PSY 223 Chapter 12 Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

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Self-esteem
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The overall way we evaluate ourselves.
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Narcissism
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A self-centered and self-concerned approach toward others.
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Identity is a self-portrait composed of many pieces, including
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Vocational/career identity Political identity Religious identity Relationship identity Achievement, intellectual identity Sexual identity Cultural/ethnic identity Interests Personality Physical identity
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Erikson’s fifth developmental stage, which individuals experience during adolescence is called
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identity versus identity confusion. During this time, adolescents are faced with deciding who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life.
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The search for an identity during adolescence is aided by a
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psychosocial moratorium, which is Erikson’s term for the gap between childhood security and adult anatomy.
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Identity confusion can take one of two courses:
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Individuals either withdraw, isolating themselves from peers and family, or they immerse themselves in the world of peers and lose their identity in the crowd.
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Erikson researcher James Marcia reasons that Erikson’s theory of identity development contains four statuses of identity, or ways of resolving the identity crisis:
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identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, identity moratorium, and identity achievement.
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Crisis
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A period of identity development during which the individual is exploring alternatives.
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Commitment
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Personal investment in identity.
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Identity diffusion
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The status of individuals who have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments. Not only are they undecided about occupational and ideological choices, they are also likely to show little interest in such matters.
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Identity foreclosure
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The status of individuals who have made a commitment but not experiences a crisis. This occurs most often when parents hand down commitments to their adolescents, usually in an authoritarian way, before adolescents have had a chance to explore different approaches, ideologies, and vocations on their own.
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Identity moratorium
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The status of individuals who are in the midst of a crisis but whose commitments are either absent or are only vaguely defined.
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Identity achievement
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The status of individuals who have undergone a crisis and made a commitment.
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Narrative approach
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This involves asking individuals to tell their life stories and evaluate the extent to which their stories are meaningful and integrated.
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There is a growing consensus that key changes in identity are more likely to take place in
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emerging adulthood (18 to 25 years of age) or later than during adolescence.
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Many individuals who develop positive identities follow what are called
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MAMA cycles (moratorium to achievement to moratorium to achievement).
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Ethnic identity
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An enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feelings related to that membership.
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Bicultural identity
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Most adolescents from ethnic minority groups develop this. Identify in some ways with their ethnic group and in other ways with the majority culture.
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First generation immigrants are likely to be secure in their
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identities and unlikely to change much.
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Asian American adolescents’ ethnic identity was associated with
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high self-esteem, positive relationships, academic motivation, and lower levels of depression over time.
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Having a positive ethnic identity helped to buffer some of the negative effects of discrimination experienced by
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Mexican American adolescents.
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Pride in one’s ethnic group and a strong ethnic identity were linked to lower rates of
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substance use in adolescents.
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Strong ethnic group affiliation and connection served a protective function in
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reducing risk for psychiatric problems.
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Navajo adolescents’ positive ethnic heritage was linked to
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higher self-esteem, school connectedness, and social functioning.
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During the twenty-first century religious interest among adolescents has
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declined.
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Researchers have found that adolescent girls are more
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religious than are adolescent boys.
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One study of 13- to 17-year-olds revealed that girls are more likely to
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attend religious services frequently, to perceive that religion shapes their daily lives, to participate in religious youth groups, to pray alone, and to feel closer to God.
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More so than in childhood, adolescents think
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abstractly, idealistically, and logically.
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Religion plays a role in adolescents’
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health and has an influence on whether they engage in problem behaviors.
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A recent meta-analysis revealed that a higher level of parental monitoring and rule enforcement were linked to
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later initiation of sexual intercourse and increased use of condoms by adolescents.
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A recent study of U.S. and Chinese young adolescents found that adolescents’ disclosure to parents was linked with
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higher level of academic competence over time.
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Gender differences characterize autonomy-granting in adolescence.
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Boys are given more independence than girls.
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Researchers have found that insecurely attached adolescents are more likely than securely attached adolescents to
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have emotional difficulties and to engage in problem behaviors such as juvenile delinquency and drug abuse.
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A recent study involving adolescents and emerging adults from 15 to 20 years of age found that
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insecure attachment to mothers was linked to becoming depressed and remaining depressed.
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Parent-adolescent relationships become more positive if
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adolescents go away to college than if they attend college while living at home.
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The old model of parent-adolescent realtionships
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Autonomy, detachment from parents; parent and peer worlds are isolated. Intense, stressful conflict throughout adolescence; parent-adolescent relationships are filled with storm and stress on virtually a daily basis.
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The new model of parent-adolescent relationships
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Parents serve as important attachment figures and support systems while adolescents explore a wider, more complex social world. Emphasizes that in most families parent-adolescent conflict is moderate rather than severe and that the everyday negotiations and minor disputes not only are normal but also can serve the positive developmental function of helping the adolescent make the transition from childhood dependency to adult independence.
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A recent study found that a higher level of parent-adolescent conflict was associated with
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higher adolescent anxiety, depression, aggression, and lower self-esteem. A lower level of empathy in adolescents. Peer-reported aggression and delinquency.
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Two countries where parent-adolescent conflict is lower than in the United States are
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Japan and India.
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For most children, being popular with their peers is a
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strong motivator.
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Beginning in early adolescence, teenagers typically prefer to have a
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smaller number of friendships that are more intense and intimate and intimate than those of younger children.
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Adolescents say they depend more on friends than on parents to
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satisfy their needs for companionship, reassurance of worth, and intimacy.
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Adolescent girls are more likely to disclose information about
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problems to a friend than are adolescent boys.
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It is a developmental disadvantage to have
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coercive, conflict-ridden, and poor-quality friendships.
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A recent study revealed that having friends who engage in delinquent behavior is associated with
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early onset and more persistent delinquency.
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Developmental advantages occur when adolescents have friends who are
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socially skilled, supportive, and oriented toward academic achievement.
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Positive friendship relationships in adolescence are associated with a host of positive outcomes, including lower rates of
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delinquency, substance abuse, risky sexual behavior, and bullying victimization, and higher levels of academic achievement.
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Adolescents who interact with older youth do engage in
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more problem behaviors, such as delinquency and early sexual behavior.
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Around the eighth and ninth grades, conformity to
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peers- especially to their antisocial standards- peaks.
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Cliques
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Small groups that range from 2 to about 12 individuals and average about 5 or 6 individuals. Usually the same sex and about the same age.
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Crowds
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Larger than cliques and less personal. (“Jocks,” “druggies”)
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Entry into romantic attractions and affiliations at about
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11 to 13 years of age.
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Exploring romantic relationships at approximately
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14 to 16 years of age.
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Consolidating dyadic romantic bonds at about
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17 to 19 years of age.
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Early bloomers
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Include 15 to 20 percent of 11- to 13-year-olds who say that they currently are in a romantic relationship and 35 percent who indicate that they have had some prior experience in romantic relationships.
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Late bloomers
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Comprise approximately 10 percent of 17- to 19-year-olds who say that they have have had no experience with romantic relationships and another 15 percent who report that they have not engaged in any romantic relationships that lasted more than four months.
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Many sexual minority youth date other-sex peers, which can help
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them to clarify their sexual orientation or disguise it from others.
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One study found that Asian American adolescents were less likely to
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have been involved in a romantic relationships in the past 18 months than African American or Latino adolescents were.
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A study of tenth-graders revealed that the more romantic experiences they had experienced, the more likely
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they were to report high levels of social acceptance, friendship competence, and romantic competence; however, having more romantic experience also was linked with a higher level of substance use, delinquency, and sexual behavior.
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Except in a few regions, males have far greater
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access to educational opportunities than females do.
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In many countries, adolescent females have less
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freedom than males to pursue a variety of careers and engage in various leisure activities.
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Rite of passage
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A ceremony or ritual that marks an individuals’s transition from one status to another. (Most rites of passage focus on the transition to adult status.
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Immigrant families
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Those in which at least one of the parents was born outside the country of residence.
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Immigrants often experience stressors uncommon to or less prominent among longtime resident, such as
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language barriers, dislocations and separations from support networks, the dual struggle to preserve identity and to acculturate, and changes in socioeconomic status.
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Living in an undocumented family can affect children’s and adolescent’s developmental outcomes through
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parents being unwilling to sign up for services for which they are eligible, through conditions linked to low-wage work and lack of benefits, through stress, and through a lack of cognitive stimulation in the home.
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Ethnic minority individuals are overrepresented in the
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lower socioeconomic levels of American society.
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Many ethnic minority adolescents experience a double disadvantage:
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(1) prejudice, discrimination, and bias because of their ethnic minority status; and (2) the stressful effects of poverty.
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Adolescent media use has
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increased dramatically in the last decade.
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Media use jumps more than
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3 hours in early adolescence.
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In some cases, media multitasking is engaged in while
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doing homework.
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Juvenile delinquent
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Applied to an adolescent who breaks the law or engages in behavior that is considered illegal.
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Juvenile court delinquency caseloads in the United States increased dramatically from 1960 to 1996 but have
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decreased slightly since 1996.
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Males are more likely to engage in
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delinquency than are females.
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Delinquency rates among minority groups and lower-socioeconomic-status youth are
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higher than the proportion of these groups with the general population.
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Early-onset antisocial behavior
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associated with more negative developmental outcomes than late-onset antisocial behavior. (Before age 11)
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Family discord and inconsistent and inappropriate discipline are also associated with
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delinquency.
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Recent research indicated that family therapy is often
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effective in reducing delinquency.
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Rates of ever experiencing major depressive disorder range from
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15 to 20 percent for adolescents.
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Adolescents who are experiencing a high level of stress and/or a loss of some types are
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at risk for developing depression.
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By about age 15, adolescent females have a rate of depression that is twice that of
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adolescent males.
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Adolescent depression linked to problems in emerging and early adulthood
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Depression recurrence, stronger depressive symptoms, migraine headaches, poor self-rated health, and low levels of social support.
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Mild to moderate levels of early adolescent depressive behaviors were linked to lower
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maternal relationship quality, less positive romantic relationships, and greater loneliness in emerging adulthood.
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Certain family factors place adolescents at risk for developing depression.
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These include having a depressed parent, emotionally unavailable parents, parents who have high marital conflict, and parents with financial problems.
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What type of treatment is most likely to reduce depression in adolescence?
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A recent research review concluded that drug therapy using serotonin reuptake inhibitors, cognitive behavior therapy, and interpersonal therapy are effective in treating adolescent depression.
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Third-leading cause of death in 10- to 19-year-olds in the United States
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Suicide
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The rate of suicide among emerging adults is triple that of
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adolescents.
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Females are more likely to attempt suicide than males, but
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males are more likely to succeed in committing suicide.
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More than 20 percent of America Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) female adolescents reported that they had
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attempted suicide in the previous year, and suicide accounts for almost 20 percent of AI/AN deaths in 15- to 19-year-olds.
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African American and non-Latino White males reported the
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lowest incidence of suicide attempts.
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The closer a person’s genetic relationship to someone who has committed suicide, the
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more likely that person is to also commit suicide.
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Both depression and hopelessness were predictors of adolescents who repeated a
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suicide attempt across a six-moth period.
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The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health identified that following indicators of suicide risk:
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depressive symptoms, a sense of hopelessness, engaging in suicidal ideation, having family background of suicidal behavior, and having friends with a history of suicidal behavior.
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The fours problems that affect the most adolescents are
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(1) drug abuse, (2) juvenile delinquency, (3) sexual problems, and (4) school-related problems.
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Programs that have been successful in preventing or reducing adolescent problems found these common components:
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Intensive individual attention, community-wide multiagency collaborative approaches, early identification and intervention.

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