Pschology 101-150

The cocktail party effect provides an example of
selective attention.

Drivers are slower to detect traffic signals if they are talking on a cell phone. This best illustrates the impact of
selective attention.

Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere is called
inattentional blindness.

If asked to watch a video and press a key each time a black-shirted player passed a basketball, most research participants remained unaware of an umbrella-toting woman strolling across the video screen. This illustrated
dual processing.

While a man provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The man’s failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption illustrates
change blindness.

When working an occasional night shift, people often feel groggiest in the middle of the night but experience new energy around the time they normally would wake up. This best illustrates the impact of
the experience of sleep apnea following an extensive transoceanic flight.

Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with
REM sleep.

A periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness that involves distinct stages is known as
sleep.

Sensory experiences that occur without an external sensory stimulus are called
hallucinations.

Hypnagogic sensations are most closely associated with ________ sleep.
NREM-1

The rhythmic bursts of brain activity that occur during NREM-2 sleep are called
sleep spindles.

Genital arousal is most likely to be associated with
REM sleep.

The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every
90 minutes.

Which of the following animals tend to sleep the least?
giraffes

The best time for athletes to engage in heavy exercise workouts is
late afternoon or early evening.

People who regularly sleep less than normal experience a(n) ________ risk of depression and a(n) ________ risk of obesity.
increased; increased

A recurring difficulty in falling or staying asleep is called
insomnia.

Narcolepsy is a disorder in which a person
experiences uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.

In which of the following disorders does the person repeatedly stop breathing while asleep?
sleep apnea

Hypnosis involves a state of
heightened openness to suggestion.

Among those informed that their bodies are swaying, postural sway is indicative of
hypnotic ability.

In one study, both hypnotized and unhypnotized subjects were told to throw acid in a researcher’s face. In this experiment, hypnotized people
behaved in the same fashion as unhypnotized individuals.

Just prior to awakening Chinua from a hypnotic state, the therapist told him that during the next few days he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette. Chinua’s therapist was attempting to make use of
posthypnotic suggestion.

Which theory suggests that hypnosis involves inducing someone to enact the role of a hypnotic subject?
social influence theory

Suppose that hypnotized adults who are encouraged to behave like children are no more genuinely childlike than unhypnotized adults who are encouraged to act in a childlike behavior. This fact most clearly supports the theory that hypnosis involves
social influence.

A split in consciousness in which some thoughts occur simultaneously with and yet separately from other thoughts is called
dissociation.

If highly hypnotizable people are no better than others at simultaneously reading a book and listening to music, this would most clearly challenge
dissociation theory.

One plausible theory suggests that hypnotic pain relief may result from
selective attention.

Understanding hypnosis in terms of focused attention, distinctive brain activity, and the presence of an authoritative presence in a legitimate context, requires an integrated ________ approach.
biopsychosocial

Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called ________ drugs.
barbiturates

The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of
tolerance.

Compulsive craving for and use of a drug is an indication of
addiction.

The discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of certain drugs is called
withdrawal.

Smokers with ________ levels of nicotine tolerance are likely to suffer the most severe withdrawal symptoms when they discontinue smoking.
high

Depressants are drugs such as
marijuana and LSD.

Alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory by
increasing anxiety.

Which drugs are most likely to be prescribed as tranquilizers?
barbiturates

Morphine and heroin are
opiates.

Which synthetic opiate is sometimes prescribed as a substitute for heroin?
methadone

Amphetamines are to ________ as barbiturates are to ________.
stimulants; depressants

Cocaine is classified as a(n)
stimulant.

Soon after taking a psychoactive drug, Zachary experienced a diminished appetite, an increased pulse rate, dilated pupils, and feelings of self-confidence and euphoria. Zachary most likely experienced the effects of
cocaine.

When cocaine is injected or smoked, it produces a rush of euphoria that lasts 15 to 30 minutes. But the stimulant drug ________ can trigger 8 hours or so of heightened energy and euphoria.
methamphetamine

Which of the following is an amphetamine derivative that acts as a mild hallucinogen?
Ecstasy

A behavior geneticist would be most interested in studying hereditary influences on
personality traits.

The impact of our cultural backgrounds on the development of our personal values best illustrates the influence of
the environment.

A human sperm cell contains
23 chromosomes.

DNA is a complex
molecule.

A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a
gene.

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