PSY 105: Ch. 17 (Part 1) Essay

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_____ are brought about by something in the environment.
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situational causes
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Sets of cognitions about people and social experiences are called _____.
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schemas
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Which of the following is true of schemas?
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Schemas help us predict what others are like on the basis of relatively little information.
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If you are exhibiting the self-serving bias, which would be your most likely explanation for a poor grade on the test?
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“The professor doesn’t know how to teach.”
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The fundamental attribution error is very common because:
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of the nature of information available to the people making an attribution.
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Sharon was made the captain of her softball team due to her excellent playing skills. However, the fact that she did not display good team management skills and was not very cooperative with her teammates was ignored while making her the captain. Which of the following biases is illustrated in this instance?
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Halo effect
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The tendency to attribute personal success to personal factors (skill, ability, or effort) and to attribute failure to factors outside oneself is known as the:
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self-serving bias
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Which of the following attribution biases is correctly matched with its definition?
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Halo effect—An initial impression that an individual has some positive (or negative) traits leads us to infer that they have many other positive (or negative) characteristics as well.
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Which alternative below correctly defines a social influence concept?
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Compliance – a change in behavior or attitudes in response to direct social pressure
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Which of the following compliance techniques is correctly matched with its description?
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That’s-not-all technique—When a salesperson offers you a deal at an inflated price, immediately after the initial offer, the salesperson offers an incentive, discount, or bonus to clinch the deal.
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The foot-in-the-door technique works because:
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involvement with the small request leads to an interest in an issue.
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Which of the following was a significant finding in studies conducted by Asch on conformity?
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Conformity is considerably higher when people must respond publicly.
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_____ is the process by which communal groups and individuals exert pressure on an individual, either deliberately or unintentionally.
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Social influence
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The social rank held within a group is termed _____.
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status
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The influential “prison” study of the power of social roles was conducted by:
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Philip Zimbardo
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Which of the following is true of social roles and social norms?
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Social roles are the behaviors that are associated with people in a given position.
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The classic “shock” study of obedience is associated with:
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Stanley Milgram
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In the _____ technique, someone makes a large request, expects it to be refused, and follows it with a smaller one.
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door-in-the-face
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In Juanita’s community, girls are not expected to enjoy or excel at mathematics. Juanita’s algebra grades drop; by the time she is a high school junior, she is enrolled only in consumer mathematics courses. Which concept does Juanita’s example best illustrate?
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Self-fulfilling prophecy
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A(n) _____ is an expectation about the occurrence of a future event or behavior that acts to increase the likelihood the event or behavior will occur.
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Self-fulfilling prophecy
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Which of the following is true of the fundamental attribution error?
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It is more common in Western than in Eastern cultures.
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Fiona got an e-mail from her manager, Rebecca, asking her to meet to discuss a past project. Unfortunately, Fiona was struggling to complete a project due that afternoon and had to reply that she was too busy to meet today. Rebecca was not pleased with Fiona’s refusal to meet and told another coworker that she thought Fiona was “too busy and important” to meet with her supervisor thus she is an unpleasant snob. Rebecca is making a ______ attribution of Fiona.
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dispositional
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Perceived causes of behavior that are based on internal traits or personality factors are called _____ causes.
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dispositional
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On late-night TV, you see an infomercial claiming that the price of the product has been slashed for a special offer and now includes a bonus sample size of something that is in adjunct to the product. This illustrates the _____ compliance technique.
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that’s-not-all
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Which of the following sales techniques is based on the “norm of reciprocity”?
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Not-so-free sample technique
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According to Asch’s pioneering work on conformity, which of the following statements is true?
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Having just one person present who shares the minority point of view is sufficient to reduce conformity pressures.
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Psychologists have found that prejudice and discrimination may be reduced by:
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educating people about other groups
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Shaun is angry at the way a coworker has treated him. Shaun feels justified in his anger because “surely, anybody would feel the same way if the same thing happened to them.” This example reveals Shaun’s susceptibility to the:
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assumed-similarity bias
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Which of the following is true of the findings made by Asch on conformity?
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Groups that unanimously support a position show the most pronounced conformity pressures.
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Which alternative correctly names the psychologist often associated with a given social influence concept?
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Obedience – Milgram
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Milgram’s participants were told that the study concerned:
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learning
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Identify the correct statement regarding conformity.
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People without a clear answer are more susceptible to conformity.
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Classic experimental studies of conformity were conducted in the 1950s by:
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Solomon Asch
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In the _____ technique, one asks a person to agree to a small request which—because it is small—the likelihood that he or she will comply is fairly high.
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foot-in-the-door
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_____ refers to a negative (or positive) evaluation of a particular group and its members.
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Prejudice
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One forms an impression of another individual:
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very quickly, within a few seconds
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Which of the following is true of groupthink?
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Under groupthink, members lose the ability to critically evaluate alternative points of view.
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Which of the following potential explanations is correctly paired with the process it reflects?
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Awareness of a negative view of ones’ group generates anxiety, which impairs performance – stereotype threat
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Discrimination refers to:
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behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group.
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Social psychologist Leon Festinger is associated with the study of:
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cognitive dissonance
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Ten year old Joanne expresses her love for her mother every morning before she leaves to school. This is an example of _____ love.
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companionate

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