Pre-Ap Biology Unit 2: Biochemistry

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What is a polar molecule?
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A polar molecule is a molecule with both a positive and negative charge
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Adhesion
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Water molecules stick to other substances
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Cohesion
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Water molecules stick to each other
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Surface tension
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Property allowing liquid to resist external Force
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Universal solvent
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Water is capable of dissolving more substances than any other liquid
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Density
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Expands when frozen creates ice, ice layers, snow, ect
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High specific heat
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On a hot day water can be cold and on a cold day releases the cool
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Acid Ions
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H+
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Basic Ions
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OH-
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When mixed, acids and bases…..
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Neutralize
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What is a buffer?
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A buffer is a chemical or combination of chemicals in water that prevent pH changes because they have the ability to soak up excess OH- ions or H+ ions
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Organic compounds
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Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
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What are monosaccharides
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The monomer of carbohydrates
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Glycerol and fatty acids are monomers for which compound?
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Lipids
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Monomers for proteins
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Long chains of ameno acids
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Examples of lipids
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Oil, butter, cheese, and cholesterol
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What are the monomers for nucleic acids?
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Nucleotide
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Two nucleic acids
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DNA and RNA
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Made by joining amino acid subunits in long chains which provide a wide variety of functions in cells
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Proteins
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Made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms and gives quick energy
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Carbohydrates
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Made from nucleotide subunits which store and carry genetic information
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Nucleic acids
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Fats, oils, taxes, and steroids made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms in long chains
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Lipids
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Carbohydrates function
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Quick source of energy, bodily functions
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Lipids
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To store energy access structural component for cell membranes
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Proteins function
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Catalyst for metabolic reactions
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Nucleic acids
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Contains genetic information for every living thing
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What type of organic compound is an enzyme
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Proteins
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Primary function of an enzyme
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Enzymes work as Catalyst for the body, which speed up chemical reactions
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Three factors that affect enzyme activity
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Concentration of substrate, pH level, and temperature
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Denature
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when an enzyme becomes inactive
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Examples on how enzymes are used
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Saliva, stomach acid, and digesting food
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Lipid test
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Paper test, transparency
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Protein test
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Biuret test, turns blue
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Starch test
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Iodine, dark black/purple
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Sugar test
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Benedict test, rainbow colors (orange red yellow)
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Two sides of a chemical reaction
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Reactants and products
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Substrate
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The substance on which an enzyme acts
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Things that affect the rate of an enzyme reaction
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Concentration of substrate, PH, and temperature
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Real life enzyme examples
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Saliva, stomach acid
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“Enzymes interact with specific substances”
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True
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“Enzymes change shape after a reaction occurs”
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False
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“Enzymes speed up reactions”
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True
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“One enzyme can be used for many different types of chemical reactions”
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False
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“Enzyme reactions can be slowed or halted using inhibitors”
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True
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Denatured
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When an enzyme becomes inactive

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