POS2041 Revel Chp 5-10 – Flashcards

question
When the variability of individual public opinion is taken and averaged out, what can be said about overall public opinion over time?
answer
The general stability and consistency of opinions indicates a rational public.
question
What is public opinion?
answer
Attitudes expressed by ordinary people on various political topics.
question
Which of the following would be least likely to influence a respondent's answer about proposed abortion legislation?
answer
Citizenship
question
In a true democracy, there must be a close match between ______, government policies, and actions, at least in the long run.
answer
Public Opinion
question
On the assumption of _______, opinion changes for perfectly understandable reasons, such as dramatic events, new information, or changes in perspective among American leaders.
answer
A rational public
question
The process by which individuals come to have certain core beliefs and political attitudes is generally referred to as...
answer
Political Socialization
question
A system of interrelated and coherently organized political beliefs and attitudes is...
answer
Political Ideology
question
If you were reading an article in Time magazine about public opinion on the president's proposal to increase the estate tax, you should keep in mind that...
answer
...changes in question wording can make a big difference in the survey results
question
Why does timing of an election poll matter?
answer
If the poll is conducted too far away from the election the results may not be accurate.
question
Which of the following questions has the most neutral phrasing?
answer
"Do you favor government efforts to reduce smoking?"
question
When we look at colleges and universities as a source of political socialization, we find that students become, on average, more ______ as they near graduation.
answer
Liberal
question
Adam grew up in a suburb, preferred to play outside rather than inside, attended public school, and regularly attended worship services with his mom and dad. Which of these factors is most likely to inform Adam's political views?
answer
Living with both his mom and dad
question
Declining trust in government has contributed to...
answer
...declining public support for policies viewed as contributing to social inequality of economic instability
question
Why are surveys never perfect even with proper sampling?
answer
Perfect random sampling is not feasible
question
An example of Asian Americans taking a liberal stance in terms of government would be...
answer
...supporting universal healthcare
question
In the age of the Internet, which media has the central role of gathering and reporting serious political and governmental news?
answer
The mainstream media
question
_______ is the process of bring public attention to specific issues by providing extensive coverage of those issues and ignoring other issues.
answer
Agenda Setting
question
What is a standard treatment of the media under authoritarian regimes?
answer
Censorship
question
Critics of the media election coverage complain that it does not pay enough attention to the...
answer
...policy positions of the candidates
question
News media in the United States are dominated by...
answer
Corporate Ownership
question
The heavy reliance on official sources means that government officials may often be able to control, to a large extent, __________.
answer
what journalists report and how the report it
question
Why is it important for citizens in a democracy to have good information about politics and policies?
answer
A democracy requires accurate information so that people can make informed decisions about their government.
question
Given current standards of popular reporting, which of the following would be the least newsworthy, meaning which is likely to get the least media coverage?
answer
Substantive policy issues
question
One reason mainstream news organizations remain the most important institutions in setting the agenda of American politics is that...
answer
...many of the alternative sources on the Internet reach only small and fragmented audiences
question
__________ is news reported with no evaluative language.
answer
Objective journalism
question
Which of the following is an example of recent changes in the media to help maintain profits?
answer
Closing down foreign bureaus
question
Democratic societies, such as the United States, assume that...
answer
...government officials should be subject to the scrutiny and review of the media
question
How did the media influence the American public's feelings regarding the Vietnam War?
answer
Graphic images of the war turned American sentiment against the war
question
Which of the following is an example of framing?
answer
The way a story is portrayed on the evening news
question
How can agenda setting affect public policy?
answer
The public tends to evaluate political leaders based on the items emphasized by the media.
question
Which of the following is the largest source of campaign donations?
answer
Business groups
question
Voluntary associations that seek to influence government are called...
answer
Interest Groups
question
In The Federalist No. 10, James Madison addresses
answer
the "evils of factions"
question
The Sierra Club runs ads showing how the building of a new power plant will negatively affect the air and water quality in local neighborhoods. This is an example of how interest groups can...
answer
...educate the public to shape public opinion
question
The argument that every group in the American system has opportunity to be heard is based on...
answer
...access points for influence at different levels and branches of government.
question
Which of the following is true of interest groups?
answer
They try to affect political policy by taking their case to members of the legislature
question
If a new government policy imposes higher taxes on the sale of gasoline, and soon after many new interest groups are created supporting fewer regulations on gasoline produces and distributors, this is the best examples of what in practice?
answer
Disturbance Theory
question
Over time, the buildup of special protections, privileges, and treatments in society results in...
answer
...resistance to change
question
One reason for the decline in the political power of organized labor is...
answer
...a decline in union membership, and organized efforts by business to undermine union organization drives
question
The National Rifle Association works to advance the protection of gun ownership by all citizens. The political influence of the NRA illustrates...
answer
..the ability of a small but influential group to influence public policy
question
Public interest groups work to gain protection for goods that benefit all of society and cannot be withheld from anyone. Which of the following is an example?
answer
Clean air
question
When an interest group launches a publicity campaign to draw attention to the plight of immigrant workers, it is engaged in...
answer
Outside Lobbying
question
Unlike public interest groups, private interest groups...
answer
...work to achieve benefits only for their members
question
What are the two main goals of congressional lobbyists?
answer
Have bills they favor passed; prevent bills they oppose from passing
question
What is the consequence of having narrow, special, and privileged interest groups dominating the American political system?
answer
Democratic ideals are threatened
question
An interest group that grew out of the women's movement is the...
answer
National Organization for Women
question
Which social movement, first appearing in 1999, is concerned with income inequality in the United States and Third World countries, food safety, labor rights, and unfair trade practices?
answer
Anti-globalization movement
question
The women's movement was able to build on a broad network of meetings to talk about common problems, commonly known as...
answer
...consciousness-raising groups
question
What is the conscious refusal to obey a law that a group considers unfair, unjust, or unconstitutional called?
answer
Civil Disobediance
question
Socially and economically radical movements that do not win popular support and instead arouse the hostility of political leaders may be categorized as ________ social movements.
answer
repressed
question
The protests that broke out in 1969 after police raided a New York City nightclub that was popular with gay and lesbians were known as the...
answer
Stonewall riots
question
In a time of economic recession, the most probable reason the anti-globalization movement would have difficulty gaining support is because...
answer
...people are more concerned with individual survival than fairness
question
Although gay and lesbian movements are more accepted because of changing societal attitudes, one of the major reasons they have not seen more success is that...
answer
they sparked strong counterattacks from groups such as Focus on the Family
question
The Occupy Wall Street slogan "We are the 99 percent" resonated with many Americans because it...
answer
...captured the idea of the inequality of wealth distribution in the United States
question
A social movement needs to have a supportive environment in order to succeed. An example is the civil rights movement which began when...
answer
...overt racism among the public was declining
question
A catalyst for a movement can be a positive or a negative event. The important aspect is that the event...
answer
...makes movement members determined to succeed
question
How do social movements differ from interest groups?
answer
Interest groups are longer lasting and more organized
question
What most created the conditions for the major social movements in American History?
answer
Social Distress
question
What is the long-term relationship between social movements and interest groups?
answer
Social movements, if successful, often turn into interest groups
question
One of the indications that the women's movement was successful was that it....
answer
helped trigger a counter-movement to save traditional family values
question
The members of the abolitionist movement practiced civil disobedience when they...
answer
...helped escaped slaves get to freedom
question
What event helped convince a majority of Americans that labor unions were a good idea?
answer
the Great Depression
question
What is one function of the party label?
answer
It helps voters learn about prospective public officials.
question
Why would third parties benefit from proportional representation?
answer
They could win seats without having to win a majority of votes
question
National convention delegates endorse a ______, a statement of their party's principles, goals, and plans.
answer
Party Platform
question
Which electoral reform would make it easier to elect third-party candidates to Congress?
answer
Proportional Representation
question
Much of the public perceives the Democratic Party to be...
answer
Liberal
question
The _____ was the majority party in the United States from 1933 to the late 1960s
answer
Democratic Party
question
The major American political parties are made up of...
answer
...loose coalitions of individuals and groups
question
The American two-party system promotes...
answer
...more ambiguous policy positions in national campaigns
question
Republicans dominated politics until 1932 due to the _____ in 1894
answer
Party Realignment
question
In a time of ________, voters are more willing to cross party lines
answer
Dealignment
question
The New Deal coalition received broad support from....
answer
...blue-collar workers
question
In running a campaign, which group would you want to rely on?
answer
Party Activists
question
Which of the following most accurately describes party organization in the United States?
answer
The national, regional, and local parties often operate independently
question
Which of the following is a primary function of political parties?
answer
Mobilizing support for issues and candidates
question
Multiparty systems are more likely to lead to...
answer
Coalition Governments
question
Using a normal vote, Republicans would have overcome Democrats by four to five percentage points in elections between 1952 and 1972. Given that, how have Democrats continued to win elections?
answer
By adding attractive candidates who augmented their lead in party identification
question
Voting based on what you think a candidate will do in office exemplifies...
answer
Prospective Voting
question
The American electoral system is based on winner-take-all rules. These rules encourage...
answer
...a moderate two-party system
question
Congressional elections are most often won by...
answer
Incumbents
question
What is the benefit of a political action committee (PAC) receiving funds from a nonprofit education organizing group, called a 501(c) committee?
answer
The 501(c) committee does not need to disclose its donors right away.
question
which of the following is an example of a valid criticism of the Electoral College?
answer
The Electoral College makes it possible for a person to become president without receiving a majority of support from the nation's voters.
question
Which of the following statements about female voters is accurate?
answer
Women make up a majority of the US electorate
question
Individuals cast votes for an intermediary elector to the Electoral College, which votes on their behalf for a presidential candidate. In this system...
answer
Smaller states have disproportionately high influence in the selection of the president
question
What is the first step a candidate must take when running for public office?
answer
Gaining the party nomination
question
James has been putting off registering to vote, and it its finally election day. In which of the following states must James live if he can take advantage of same-day registration?
answer
Wisconsin - Answer North Dakota California New York
question
What is one advantage of fixed terms for elected positions?
answer
Government cannot hold elections only at times that benefit those in office.
question
What is one difference between 527s an 501s?
answer
501s are not obligated to report the identities of their contributors.
question
Which of the following helps explain why wealthier citizens are more likely to vote?
answer
Wealthy citizens are more likely to think they can affect the political system to their advantage
question
What is the annual limit on independent expenditures by parties and interest groups?
answer
There is no limit.
question
Which of these is an example of the use of "hard money?"
answer
Money donated to a campaign to buy television ads for the candidate.
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question
When the variability of individual public opinion is taken and averaged out, what can be said about overall public opinion over time?
answer
The general stability and consistency of opinions indicates a rational public.
question
What is public opinion?
answer
Attitudes expressed by ordinary people on various political topics.
question
Which of the following would be least likely to influence a respondent's answer about proposed abortion legislation?
answer
Citizenship
question
In a true democracy, there must be a close match between ______, government policies, and actions, at least in the long run.
answer
Public Opinion
question
On the assumption of _______, opinion changes for perfectly understandable reasons, such as dramatic events, new information, or changes in perspective among American leaders.
answer
A rational public
question
The process by which individuals come to have certain core beliefs and political attitudes is generally referred to as...
answer
Political Socialization
question
A system of interrelated and coherently organized political beliefs and attitudes is...
answer
Political Ideology
question
If you were reading an article in Time magazine about public opinion on the president's proposal to increase the estate tax, you should keep in mind that...
answer
...changes in question wording can make a big difference in the survey results
question
Why does timing of an election poll matter?
answer
If the poll is conducted too far away from the election the results may not be accurate.
question
Which of the following questions has the most neutral phrasing?
answer
"Do you favor government efforts to reduce smoking?"
question
When we look at colleges and universities as a source of political socialization, we find that students become, on average, more ______ as they near graduation.
answer
Liberal
question
Adam grew up in a suburb, preferred to play outside rather than inside, attended public school, and regularly attended worship services with his mom and dad. Which of these factors is most likely to inform Adam's political views?
answer
Living with both his mom and dad
question
Declining trust in government has contributed to...
answer
...declining public support for policies viewed as contributing to social inequality of economic instability
question
Why are surveys never perfect even with proper sampling?
answer
Perfect random sampling is not feasible
question
An example of Asian Americans taking a liberal stance in terms of government would be...
answer
...supporting universal healthcare
question
In the age of the Internet, which media has the central role of gathering and reporting serious political and governmental news?
answer
The mainstream media
question
_______ is the process of bring public attention to specific issues by providing extensive coverage of those issues and ignoring other issues.
answer
Agenda Setting
question
What is a standard treatment of the media under authoritarian regimes?
answer
Censorship
question
Critics of the media election coverage complain that it does not pay enough attention to the...
answer
...policy positions of the candidates
question
News media in the United States are dominated by...
answer
Corporate Ownership
question
The heavy reliance on official sources means that government officials may often be able to control, to a large extent, __________.
answer
what journalists report and how the report it
question
Why is it important for citizens in a democracy to have good information about politics and policies?
answer
A democracy requires accurate information so that people can make informed decisions about their government.
question
Given current standards of popular reporting, which of the following would be the least newsworthy, meaning which is likely to get the least media coverage?
answer
Substantive policy issues
question
One reason mainstream news organizations remain the most important institutions in setting the agenda of American politics is that...
answer
...many of the alternative sources on the Internet reach only small and fragmented audiences
question
__________ is news reported with no evaluative language.
answer
Objective journalism
question
Which of the following is an example of recent changes in the media to help maintain profits?
answer
Closing down foreign bureaus
question
Democratic societies, such as the United States, assume that...
answer
...government officials should be subject to the scrutiny and review of the media
question
How did the media influence the American public's feelings regarding the Vietnam War?
answer
Graphic images of the war turned American sentiment against the war
question
Which of the following is an example of framing?
answer
The way a story is portrayed on the evening news
question
How can agenda setting affect public policy?
answer
The public tends to evaluate political leaders based on the items emphasized by the media.
question
Which of the following is the largest source of campaign donations?
answer
Business groups
question
Voluntary associations that seek to influence government are called...
answer
Interest Groups
question
In The Federalist No. 10, James Madison addresses
answer
the "evils of factions"
question
The Sierra Club runs ads showing how the building of a new power plant will negatively affect the air and water quality in local neighborhoods. This is an example of how interest groups can...
answer
...educate the public to shape public opinion
question
The argument that every group in the American system has opportunity to be heard is based on...
answer
...access points for influence at different levels and branches of government.
question
Which of the following is true of interest groups?
answer
They try to affect political policy by taking their case to members of the legislature
question
If a new government policy imposes higher taxes on the sale of gasoline, and soon after many new interest groups are created supporting fewer regulations on gasoline produces and distributors, this is the best examples of what in practice?
answer
Disturbance Theory
question
Over time, the buildup of special protections, privileges, and treatments in society results in...
answer
...resistance to change
question
One reason for the decline in the political power of organized labor is...
answer
...a decline in union membership, and organized efforts by business to undermine union organization drives
question
The National Rifle Association works to advance the protection of gun ownership by all citizens. The political influence of the NRA illustrates...
answer
..the ability of a small but influential group to influence public policy
question
Public interest groups work to gain protection for goods that benefit all of society and cannot be withheld from anyone. Which of the following is an example?
answer
Clean air
question
When an interest group launches a publicity campaign to draw attention to the plight of immigrant workers, it is engaged in...
answer
Outside Lobbying
question
Unlike public interest groups, private interest groups...
answer
...work to achieve benefits only for their members
question
What are the two main goals of congressional lobbyists?
answer
Have bills they favor passed; prevent bills they oppose from passing
question
What is the consequence of having narrow, special, and privileged interest groups dominating the American political system?
answer
Democratic ideals are threatened
question
An interest group that grew out of the women's movement is the...
answer
National Organization for Women
question
Which social movement, first appearing in 1999, is concerned with income inequality in the United States and Third World countries, food safety, labor rights, and unfair trade practices?
answer
Anti-globalization movement
question
The women's movement was able to build on a broad network of meetings to talk about common problems, commonly known as...
answer
...consciousness-raising groups
question
What is the conscious refusal to obey a law that a group considers unfair, unjust, or unconstitutional called?
answer
Civil Disobediance
question
Socially and economically radical movements that do not win popular support and instead arouse the hostility of political leaders may be categorized as ________ social movements.
answer
repressed
question
The protests that broke out in 1969 after police raided a New York City nightclub that was popular with gay and lesbians were known as the...
answer
Stonewall riots
question
In a time of economic recession, the most probable reason the anti-globalization movement would have difficulty gaining support is because...
answer
...people are more concerned with individual survival than fairness
question
Although gay and lesbian movements are more accepted because of changing societal attitudes, one of the major reasons they have not seen more success is that...
answer
they sparked strong counterattacks from groups such as Focus on the Family
question
The Occupy Wall Street slogan "We are the 99 percent" resonated with many Americans because it...
answer
...captured the idea of the inequality of wealth distribution in the United States
question
A social movement needs to have a supportive environment in order to succeed. An example is the civil rights movement which began when...
answer
...overt racism among the public was declining
question
A catalyst for a movement can be a positive or a negative event. The important aspect is that the event...
answer
...makes movement members determined to succeed
question
How do social movements differ from interest groups?
answer
Interest groups are longer lasting and more organized
question
What most created the conditions for the major social movements in American History?
answer
Social Distress
question
What is the long-term relationship between social movements and interest groups?
answer
Social movements, if successful, often turn into interest groups
question
One of the indications that the women's movement was successful was that it....
answer
helped trigger a counter-movement to save traditional family values
question
The members of the abolitionist movement practiced civil disobedience when they...
answer
...helped escaped slaves get to freedom
question
What event helped convince a majority of Americans that labor unions were a good idea?
answer
the Great Depression
question
What is one function of the party label?
answer
It helps voters learn about prospective public officials.
question
Why would third parties benefit from proportional representation?
answer
They could win seats without having to win a majority of votes
question
National convention delegates endorse a ______, a statement of their party's principles, goals, and plans.
answer
Party Platform
question
Which electoral reform would make it easier to elect third-party candidates to Congress?
answer
Proportional Representation
question
Much of the public perceives the Democratic Party to be...
answer
Liberal
question
The _____ was the majority party in the United States from 1933 to the late 1960s
answer
Democratic Party
question
The major American political parties are made up of...
answer
...loose coalitions of individuals and groups
question
The American two-party system promotes...
answer
...more ambiguous policy positions in national campaigns
question
Republicans dominated politics until 1932 due to the _____ in 1894
answer
Party Realignment
question
In a time of ________, voters are more willing to cross party lines
answer
Dealignment
question
The New Deal coalition received broad support from....
answer
...blue-collar workers
question
In running a campaign, which group would you want to rely on?
answer
Party Activists
question
Which of the following most accurately describes party organization in the United States?
answer
The national, regional, and local parties often operate independently
question
Which of the following is a primary function of political parties?
answer
Mobilizing support for issues and candidates
question
Multiparty systems are more likely to lead to...
answer
Coalition Governments
question
Using a normal vote, Republicans would have overcome Democrats by four to five percentage points in elections between 1952 and 1972. Given that, how have Democrats continued to win elections?
answer
By adding attractive candidates who augmented their lead in party identification
question
Voting based on what you think a candidate will do in office exemplifies...
answer
Prospective Voting
question
The American electoral system is based on winner-take-all rules. These rules encourage...
answer
...a moderate two-party system
question
Congressional elections are most often won by...
answer
Incumbents
question
What is the benefit of a political action committee (PAC) receiving funds from a nonprofit education organizing group, called a 501(c) committee?
answer
The 501(c) committee does not need to disclose its donors right away.
question
which of the following is an example of a valid criticism of the Electoral College?
answer
The Electoral College makes it possible for a person to become president without receiving a majority of support from the nation's voters.
question
Which of the following statements about female voters is accurate?
answer
Women make up a majority of the US electorate
question
Individuals cast votes for an intermediary elector to the Electoral College, which votes on their behalf for a presidential candidate. In this system...
answer
Smaller states have disproportionately high influence in the selection of the president
question
What is the first step a candidate must take when running for public office?
answer
Gaining the party nomination
question
James has been putting off registering to vote, and it its finally election day. In which of the following states must James live if he can take advantage of same-day registration?
answer
Wisconsin - Answer North Dakota California New York
question
What is one advantage of fixed terms for elected positions?
answer
Government cannot hold elections only at times that benefit those in office.
question
What is one difference between 527s an 501s?
answer
501s are not obligated to report the identities of their contributors.
question
Which of the following helps explain why wealthier citizens are more likely to vote?
answer
Wealthy citizens are more likely to think they can affect the political system to their advantage
question
What is the annual limit on independent expenditures by parties and interest groups?
answer
There is no limit.
question
Which of these is an example of the use of "hard money?"
answer
Money donated to a campaign to buy television ads for the candidate.