It is the written media which has made history recordable and accurate. For instance, the age of an old manuscript found while digging a historical site gives information about the era in which it was written, which is not possible with electronic media. This has been quite helpful to present day researchers and history students. Anyone can anonymously post articles and raise their voices in print media i. e.
newspapers. It is difficult to track the real owner of an article. With electronic media, anyone can copy any piece of information and present it as his own (plagiarism).There is no means to determine which of the two websites have authentic data. Rumors and lies circulate all over the Internet and hence the legitimacy of the information becomes questionable. The information provided by a newspaper is usually more authentic and genuine.
Print media is also a lot more efficient in providing local news. It covers local stories in depth and carries information about the local events like a play being screened in the town or an inter-school hockey tournament. Print media does not indulge in "breaking news", and hence is free from any kind of temptation to indulge in speculative news.On TV, the quality of news is deteriorating these days because of the competition between the channels. They try to sensationalize the news unnecessarily in an attempt to increase viewership.
Printed material with moral or spiritual messages for example the Bible and those with excellent intellectual ideas have lived on. Their teachings are still relevant in today’s world. People with the reading culture totally enjoy reading printed material for entertainment purposes. Novels are good examples of addictive printed material. Some classics, for examples Sh...
akespeare plays have continued being popular for this reason.
Print media is durable, whereas a small virus or a bug in the software can erase the most important data needed from a computer. Print media has been around from so many centuries and the reasons why it has survived for so long are the reasons why it will not die in the future. In the present world, print media benefits from great innovations in copy originating technologies and innovations in the design of the printing press.On the basis of information already provided from the internet and any other information you can gather, provide the highlights of these innovations.
In 1440, German inventor Johannes Gutenberg invented a printing press process that, with refinements and increased mechanization, remains the principal means of printing until today. He first used a hand operated wooden press until the 19th century. However, in the late 18th century, metal parts were added to the wooden press to modify it. In 1800, Earl Stanhope invented the Stanhope press. It was the first book press made completely of cast iron. It had a combination of levers that made it easier to apply pressure on the sheet of paper.
Read also Salem Witch trials questions and answersThis resulted in cleaner paper and sharper impressions. After that came the steam-driven printing press. It was invented by Fredrik Koenig in 1812.
It was much faster than the previous inventions printing 400 sheets per hour.
George Clymer of Philadelphia invented the Columbian press in 1816. It was made of iron and could print 250 copies per hour. It had a series of weights and counterweights enabling the printer to increase the force for a clearer impression. It also made it easier to remove the platen after each impression in order to remove the sheet of paper.In 1824, Daniel Treadwell from Boston to the bed- and- platen press making it four times faster than hand-press.
In 1832, Richard Hoe, an American, invented a steam-power driven Cylinder press. A rotating cylinder was used to press the paper against a flat type bed. It could print 1000 to 4000 impressions per hour. In 1844, Hoe invented the rotary press. Paper was passed between two cylinders where one supported the paper and the other contained the mounted type. It could print up to 8000 copies per hour.
In 1865, the Bullock press was invented by William Bullock.It was the first web fed press where press feeds itself automatically rather than feeding by hand. Paper was printed on both sides simultaneously. It could do up to 12000 impressions per hour. In the middle of the 19th century, jobbing presses were developed. They were small presses capable of small format pieces such as business cards and envelopes.
They were capable of quick set up and quick production roughly 1000 impressions per hour with one pressman. It was also reasonably cost effective. By late 1930s and early 1940s, printing presses substantially increased in efficiency.With a few improvements here and there, this is what we use in present day printing.
Discuss the design issues involved in designing the page of a book. (6marks) A book can have a portrait format or landscape format. Portrait format is where the book is deeper than it is wide and landscape is where the book is wider than it is deep. Most books are of small sizes for easy portability. Larger sizes are suitable for reference books like atlases.
Papers used to print the page of a book are likely to have a smoother finish than those used for newspapers. This is to make the book durable.The books are then bound together to form a book. There are three types of binding: perfect, edition and saddle-stitching. Edition binding is the most durable.
The structure of a book is categorized into preliminary matter, main text and end matter. The preliminary has information that precedes the text like name of author, printing and publication details. Preliminary pages are numbered in Roman numerals. The main text is put in chapters and the pages are numbered in Arabic numerals. The numbers are often on the bottom middle of the page. The End matter has the authors end notes and the bibliography.
Text in the pages of a book runs from left to right unlike in newspapers where it is presented in columns. Text is often aligned to both the left and right margins, adding extra space between words as necessary. It creates a clean look along the left and
right side of the page. Unlike newspapers, pages of a book have long paragraphs. For instance, a whole page in a book can have just one paragraph. At times, we see dialogue presented in single lines breaking the paragraph style.
Books rarely have photographs. In case of any, they are often black and white. There are very few colorful books if any.The photographs often cover a whole page on their own.
This is the same for maps and other graphics. Compare and contrast the choice of materials for a book and for a newspaper, and compare and contrast the print finishing requirements for the two types of print media. The materials needed for a book are better in quality than those of a newspaper. This is for durability purposes. A book should be more durable than a newspaper because newspapers are printed after a short interval unlike a book that is done once.
Books can be kept forever but one can throw a newspaper away soon after reading it.The paper needed for book printing a book is likely to have a smoother finish than newsprint used in newspapers. Paper with a smoother finish cannot tear nor spoil easily as compared to newsprint. Paper required for book printing is more than the newsprint needed for a newspaper. Books are of considerate length unlike newspaper that is somewhat short.
The Daily nation for instance has 72 pages. Books can be of different sizes i. e. royal or medium size. They can have a portrait or landscape format. These sizes serve the need for portability.
A newspaper on the other hand often has the format of a tabloid.A standard newspaper like the Daily Nation is abot29cm wide and 38 cm long when folded. In a newspaper, text is presented in columns to enable easier reading. The narrow columns make writers present information in brief paragraphs of even two sentences. Contrary to that, text in a book runs from the left end to the right end though it’s aligned both left and right leaving spaces in the margins.
The paragraphs are longer than those in newspapers. Photographs, adverts and other graphics are included when printing newspapers, which is not normally the case when printing books.In most cases, books contain text only. Newspapers come in the shape of loose sheets folded together while books have to go through binding.
There are three types of binding; perfect, edition and saddle stitching. The most durable binding process is edition binding and the books that have gone through this binding are said to be cased. Books go through binding and are covered to be more durable. With reference to the Daily Nation and any book of your choice compare the communication objectives of books and newspapers. The book I choose to use is ‘Coming to Birth’ by ‘Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’.
It is a coolly stunning novel with a very stunning story that interweaves with the politics of an emergent nation, Kenya. The book has a portrait format and it’s well bound with a blue cover. The Daily Nation has no cover. The paper used in the book is smoother
and more durable than that used on the newspaper. The book is of considerable length to be able to completely tell the whole story. It has a hundred and fifty (150) pages.
The newspaper on the other hand has fewer pages. They are seventy two (72). The structure of the book is categorized into preliminary matter and main text put in chapters.It does not have the end matter but the story is well concluded. The Daily Nation on the other hand has a headline and subheadings for every new story. The book has only one story from the beginning to the end.
It’s the story of Martin and his young wife Paulina. It begins during the pre independence period in Kenya. It then goes on clearly bringing out the ups and downs of this marriage until later years where we see the two main characters growing old and happy together. The story of Kenyan politics and all the events that occur from the pre independence period to soon after independence is beautifully told.In the Daily Nation, there are several stories contrary to the book. There are stories about different people and different events from all over the world on the same newspaper.
The Daily Nation gives current information to its readers. It has news, views, features and information of public interest. This is why it’s a periodical produced at a daily interval to inform people on the latest occurrences. The book on the other hand was first published in 1986. It has been reprinted several times, the latest being in 2006. The story remains the same even after being reprinted unlike the Daily Nation that is new every single day.
The Daily Nation uses photographs, maps and other graphics to complement its stories. The book has none of these. The author just uses plain text to tell her story. The Daily Nation is rich in advertisements something that is totally not there in the book.
The book seeks to transmit enduring ideas unlike the newspaper that somehow becomes worthless once the next days copy is out. The book is like a treasure that you can keep and read over and over without getting bored but the newspaper can be discarded soon after reading.
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