Project Management – Kerzner – Chapter 5 – Management Functions Test Questions

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determining through formal and informal reports the degree to which progress toward objectives is being made.
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Measuring:
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determining cause of and possible ways to act on significant deviations from planned performance.
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Evaluating:
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taking control action to correct an unfavorable trend or to take advantage of an unusually favorable trend.
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Correcting:
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seeing that a qualified person is selected for each position.
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Staffing:
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teaching individuals and groups how to fulfill their duties and responsibilities.
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Training:
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giving others day-to-day instruction, guidance, and discipline as required so that they can fulfill their duties and responsibilities.
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Supervising:
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assigning work, responsibility, and authority so others can make maximum utilization of their abilities.
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Delegating:
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encouraging others to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their needs.
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Motivating:
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holding private discussion with another about how he might do better work, solve a personal problem, or realize his ambitions.
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Counseling:
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seeing that activities are carried out in relation to their importance and with a minimum of conflict.
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Coordinating:
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Professional Needs
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Interesting and challenging work Professionally stimulating work environment Professional growth Overall leadership (ability to lead) Tangible rewards Technical expertise (within the team) Management assistance in problem-solving Clearly defined objectives Proper management control Job security Senior management support Good interpersonal relations Proper planning Clear role definition Open communications A minimum of changes
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Providing Security
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Letting people know why they are where they are Making individuals feel that they belong where they are Placing individuals in positions for which they are properly trained Letting employees know how their efforts fit into the big picture
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Power/Authority Problems
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Poorly documented or no formal authority Power and authority perceived incorrectly Dual accountability of personnel Two bosses (who often disagree) The project organization encouraging individualism Subordinate relationships stronger than peer or superior relationships Shifting of personnel loyalties from vertical to horizontal lines Group decision making based the strongest group Ability to influence or administer rewards and punishment Sharing resources among several projects
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the ability to gain support because project personnel perceive the project manager as being officially empowered to issue orders.
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Legal authority:
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the ability to gain support because project personnel perceive the project manager as capable of directly or indirectly dispensing valued organizational rewards (i.e., salary, promotion, bonus, future work assignments).
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Reward power:
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the ability to gain support because the project personnel perceive the project manager as capable of directly or indirectly dispensing penalties that they wish to avoid. Penalty power usually derives from the same source as reward power, with one being a necessary condition for the other.
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Penalty power:
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the ability to gain support because personnel perceive the project manager as possessing special knowledge or expertise (that functional personnel consider as important).
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Expert power:
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the ability to gain support because project personnel feel personally attracted to the project manager or his project.
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Referent power:
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Negotiations should take place at the________ level of interaction.
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lowest
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Definition of the problem must be the first priority:
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The issue The impact The alternative The recommendations
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_____ is the right of an individual to make the necessary decisions required to achieve his objectives or responsibilities.
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Authority
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______ is the assignment for completion of a specific event or activity.
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Responsibility
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________ is the acceptance of success or failure.
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Accountability
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Barriers to Project Team Development (1/2)
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Differing outlooks, priorities, and interests Role conflicts Project objectives/outcomes not clear Dynamic project environment Competition over team leadership Lack of team definition and structure Team personnel selection Credibility of project leader Lack of team member commitment Communication problems Lack of senior management support
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Ways to Minimize Barriers to Project Team Development
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Suggested handling approaches See page 244, Table 5-2 Steps to take early in the life of a team see page 245 Project leaders hold regular meetings to evaluate overall team performance and deal with team functioning problems “what are we doing well and what areas need our attention”
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Dysfunctions of a Team
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Absence of trust Fear of conflict Lack of commitment Avoidance of accountability Inattention to results Comparison of teams that have dysfunctions to those that do not (pages 248-249)
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Leadership Factors
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The person leading The people being led The situation (i.e., the project environment or problem.)
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Management Pitfalls
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Lack of self-control (knowing oneself) Activity traps Managing versus doing People versus task skills Ineffective communications Time management Management bottlenecks
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Communications Defined
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Effective project communication is needed to ensure that we get the right information to the right person at the right time using the right media and the right format and in a cost-effective manner.
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The project manager must know:
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What kind of message to send To whom to send the message How to translate the message into a language that all can understand
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Communications
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An exchange of information An act or instance of transmitting information A verbal or written message A technique for expressing ideas effectively A process by which meanings are exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols
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Types of Communication
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Written formal Written informal Oral formal Oral informal (preferred by project managers)
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Perhaps as much as _____ percent or more of the time the project manager spends in providing project direction involves some form of communications.
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90
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Written Media
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Individually oriented media: These include letters, memos, and reports. Legally oriented media: These include contracts, agreements, proposals, policies, directives, guidelines, and procedures. Organizationally oriented media: These include manuals, forms, and brochures.
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How to Communicate (Six Steps)
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Think through what you wish to accomplish. Determine the way you will communicate. Appeal to the interest of those affected. Give playback on ways others communicate to you. Get playback on what you communicate. Test effectiveness through reliance on others to carry out your interactions.
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Communication Styles
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Authoritarian: Gives expectations and specific guidance Promotional: Cultivates team spirit Facilitating: Gives guidance as required, but not interfering Conciliatory: Friendly and agreeable while building a compatible team Judicial: Uses sound judgment Ethical: Honest, fair and by the book Secretive: Not open or outgoing Disruptive: Breaks apart unity of group Intimidating: “Tough guy,” and can lower morale Combative: Eager to fight or be disagreeable
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Techniques to Improve Communication
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Obtain feedback Establish multiple communications channels Use face-to-face communications Determine how sensitive the receiver is Be aware of symbolic meaning (facial expressions) Communicate at the proper time Reinforce words with actions Use a simple language Use redundancy (i.e., saying it two different ways)
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Barriers
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Receiver hearing what he wants to hear. This results from people doing the same job so long that they no longer listen. Sender and receiver having different perceptions. This is vitally important in interpreting contractual requirements, statements of work, and proposal information requests. Receiver evaluating the source before accepting the communications. Receiver ignoring conflicting information and doing as he pleases. Words meaning different things to different people. Communicators ignoring nonverbal cues. Receiver being emotionally upset.
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Types of Project review meetings
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Project team review meetings Executive management review meetings Customer project review meetings
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Skills that are needed throughout the project are referred to as “cross-cutting” skills and include:
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Active listening Brainstorming ideas Communication Conflict resolution Cultural sensitivity Data-gathering techniques Facilitation techniques Information management including knowledge repositories Leadership Motivation techniques Negotiating Presentation skills Prioritizing techniques Problem solving Relationship management Stakeholder identification and impact analysis
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Active Listening
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is a communication techniques that requires the listener to understand, interpret, and evaluate what (s)he hears.
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___________ is due to distractions, thinking about other things or thinking about what you are going to say next.
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Inactive listening
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Techniques for Active Listening
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Always face the speaker Maintain eye contact Look at the speaker’s body language Minimize distractions, whether internal or external Focus on what the speaker is saying without evaluating the message or defending your position Keep an open mind on what is being discussed and try to empathize with the speaker even if you disagree Do not interrupt the speaker even if you have a different position
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_________ is a deviation between an actual and desired situation
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A problem
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______ and _______ go hand in had
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Problem-solving and decision-making
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_________ involves selecting an appropriate alternative
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Decision-making
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Core Variables for Evaluating Alternatives
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Cost Schedule Quality Resources Feasibility Risks
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________-any alternative that does not have this feature would be eliminated from consideration
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Must have:
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_________ any alternative that does not have these could result in degradation of performance, unfavorable consequences
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Should have:
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_______ are usually features that are add-ons to enhance performance, but not a necessity
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Might have:
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Critical Brainstorming steps:
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Set the problem Create a background memo Select participants Session conduct
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Methods for Brainstorming
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Nominal group technique Group passing technique Team idea mapping method Electronic brainstorming Directed brainstorming Individual brainstorming Question brainstorming
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Decision-making involves:
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Establish objectives Classify and prioritize objectives Develop alternatives Evaluate alternatives against the objectives Determine which alternative can best achieve the objectives (the tentative decision) Evaluate the tentative decision for possible consequences Take decisive actions and any additional actions to prevent any adverse consequences from becoming problems and start both problem analysis and decision-making all over again
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Decision-Making Tools
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SWOT analysis Pareto analysis Multiple criteria decision analysis Paired comparison analysis Decision trees Influence diagrams Affinity diagrams Game theory Cost-benefit analysis Nominal groups Delphi technique Linear programming applications Trial-and-error solutions Heuristic solutions Scientific methods

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