Praxis 1

Flashcard maker : Daniel Jimmerson
The term \”Pax Romana\” refers to the period of __________.
The peace that existed between nationalities within the Roman Empire.
How did the plebeians gain the right to vote and hold political office in the Roman Republic?
They threatened to leave Rome and build a new city.
What was the result of the civil wars between leaders of the wealthy and lower classes in Rome during the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. (200-1 B.C.)?
Victorious generals became dictators.
What was the basic cause of the Punic Wars?
The cause was a clash between Carthage and Roman over the control of Sicily. Rome won.
Which of the following Roman principles has become a part of the legal system of the United States?
Innocent until proven guilty.
Why was the Roman Empire divided in half during the 3rd century A.D.?
To make it easier to administer.
Many small city-states developed in ancient Greece largely because __________.
The Greek peninsula is divided by mountains and inlets that separated people.
Which of the following is a major contribution of ancient Athens to Western civilization?
democracy
The Minoan culture, located on the island of Crete, __________.
created the first written literature of the ancient world
As a result of the Persian Wars of the 5th century B.C. __________.
the influence of Athens increased in Greece
The polis or city-state of ancient Greece was __________.
a city and the agricultural lands surrounding it
Which was the most important reason for the Greek colonization of the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas between 800 and 600 B.C.?
a shortage of land for the growing population in greece
Trade developed early and was very important to the people of Sumer because they __________.
they lacked needed natural resources such as stone, wood, metal
The civilization in Southwest Asia that lasted for the longest time was that of the __________.
persian empire
Cuneiform writing originated with the Sumerians about 5,300 years ago. The adoption of cuneiform writing by the Babylonians, Assyrians, and Hittites is an example of __________.
cultural diffusion
All of the following are necessary for a Neolithic culture to evolve into a civilization, EXCEPT __________.
the development of a system of public education for the community
The great pyramids at Giza are remarkable structures because __________.
they were the most massive man-made structures until the 20th century
The discovery of Hammurabi’s law code was an important archaeological find because it __________.
What was a RESULT of the Crusades?
In Roman times most people lived in small cities, while during the Middle Ages most people lived in the countryside. All of the following are reasons for this change EXCEPT __________.
A CAUSE of the First Crusade was the __________.
During the Early Middle Ages in Europe __________.
What contribution did the Catholic Church make to society during the early Middle Ages?
Charlemagne was able to __________.
Why was the period in Europe called the ‘Dark Ages’?
The Holy Roman Empire included most of modern __________.
Three of the following methods were used by medieval French kings to increase their power. Which was NOT?
The English Parliament was able to win new rights during the Middle Ages because __________.
The signing of the Magna Carta in 1215 by King John of England __________.
During the 700s, most of Spain was conquered by the __________.
A CAUSE of the Hundred Years’ War was the __________.
The ancient long-distance, overland trade route connecting China to Western Asia, and on to Europe and the Mediterranean region was known as the __________.
Chinese religious practice
Why has the Huang He (Yellow River) been called China’s Sorrow?
Rice cultivation is widely practiced in almost every part of Asia, including China. But in the northern part of China Proper wheat is more often grown instead of rice. What accounts for this exception?
The Chinese considered all foreigners to be uncivilized and inferior to themselves. They regarded foreigners to be __________.
How did Legalism influence Chinese society during its dynastic era?
What major contribution did Confucius make to the cultural development of China?
During the 18th century, the ideas of the Enlightenment caused __________.
The year 1789 is an important date in the history of civilization. In that year __________.
Three of the following were immediate results of the French Revolution. Which was NOT?
Enlightenment philosophers believed that governments should __________.
Which group contains the names of three Latin American \”freedom fighters\” of the Independence era?
The Thirteen American Colonies declared their independence from Great Britain because Britain __________.
The American Revolution has been important in world history because it __________.
Napoleon’s Continental System was designed to __________.
Which religion became the strongest rival of Christianity in the Mediterranean area during the time of the Byzantine Empire?
Capital of Eastern Roman Empire?
What service did the Byzantine Empire perform for European civilization?
As compared to the cities of Western Europe, Constantinople, during the early Middle Ages (500-1000 A.D.), __________.
The Justinian Code is important because it was a collection of the __________.
What issue was the most important cause of the split between the eastern and western halves of the Christian church?
One of the most important events in Islam, the Hegira, refers to Muhammad’s __________.
The Koran, the holy book of the religion of Islam, __________.
In the 10 years after Muhammad’s death, Islam was spread throughout the Middle East primarily by __________.
A city in the Middle East that is sacred to Jews, Arabs, and Christians is __________.
Islam was FIRST introduced into India by Arab __________.
The inclusion of Arabic words in Turkish and Farsi, and the use of the Arabic alphabet to write the Turkish and the Persian languages many centuries ago, are examples of __________.
Which provided the first source of power for factory machines during the Industrial Revolution?
What idea was proposed by 19th-century socialists?
One reason why the Industrial Revolution began in England is because that country __________.
The factory system first affected the production of __________.
Which was a MAJOR reason for the creation of corporations?
The Industrial Revolution increased the power and wealth of __________.
The Industrial Revolution is the name given to the change from the small-scale production of goods by hand to the __________.
During their period of rule, the Ottoman sultans ruled over one of the largest empires in history. The Ottoman sultans extended their empire beyond the Middle East by occupying land in __________.
Akbar is regarded as one of the greatest of the Islamic rulers of India because he __________.
What do the Indian rulers Babur, Akbar, and Shah Jahan have in common?
Suleiman the Magnificent tried, but failed, to capture the city of __________.
Which policies enacted by Genghis Khan aided the development of Mongolian society?
The Mongolians were a nomadic people that lived in the harsh climate of Central Asia. What was the basis of their economy?
Which of the following is NOT a reason why the Mongolians were able to conquer such a vast area of land?
The Byzantine Empire was finally destroyed by who?
Turks.
Which was NOT a reason why the Emperor Constantine selected the ancient town of Byzantium as the site for his new capital of Constantinople?
Its nearness to Rome would facilitate communications with the Western Empire.
Three of the following were strengths which enabled the Byzantine Empire to last for over 1,000 years. Which was NOT?
A well-trained and loyal army defended the empire
Why did Diocletian divide the Roman Empire into eastern and western sections in 285 A.D.?
Civil wars and foreign invasions showed that the empire had become too large to be ruled by one person.
What was a RESULT of Justinian’s attempt to reunite the eastern and western halves of the old Roman Empire?
The attempt led to a return of prosperity to Rome and Italy.
One reason the Byzantine Empire outlived the Western Roman Empire was that __________.
Its navy was able to control the seas bordering the empire
The investiture struggle in the Holy Roman Empire __________.
Led to the calling of the Crusades
Three of the following were results of the Hundred Years’ War. Which was NOT?
The French limited papal control by establishing a national \”Gallican\” Church.
One reason why Germany did NOT become a strong unified state during the Middle Ages was because __________.
Holy Roman emperors spent more time trying to conquer Italy than to unify Germany.
The Wars of the Roses were fought between __________.
Rivals for the English throne
The Magna Carta contained the principle that __________.
The monarch could not tax without the consent of the nobility
As a RESULT of the Hundred Years’ War __________.
England lost nearly all of its possessions in France
Three of the following caused conflicts between national monarchies and the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. Which did NOT?
Monarchs often demanded that they be chosen as pope.
Three of the following enabled Philip II \”Augustus\” to strengthen the French monarchy. Which did NOT?
He defeated attempts by England and the Holy Roman Empire to dominate France.
When nations try to maintain the balance of power they __________.
Try to prevent domination by one country.
Which was a basic CAUSE of the American Revolution?
Britain’s decision to tighten its control over the Thirteen Colonies.
During the European Enlightenment the democratic idea emerged that governments get their power from __________.
The will of the people.
Simon Bolivar dreamed of a United States of South America. Besides geography, which factor made that dream impossible?
All of the above: The new governments were having financial difficulties; there was jealousy and distrust among the national leaders; Bolivar himself became a dictator.
The Reign of Terror during the French Revolution led to the __________.
Execution of thousands of people suspected of treason.
John Locke’s First and Second Treatises on Government were written in defense of which event?
Glorious Revolution.
How did Napoleon come to power?
Overthrow of the French government.
The Thirteen American Colonies opposed the Sugar Act, Stamp Act, and Tea Act because these acts __________.
Violated the right of no taxation without representation.
Both the American Revolution of 1776 and the French Revolution of 1789 were partially caused by __________.
Unfair taxes.
Three of the following improvements in agriculture that helped to bring on the Agricultural Revolution are correctly paired with their inventor or discoverer. Which is NOT?
Seed Drill – Charles Townshend.
The Industrial Revolution resulted in __________.
The movement of people to the cities.
Which is NOT a basic idea of Marxism?
The establishment of a communist society will be achieved democratically by the working class through their use of the ballot.
In which country did the Industrial Revolution occur LAST?
Russia.
During the 19th century, what was a MAJOR purpose of pools, trusts, and cartels?
Reduce competition between businesses.
Three of the following are reasons why the Industrial Revolution began in England. Which is NOT?
England’s colonies provided markets for manufactured goods.
The use of mass production __________.
Made production faster and cheaper.
The Commercial Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries led to the Industrial Revolution by __________.
Promoting democracy in European nations.
As a result of the Industrial Revolution there was an increase in the __________.
Production of goods.
Many Greek city-states encouraged migration to areas outside of Greece during the 8th and 7th centuries B.C. in order to __________.
Ease discontent caused by a maldistribution of land and an increase in poverty.
A characteristic of the Minoan civilization was its __________.
Development of a network of trade throughout the Mediterranean region.
How were the people of ancient Greece affected by the geography of their homeland?
The difficulty of transportation led to the creation of many isolated communities.
Which of the following was a feature of Athenian democracy during the 5th century B.C.?
All male citizens could vote in the city assembly regardless of wealth.
A polis of ancient Greece was a __________.
Politically independent unit that included a city and surrounding land.
As a result of the Peloponnesian War, Sparta __________.
Dominated Greece for a number of years.
As a result of the Persian Wars of the 5th century B.C. __________.
Athens took the lead in organizing an alliance of Greek city-states against further attacks by the Persian Empire.
Alexander the Great’s conquest of the Persian Empire resulted in __________.
A period of cultural diffusion between Greece and the Near East.
As a result of the Peloponnesian Wars __________.
Sparta attempted to dominate the former city-states of the Athenian Empire.
Which of the ancient civilizations developed an empire that controlled the most land?
Persians.
The Fertile Crescent was a major means of migration in ancient times because __________.
It’s the shortest distance between Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean Sea.
A major contribution of the Jews of ancient times was the __________.
Concept of one God and an ethical code.
The Middle East has been a crossroads of invasions and conquests for most of written history. However, one ancient civilization lasted for more than a thousand years before being conquered by invaders. Which of the following ancient civilizations of the Middle East lasted for over a thousand years before being conquered?
Sumerians.
A necessary precondition for a Neolithic village to become a civilization in prehistory was the __________.
Production of an agricultural surplus.
The conquest of one culture by another usually resulted in all of the following, EXCEPT __________.
Adoption of cultural characteristics of the conquerors by the vanquished.
The use of iron for tools and weapons developed later than the use of copper because iron __________.
Requires a very high temperature to melt.
Which culture is MOST closely associated with seafaring, trading, and establishing colonies on other continents that border the Mediterranean Sea?
Phoenicians.
Medieval European cities usually grew __________.
Along trade routes.
Which helped to bring about an increase of trade within Western Europe during the 11th and 12th centuries?
Increase in population.
Feudalism arose in Western Europe because __________.
There was a need for law and order.
The Black Death was __________.
A disease that killed millions of Europeans during the 14th century.
Peasants on a typical medieval manor lacked incentives to use new farming methods to produce a surplus of crops because __________.
The soil and climate of Western Europe discouraged the introduction of new methods.
What was an INDIRECT RESULT of the Crusades on Europe?
Decline of feudalism.
Three of the following were accomplished by Charlemagne. Which was NOT?
He succeeded in driving the Muslims out of North Africa.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Merovingian dynasty of the Franks __________.
Ruled over a kingdom including most of modern-day France, the Low Countries, and western Germany.
The Hanseatic League was created to __________.
Promote the trade of cities along the North and Baltic Seas.
How did Daoism influence Chinese society during its dynastic era?
It offered an alternative to Confucianism by emphasizing the individual.
Settled agriculture was FIRST seen in China around __________.
5000 B.C.
Why do more than 90 percent of the people in China live in the eastern third of the country?
All of the above- The Gobi Desert makes the north central area unfit for agriculture; The rugged hills and mountains of the west make that area unfit for agriculture; The eastern third of the country is the most suitable for agriculture.
In Confucianism’s four-class system, which group sat at the top of the hierarchy?
Scholars.
Which of the following was NOT a principle of Confucianism?
Individual rights.
Which of the following mountain ranges separate China from India?
Himalayas.
Which of the following developments is an example of cultural diffusion?
Buddhism, which originated in India, was brought to China around the 1st century A.D.
Which of the following inventions originated in ancient China?
All of the above.
China’s diverse topography and location have resulted in which of the following developments?
Its relative isolation throughout its long history.
Which major religion was born during a time when the Roman Empire was near its height?
Christianity.
Augustus is an important figure in Roman history because he __________.
Began two centuries of peace and economic prosperity.
As a result of the Punic Wars, Rome __________.
Won control over the western Mediterranean.
What factor was important for the creation and maintenance of the Pax Romana?
The establishment of a uniform legal code throughout the empire.
What advantage did the Germanic tribes have in their conflict with the Roman Empire during the 3rd to 5th centuries A.D.?
Nearly every German male was a trained warrior.
The creation of the First and Second Triumvirates in Rome during the 1st century B.C. is evidence that __________.
Military leaders illegally seized power and dominated the Roman Republic.
Three of the following contributed to the end of the Pax Romana (3rd century A.D.). Which one did NOT?
A 20-year plague weakened the Roman army and demoralized the civilian population.
Which was an important cause of the decline of the Roman Empire?
Revolts by the Senate against emperors.

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