During an EPSP (excititory postsynaptic potential)
soudium enters cell
During an IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential)
potassium leaves the cell
What ion plays the most essential role in releasing a transmitter into the synapse?
Stimulating a receptor in the membrane that open potassium channels
Large synaptic vesicles are produced in the ___and are transmitted to the ___.
The first demonstration of neurotransmitters
was shown by Otto Loewi using frog hearts
The contents of a SYNAPTIC VESICLE include
How is a neurotransmitter removed from the synaptic cleft?
a&b (diffusion and enzymatic degradation)
The catecholamines (NE,DA, & E) are synthesized from which amino acid
The cell body of neurons that release serotonin are located in the
Drugs of Reward usually act to release ___ in the ___.
dopamine; nucleus accumbens
Cell bodies of neurons that release acetylcholine in the cortex are located in the
A neurons own transmitters, detected by its presynaptic auto-receptors..
inhibits the release or synthesis of that transmitter
Serotonin has been related to
A second messenger system can:
a & c (alter ion flow through membrane channels and initiate the production of new proteins)
What is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the SPINAL CORD
Repeated stimulation of neuron may cause
all the above (sensitization, habituation, associative behaviors)
The first demonstration that neurons communicated via chemical means was by
Morphine inhibits pain awareness by
Blocking MAO actions
Nitric oxide is involved in which drug action
Which of the following neurotransmitters are synthesized from the amino acid, TRYOSINE
Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Epinephrine (all of the above)
_____ is the transmitter that slows down heart rate and activates skeletal muscles
___ is a neurotransmitter that is involved in memory
Opioids peptides include which of the following
Which mechanism related to the stimulation if an action potential DOESN’T belong
Chloride channels open
Which of the following drugs would likely cause the most damage with chronic, high user over many years?
Cholinergic refers to which neurotransmitter?
____ refers to a reduced behavioral effect of a drug with repeated administration
Which od the following is true of drug sensitization?
C& D; less common than tolerance, repeated admin. may cause tolerance in one system and sensitization in another system.
Serotonin is synthesized from____ which is derived from ____.
tryptophan; ingested nutrients
Gamma-aninobutyric acid (GABA) is produced from
Administering a molecule that is a precursor for the synthesis os a synaptic neurotransmitter would be expected to
increase the rate of the synthesis of that neurotransmitter
Which of the following is true of opioid neurons?
All of the above are correct.
All of the above are correct
all of the above
Which of the following would be expected of CB1 receptors
Memory impairment results from the effects of the THC on the hippocampal CB1 receptor
Activation of cannabinoid receptors
All of the above (THC reduced nausea, results in analgesia, induced by ingestion of THC, stimulates appetite)
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin or that cause the relese of serotonin are used theraputically to treat
all of the above (anxiety, OCD, depression, obesity)
Which of the following is true of GABA in the brain
an excess of GABA may result in epilepsy
Dopamine release in the ___ occurs when a stimulates is rewarding
Cell bodies that synthesize SEROTONIN are located in the ___where as those that synthesize norepinephrine are located in the ___.
Raphe; Locus coecruleus
Morphine actions at the opioid receptor cause which of the following
inhibition of calcium influx
Based on the discussion in class which of the following drugs poses the largest health threat following chronic use for many years
Peak blood levels of cocaine were found at 100 ng. Thirty minutes later they were 75ng and 60 minutes later 62.5ng and 120 minutes later was 50ng. whats the half life?
The GABA-A receptor has a seperate and distinct sites on the receptor molecule that can bind to which of the following
valium and alcohol
Excitotoxicity is meditated by over stimulation exerted by which neurotransmitter
Chronic marijuana use in adolescents
can cause long term problems with attention and memory after drug use stops
Which of the following are monoamines?
all of the above
Which of the following never changes with regard to an action potential?
___refers to the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behavior
A key characteristic of a drug as defined in the text is that it
is an exogenous chemical
___refers to a process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed in the body, metabolized, and then excreted from the body
the ___ route is the fastest way for a drug to reach the brain
the___ route of drug administration is commonly used for small animals such as a rat
the ___ route of drug administration has the advantage of bypassing the blood brain barrier
an alteration of the physical properties of a drug that ___ would be expected to slow the onset of an action of that drug
all of the above (increase lipid solubility, decrease water solubility, decrease metabolism of drug, increase depot binding)
the ____ is the measure of the safety of a drug
___ refers to the capacity of a drug molecule to bind to a key site of action
which of the following is true of the therapeutic index?
more caution is required for a drug with a LOW therapeutic index
one mechanism for the tolerance produced by repeated drug administration is
a reduced number of receptors for the drug
an ___ is a drug that blocks or inhibits postsynaptic receptor effects
activation of a presynaptic auto-receptor on dendrites can produce a hyperpolarization that
releases more transmitter
a drug that blocks a presynaptic auto receptor will most likely
increase the release of the neurotransmitter from the axon terminal
the two most commonly used synaptic neurotransmitters in the brain are
glutamate ; GABA
Which of the following is true of acetylcholine
all of the above
a drug that blocks acetylcholine in the brain would be expected to
increase the synaptic levels of acetylcholine
an ionotropic receptor produces a postsynaptic potential that is
rapid and short in duration
the amino acid ))) is the synthesis precursor for dopamine and norepinephrine
degeneration of neurons within the ___ dopamine system leads to Parkinson’s disease
abnormal brain levels of dopamine are associated with
schizophrenia and Parkinsons disease
Which of the pairs belong together
A &C are correct
one of the oldest methods used in neuroscience to study brain function is
Which of the following represents a problem for interpreting the effects of a brain lesion on behavior
the lesion may impair the function of a distant neural structure which in turn alters behavior
infusion of ___ into the brain will destroy cell bodies through the process of overstimulation
imagine that feeding behavior was eliminated when a radio frequency lesion was used to damafe the lateral hypothalamus of a rat…..what conclusions would be appropriate?
the changes in eating noted in the first study are due to fibers that are passing through the lateral hypothalamus.
molecular biologists have tagged toxins to specific ___ that in turn will kill specific types of neurons.
an __ allows an experimenter to determine weather a lesion in a rat brain produced a specific behavioral effect.
sham-lesion control group
___ is a common landmark or reference point used for stereotaxic surgery
which of the following is an advantage of the functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI technique
the fMRI scan has a higher resolution to the PET scan
the surgical instrument used to implant an electrode or cannula into the brain is termed a
the three numbers listed on a page of a stereotaxic atlas describe
anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral- and medal-lateral coordinates
___is considered to be a histological method
All the above
the____ instrument is used to slice the brain into thin pieces for later examination
of the structures in the following list, cresyl violet stains ____ most intensely
the RNA, DNA and associated proteins in cell bodies are collectively referred to as
which of the following structures can be visualized with the light microscope
the functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique measures change in ___ to image brain metabolic activity
blood oxygen levels
which term means ‘moving forward’
the___ technique would be used to trace efferent axons from a brain region
anterograde labeling method
the key use of PHA-L a lectin made by kidney beans in neuroscience is to
label neuronal pathways by anterograde transport
which of these does not rely on destruction of brain tissue to be effective
the ___ labeling method uses chemicals that are taken up by dendrites and then transported through axons toward terminal buttons
imagine that prior research has suggested that neurons from the pareventricular nucleus project to the prefrontal cortex to control eating behavior… to confirm inject PHA-L into the _____ and confirm its transport to the ___.
the chemical ____ can be used to trace the paths of afferent axons
the usefulness of pseudorabies virus for historical analyses is
for the tracing of serial synaptic connections
of these techniques for visualizing living human brain, the first developed was
the technique of ___ takes advantage of the fact that ___ can alter voltage gated channels in neurons
the ___ technique is used to visualize axon bundles in living human brain
diffusor tension imaging
the ___procedure used magnetic waves to alter brain neural activity
transcranial magnetic stimulation
peptides or proteins can be localized in the brain using
microdialysis is not done in humans for research purposes owing to
ethical problems because the procedure is invasive
the ___ method uses radioactive DNA probe bound to complementary RNA to localize neurochemicals in brain
Which of the following techniques are not used to detect receptors in the brain
in situ hybridization
twins that share a particular trait are__ for that trait
which of the following is strong evidence for an environmental contribution to a behavior
adopted children resemble their adopted families with regard to a trait
in the ___ technique, a modified strand of RNA and DNA binds with the specific molecules of mRNA thereby preventing the protien encoded by the mRNA from being produced