Principles of Chemistry I: Immune system

Flashcard maker : Brad Bledsoe
Inside your body there is an
amazing protection mechanism
called the ______ ______. It is
designed to defend you against
millions of bacteria, microbes,
viruses, toxins and parasites that
would love to invade your body.
Immune System
The major components of the
immune system are (there are 8):
Thymus, spleen, lymph system,
bone marrow, white blood cells,
antibodies, complement system,
hormones
__________ hold up to 80% of all of
our immune function by some
sources
Intestines
In your chest, between your breast bone
and your heart, is responsible for
producing T-cells (see later) early in
our lives.
Thymus
The ______ filters the blood looking for
foreign cells (it also
looks for old red blood cells in need
of replacement to destroy and
recycle
Spleen
What is the main function of bone marrow?
Produces new red and white blood cells.
The marrow produces all blood cells from ____ _____.
Stem Cells
Precursors to different cell types:
Stem Cells
These blood cells are fully formed in the bone marrow, and enter the blood stream fully formed.
Red Blood Cells
These blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, but mature elsewhere.
White Blood Cells
Lymph is blood plasma. What is blood plasma?
The liquid that makes up blood minus the red and white blood cells.
Random bacteria that enter the body eventually end up in this fluid.
Lymph
The cells also produce proteins and waste products and the _____ absorbs these products and carries them away.
Lymph
One job of the _____ ______ is to drain and filter these fluids to detect and remove the bacteria.
Lymph System
How is lymph moved throughout the body? Hint: its not pumped.
Lymph is not pumped through
the body like blood, but instead is “pushed”
through the lymph system as the vessels are
compressed by surrounding muscles
Lymph eventually drains into the Left and Right __________ veins.
Subclavian
__________ are also referred to as immuno-globulins and gamma-globulins
Antibodies
Antibodies are produced by _____ _____ _____.
White Blood Cells (specifically, the differentiated form of a B-cell known as a plasma cell)
What shape, in general, are antibodies?
Y-shaped
They are Y-shaped proteins that each respond to a ________ _______ (bacteria, virus or toxin) and are ADAPTIVE.
Specific Antigen
When an antibody binds to a toxin, it is called a/an _________.
Antitoxin
When an antibody binds to a venom, it is called a/an _________.
Antivenom
The binding of an antibody to a toxin generally enables/disables the chemical action of the
toxin
Disables
When an antibody binds to the outer coat of a virus particle or the cell wall of a bacterium it can facilitate/stop their movement through cell walls.
Stop
A large number of antibodies can bind to an invader and signal to the __________ ______ that the invader needs to be removed.
Compliment System
What are the 5 classes of Antibodies?
IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD
Which classes of antibodies are monomers? There are 3.
IgD, IgE, IgG
Which class of antibody is a dimer? There is only one.
IgA
Which class of antibody is a pentamer? There is only one.
IgM
Which antibody is the most common in the body, making up roughly 70-75% of the antibodies?
IgG
Which antibody is typically found in bodily secretions, such as sweat, breast milk, and mucous of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems?
IgA
This type of antibody causes the release of histamine in response to an allergy. It also protects against parasitic worms.
IgE
This antibody is the only one that crosses the placenta, and therefore, the only antibody that provides passive immunity to the fetus.
IgG
There are only a handful of proteins
in the __________ ______, which float freely in your blood, that
assist the antibodies in a less specific fashion
Compliment System
Complements are manufactured in the _____.
Liver
Compliment causes the ________ of cells.
Bursting/Lysing
There are several ________ generated by components of the immune system.
Hormones
Steroids and corticosteroids (components of
adrenaline) ________ the immune system.
Suppress
_______ is a hormone that
encourages lymphocyte production (a lymphocyte is a form of
white blood cell – see below).
Thymosin
Name 4 Surface barriers to microorganism attack:
– Skin
– Mucus in nasal passages and lungs
– Lysozyme in the tears of eyes
– HCl (low pH) in the stomach
What are the two different types of immunity?
Innate and Adaptive
A hypersensitivity reaction is also known as?
Allergic Reaction
Which antibody is most closely associated with hypersensitivity reactions?
IgE
Hyperseneitivity reactions can be severe: closing airways, blood pressure drops, and circulatory collapse occur as this type of shock sets in:
anaphylactic shock
Are hypersensitivities (allergies) permanent, or can it be lost eventually?
In theory, people can overcome, or become desensitized to, allergies.
What is immune incompetence?
The immune system stops working
Which type of disease is characterized by the immune system no longer recognizing its own cells and
starting to attack them?
Autoimmune Disease
Rheumatoid arthritis and Lupus are two of this type of disease:
Autoimmune disease
These stimulate antibody production, which can last for years.
Vaccinations
What are the 4 types of vaccinations?
1. Live attenuated (weakened) virus or bacterial for virus protection
2. Inactive (killed) bacteria or virus
3. Toxiods (poisons) that kill bacteria
4. Component systems (part of a virus or bacteria)
Why are diseases such as cholera and influenza not easily controlled by vaccinations?
These types of diseases mutate easily. Vaccines typically only control one form of the disease, meaning that when the disease mutates, it can mutate into a form of the disease that is not controlled by the vaccine.

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