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Praxis SLP 5331 Random Review

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Between 1 and 2 years, which type of skills most strongly influence the child’s responses?
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Cognitive skills most strongly influence the child’s responses.
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What type of language is English? (SOV/SVO/VSO)
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English is an SVO language, although the most common type is SOV.
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Which phonological processes should remediate by age 3?
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The following phonological processes should remediate by age 3: reduplication, weak syllable and final consonant deletion, consonant assimilation, fronting of velars, and diminutization.
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Which phonological processes should continue by age 3?
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The following phonological processes should persist past age 3: final consonant devoicing, consonant cluster reduction, stopping, epenthesis, gliding, depalatization, and vocalization.
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What are the 3 types of cerebral palsy?
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Cerebral palsy can be: ataxic (disturbed balance, awkward gait, uncoordinated movements) due to cerebellar damage, athetoid (slow, writhing, involuntary movements) due to basal ganglia and indirect motor pathway damage, and spastic (increased muscle tone, stiff, abrupt, jerky, slow movements) due to motor cortex and direct motor pathway damage.
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Which muscles contribute to velopharyngeal closure?
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The following muscles contribute to velopharyngeal closure: palatoglossus, tensor veli palatini and levator veli palatini.
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Describe the behavioral theory and its founding father.
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The behavioral theory believes that children learn only the language they are exposed to and its founding father is Skinner.
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Describe the nativist theory and its founding father.
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The nativist theory believes that humans learn language due to an innate biological ability to learn, almost like language is hardwired. This implies that syntax is difficult to teach, because it is so innate. Chomsky is the founding father.
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Describe the cognitive theory and its founding father.
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The cognitive theory believes that language acquisition is made possible by cognition and general intellectual processes. Its stages include sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operations and its founding father is Piaget.
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Describe the social interactionism/constructionism theory and its founding father.
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The social interactionism/constructionism theory believes that children increasingly use language internally to structure their actions and direct their thoughts. Vygotsky is the founding father and created the idea of the zone of proximal development (what a child can do with/without assistance).
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Describe the social learning theory and its founding father.
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The social learning theory believes that people learn from one another via observation, imitation, and modeling and has often been called the bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories. Bandura is the founding father.
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List the grammatical morpheme(s) in Brown’s stage 1.
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Brown’s stage 1: combine words
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List the grammatical morpheme(s) in Brown’s stage 2.
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Brown’s stage 2: present progressive -ing, in, on, regular plural -s
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List the grammatical morpheme(s) in Brown’s stage 3.
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Brown’s stage 3: irregular past, posessive -s, uncontractible copula
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List the grammatical morpheme(s) in Brown’s stage 4.
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Brown’s stage 4: articles, regular past -ed, regular third person -s
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List the grammatical morpheme(s) in Brown’s stage 5.
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Brown’s stage 5: irregular third person, uncontractible auxiliary, contractible copula, contractible auxiliary
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What determines acquisition order of grammatical morphemes?
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Semantic and syntactic complexity determine acquisition order.
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Providing treatment to an AAE student struggling with use of SAE will…
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-Foster better communication with peers -Improve ability to code-switch -Expand later academic and vocational opportunities
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List 4 characteristics of articulation and phonology for AAE-influenced English speakers.
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AAE-influenced English speakers will typically produce: -/l/ lessened or omitted -/r/ lessened or omitted -/f/ substitution for /th/ in final or medial position -/t/ substitution for /th/ in initial position
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List 5 characteristics of language for AAE-influenced English speakers.
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AAE-influenced English speakers will typically produce: -Omission of noun possessive (“that the woman car”) -Omission of noun plural (“he got two box of apple”) -Omission of third-person singular present-tense marker (“she walk to school”) -Omission of “to be” forms (“she a nice lady”) -Use of the perfective (distant past) construction “been” (“I been had a marble collection when I was 7”)
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List 4 characteristics of articulation for Spanish-influenced English speakers.
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Spanish-influenced English speakers will typically produce: -Dentalized /t, d, n/ -Devoiced final consonants -/b/ substitution for /v/ -/ch/ substitution for /sh/
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List 4 characteristics of language for Spanish-influenced English speakers.
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Spanish-influenced English speakers will typically produce: -Adjectives following nouns -/s/ omitted in plurals and possessives -Omitted past tense “ed” -Auxiliary past tense construction (“did he bit somebody?”) -Double negatives
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List 4 characteristics of articulation for Asian-influenced English speakers.
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Asian-influenced English speakers will typically produce: -Omission of final consonants -Truncate polysyllabic words and make most monosyllabic -Devoicing of voiced consonants -/r/ and /l/ confusion
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List 4 characteristics of language for Asian-influenced English speakers.
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Asian-influenced English speakers will typically produce: -Omission of plurals -Omission of copula -Omission of past-tense morpheme -Past tense double marking
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Which is the most effective reinforcement schedule? Why?
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Intermittent reinforcement (random) is most effective because it decreases client’s dependence on reinforcer.
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Who can review client records?
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Client records can only be reviewed by the clients themselves unless written permission is provided.
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Describe a within-subject design versus between-subject design.
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In a within-subject design, dependent variables are measured repeatedly in the same subjects under different conditions. In a between-subject design, there is a control group and an experimental group.
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What is the Hawthorne effect?
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The Hawthorne effect is the extent to which a study’s results are affected by the participant’s knowledge that they are taking part in an experiment.
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Describe concurrent validity.
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Concurrent validity refers to the degree to which a new test correlates with an established test of known validity.
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Describe construct validity.
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Construct validity refers to the degree to which test scores are consistent with theoretical constructs of concepts.
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Describe content validity.
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Content validity refers to how the test is measuring what the test purports to measure and whether the items adequately sample the full range of the skill being measured.
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Describe predictive validity.
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Predictive validity refers to the accuracy with which a test predicts future performance on a related task.
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What is the most effective treatment method for a child with multiple sound-production errors?
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The most effective treatment for a child with multiple sound-production errors is to delineate phonological processes in operation and address them through minimal-contrast pairs.
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What is the drawback to using imitation in treatment?
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The drawback to using imitation in treatment is that it lacks communicative intent.
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Which phonological processes most significantly affect intelligibility?
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Fronting and final consonant deletion most significantly affect intelligibility.
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What is the focus on cognitive therapy in regard to stuttering?
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The focus of cognitive therapy is to focus on changing distorted beliefs about self-efficacy and the need to speak with complete fluency.
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Which muscle opposes velopharyngeal closure?
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The palatoglossus opposes velopharyngeal closure.
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What should you think of when considering mixed transcortical aphasia?
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Consider the following for mixed transcortical aphasia: -Nonfluent -Watershed areas/arterial border zone -Severe echolalia and reading/writing difficulties -Unimpaired automatics -Associated with bilateral UMN and visual field deficits
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Name the lesion site for Broca’s aphasia.
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Broca’s aphasia is due to damage to the posterior inferior frontal gyrus.
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Name the lesion site for transcortical motor aphasia.
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Transcortical motor aphasia is due to damage to the anterior superior frontal lobe.
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Name the lesion site for global aphasia.
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Global aphasia is due to extensive damage to the perisylvian region.
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Name the lesion site for Wernicke’s aphasia.
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Wernicke’s aphasia is due to damage to the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus.
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Name the lesion site for transcortical sensory aphasia.
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Transcortical sensory aphasia is due to damage to the temporoparietal region.
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Name the lesion site for conduction aphasia.
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Conduction aphasia is due to damage to the arcuate fasciculus and/or supramarginal gyrus.
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Name the lesion site for subcortical aphasia.
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Subcortical aphasia is due to damage in the basal ganglia and thalamus.
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Name the lesion site for mixed transcortical aphasia.
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Mixed transcortical aphasia is due to damage in the watershed areas/arterial border zone.
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Name the 3 steps involved in treatment for apraxia of speech.
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The 3 steps involved in treatment for apraxia of speech include the following: 1. Audio-visual stimulation 2. Oral-motor repetition 3. Phonetic placement
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Describe 3 symptoms you’d expect with a unilateral brainstem lesion.
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With a unilateral brainstem lesion, you’d expect the following: -Unilateral weakness/atrophy/fasciculations to tongue and lower face -Unilateral vocal fold weakness -Nasal regurgitation
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What could you expect after several hours of continuous music above 100dB SPL?
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After several hours of continuous music above 100dB SPL, you could expect that they will most likely have tinnitus and a temporary shift in high frequency sounds.
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How would you avoid overreferrals when doing audiology screening?
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You could avoid overreferrals when doing audiology screenings by retesting in 3-5 weeks due to temporary ear problems.
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Describe rollover.
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Rollover occurs in retrocochlear hearing losses because of a stressed auditory nerve that can’t function well after continued exposure, causing terrible word recognition scores.
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What would you expect with otosclerosis?
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With otosclerosis, you would expect sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, and tinnitus.
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List the varying degrees of hearing loss.
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Normal (-10-15) Slight (16-25) Mild (25-40) Moderate (41-55) Moderately-severe (56-70) Severe (71-90) Profound (91+)
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What contributes to UES opening?
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Partial relaxation of the cricopharyngeal portion of the inferior constrictor muscle and superior and anterior hyolaryngeal excursion contribute to UES opening.
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How many minimal word pairs were required (according to Albert’s research) for the majority of students with phonological disorders to generalize correct production?
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For the majority of students with phonological disorders to generalize correct production, it took 3 minimal word pairs.
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What are Hertz?
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Hertz are the number of compressions and rarefactions of a sound wave in one second.
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Jitter should be less than _, and shimmer should be less than _.
answer

Jitter should be less than 1%, and shimmer should be less than 1dB.