PS 232 Final Exam Chapter 1

If we ask everyone in the class to describe the personalities of everyone else they know in the class, and then use these data to form a theory about the personality of college students, we are using
induction

In personality psychology, why are males and females studied as separate groups?
To find and understand differences in personality between males and females

A correlation coefficient is a mathematical index of
both C and D

Nomothetic and idiographic approaches to the study of personality are different in that
nomothetic approaches tend to be more general, while idiographic focus on the unique Nomothetic and idiographic approaches to the study of personality are different in that of the individual.

The term temperament, as used in personality psychology, refers to
an individual’s characteristic emotional and motivational nature.

The roots of modern personality psychology can be traced to

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developments in the 19th century biological sciences based on the work of
C. Darwin.

If a theory is classified as “falsifiable,” this means that the theory
could be shown to be false by some type(s) of data.

With respect to unconscious forces, personality psychology as a field
struggles to understand how and to what extent unconscious forces play a role in human behavior.

What is the definition of the inductive approach?
Reasoning from data obtained by observation to theory

An early supporter of psychological testing (and where much testing is still conducted) was
the U.S. Armed Forces.

The Gestalt tradition emphasized the idea that
“the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”

Roots of personality psychology can be traced to the theater because
only A and C

A nomothetic approach to personality
seeks to formulate general law

Personality psychology asks the question:
all of the above

According to Allport, what is the method by which personality should be studied?
Idiographic

Which of the following are accurate ways of assessing personality?
none of the above

A high, negative correlation between sleep deprivation and anxiety would indicate that
the more sleep deprived a person is, the less likely he/she is to be anxious.

If you read of a new “finding” in the newspaper one morning but noticed that only Caucasian subjects from Seattle were used in the experiment you might not give a lot of credibility to the study. This would be because of possible __________ limitations.
generalizability

In the 19th century, an important individual in the origin of personality psychology was
Darwin.

Gestalt psychologists hold a fundamental belief that
people are more than the sum of their parts.

An approach to personality would be called nomothetic if
it seeks to formulate laws that hold across individuals.

Advances in the field of biological science
have helped researchers to think more clearly about what personality is.

When two personality measures are negatively correlated
none of the above

Of the eight perspectives discussed in your text, which of the following is NOT true?
Very few of the perspectives are still regarded as useful.

Darwin’s evolutionary theory influenced the development of the field of personality psychology through
the idea that people are subject to the laws of nature, like other animals.

Research suggests that pets
have personalities that different people may agree on.

Which of the following statements is true of the unconscious?
Personality psychology struggles to understand how and to what extent the unconscious plays a role in behavior

Personality psychology that is focused on the study of individual cases is termed
idiographic.

Statistics are useful to personality psychologists because
all of the above

If you read your horoscope in the morning newspaper and feel strongly that it is a personal message about how to conduct your day, you may be experiencing the
Barnum Effect.

Margaret Mead’s view on the role of culture in personality was influenced by her findings from several different cultures that
in some cultures, both the males and the females had the characteristics that our culture identifies as “masculine.”

An early representation of personality psychology can be traced back to what?
Theater

Which term applies to the tendency to believe that vague generalities are a good description of one’s personality?
The Barnum effect

A good theory is everything EXCEPT
tautological.

How might personality psychology best be defined?
scientific study of what makes each of us unique

The notion that there are personality “types,” clusters of characteristics that tend to occur together,
can be traced back to the ancient Greeks, at least.

The Barnum Effect refers to the tendency to
believe vague generalities about one’s own personality.

Which of the following most emphasized the importance of life-span, longitudinal study of personality?
Murray

Of the following, which is NOT a source of personality theory?
conduction

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