and two adult outcomes of ADHD. Describe medical and behavioral treatments.
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ADHD: difficulty attending to tasks and/or behave overactively or impulsively Causes: -Abnormal dopamine activity -Abnormalities in the frontal-stratal regions of the brain Problems: -African Americans and Hispanics are less likely to be diagnosed -Medication as the only treatment Rates: -Childhood: 4-9% of schoolchildren -Adults: 35-60% retention rate Outcomes: -Less relationships -Less positive job performance Treatments: -Medical: methylphenidate (Ritalin) is a stimulant that allows one with ADHD to focus -Behavioral: parents and teachers learn to reward attentiveness or self-control
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Essay Prompt 8: Give the DSM definitions of two childhood disorders described in Chapter 14. Describe them in terms of their appearance (presentation) and associated difficulties. For both, describe “causes.” For both, describe good treatment methods.
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Two Childhood Disorders: ADHD: difficulty attending to tasks and/or behave overactively or impulsively -Causes: Abnormal dopamine activity, abnormalities in the frontal-stratal regions of the brain -Presentation: hyperactivity and lack of concentration, moving around, tapping, etc. -Treatments: medical-methylphenidate (Ritalin) is a stimulant that allows one with ADHD to focus, behavioral-parents and teachers learn to reward attentiveness or self-control Intellectual Disability: A disorder marked by intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that are well below average (mild, moderate, severe, and profound) -Causes: trisomy 21 (Down), Tay-Sachs is a metabolic disorder in which one progressively loses mental functioning, vision, and motor ability and eventually dies, Fetal alcohol syndrome in which a mother drinks during pregnancy -Presentation: inability to speak or communicate, lack of ability to play with others or reach developmental milestones -Treatment: special schooling, special living situations, therapy
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Essay Prompt 9: Define stress. What is a stress disorder? Under what circumstances does stress create disorder? On the other hand, how does stress promote well-being? Describe a treatment approach you feel is most effective in promoting healthy coping with stress (state why you feel it is effective, too).
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Stress: feeling overwhelmed (stressor and stress response) Stress Disorder: acute-an anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms are experienced soon after a traumatic event and last less than a month, PTSD-an anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms continue to be experienced long after a traumatic event Create: -Combat -Trauma -Disasters -Victimization Promote Well-Being: You can react quickly and get yourself out of harm’s way Treatment: group therapy-it gives a sense of community and allows people to build a support network
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Essay Prompt 10: Describe the principal symptoms of acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. State how they are different and how PTSD is of more concern. Describe associated symptoms and difficulties of people with PTSD. Describe characteristic features of the PTSD responses of people in two of the following: combat, terrorism, sexual assault, victimization. Describe an effective treatment approach.
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Acute: An anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms are experienced soon after a traumatic event and last less than a month PTSD: an anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms continue to be experienced long after a traumatic event Sexual Assault: enormous stress in the week following, stress rises in the next 3 weeks, maintains peak level for a month, starts to improve, most between 3-4 months after but can be up to 18 months or longer, treatment of family therapy because it lets them know they have a family that does not blame/judge them Combat: flashbacks, nightmare, persistent images and thoughts, treatment of group therapy