Political Analysis Final Exam

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A question about one or more topics that can be answered through research is referred to as a
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research question
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Knowledge that is based on evidence from our senses is referred to an
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personal inquiry
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When we rely on physicians, clergy members, and elected officials for information, we are putting our faith in
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their knowledge in those positions of authority
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What is a potential problem with knowledge from personal inquiry?
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one may overgeneralize, perceive selectivity, premature closure, and uses senses alone (all of the above)
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That positivist view of science states that
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we should only study things that can be observed and measured
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The view that knowledge is not based on irrefutable observable grounds, that it is always somewhat speculative, but that science can provide some solid ground for these speculations is known as
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a post-positivist view of science
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One of the great strengths of the scientific method is that
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it promotes skepticism about its knowledge claim
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Which of the following statements is factually testable?
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Individuals with more education earn more than less educated individuals
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A researcher is curious about why some students perform better on essay exams than others. He is engaged in
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basic research
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Which of the following would describe applied research
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The aim of research is to have practical results for use in the immediate future
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Exploratory research is
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ideal for examining unstudied phenomena
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If we are presenting a detailed picture of a population, in terms of gender, age, income, residence, we have most likely conducted
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Descriptive research
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When researchers have few cases and desire to interpret the meaning of words, they are engaging in
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qualitative analysis
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The difference between basic research and applied research is
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applied research aims to improve something and basic research aims to add to the knowledge base
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Evaluative research
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is designed to assess programs or policies
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True/False: A researcher is interested in understanding why some students choose to live in residence halls while others do not
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True
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True/False: An early step involved in doing science is to specify the goals of inquiry
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True
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True/False: The publication of research allows for public scrutiny
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True
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True/False: If we were interested in learning why individuals turn to lives of crime, we would be conducting explanatory research
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True
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True/False: Qualitative research is based on the statistical summary of data
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False
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___________________ are words or signs that are used to describe phenomena
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Concepts
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A theory
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is an explanation about how and why something is as it is
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Which of the following would be considered a variable
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employment status education religion marital status (all of these)
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which of the following is a category of a variable?
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male Asian sociology divorced (all of these)
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\”In our research, we are looking at how gender (male or female) affects the amount of money individuals leave for tips at restaurants.\” In the previous statement, ___________ is the variable, and ____________ is/are the categories of the variable.
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gender; male or female
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A hypothesis
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is a testable statement about how two or more variables are expected to be related to one another
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________________ is a statement about two or more _________________ are expected to relate to each other
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A hypothesis; variables
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The dependent variable (DV) is defined as
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a variable that is being influence by another variable
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An antecedent variable
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comes before both the independent variable and dependent variable
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A/n__________ relationship exists when an antecedent variable explains the original relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable
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spurious
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Demonstrating non-spuriousnesses means to
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eliminate alternative explanation
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When we develop ways to classify subjects to represent variables that we are interested in understanding, we are employing
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measurement
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Measurement
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is basically a representation of variable concepts
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If we approach a setting with a theory we want to test, we are employing
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deductive reasoning
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Which of the following is associated with grounded theory?
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inductive reasoning
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If social scientists want to develop or build theories about an aspect of social life that has previously been misunderstood, they might engage in
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both inductive reasoning and developing grounded theory
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True/False: If we are using the variable of \”language\” to understand responses to a survey, categories might include French, Italian, Spanish, and English
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True
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True/False: A hypothesis is a testable statement about how two or more variables link together
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True
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True/False: Independent variables influence dependent variables
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True
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True/False: Just because two variables are related to each other in some matter does not mean that they are necessarily causally related.
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True
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_____________ refer(s) to a set of abstract principles that are used to determine appropriate and acceptable social conduct.
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Ethics
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What stimulated the impetus for social science disciplines to consider ethical issues?
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Nuremberg trials after WWII
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Which of the following represents the correct chronological order of events?
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Tuskegee, Milgram, ASA Code of Ethics, Common Rule
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In some cases, research subjects have been deceived about the rule purpose of research they are participating in. One of the most outrageous of this was the infamous
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Tuskegee study
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A committee on human subjects is more commonly known as
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Institutional Review Board
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The general purpose of Institutional Review Board is to
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both review research protocol to guarantee that the benefits of the research outweigh the risk to the subjects and to determine whether subjects will be properly informed about the research
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Institutional Review Boards are found
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at every college, university and research center.
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First and foremost, the central ethical obligation for researchers is to
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protect study participants from harm
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______________ is when subjects are informed about the general purpose of the research
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Informed consent
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A written consent form is used to
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inform the participants about the research and any potential benefits and risks associated with their participation in the study
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An example of a lack of voluntary participation is when
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an individual with power over another asks that he or she participate in a project
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An informed consent form would include
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all of the above would be included on an informed consent form
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When using minors as participants, you can obtain , a form parents sign stating they do not want their children to participate in the study
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passive consent
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___________ is when it is impossible for the researcher or anyone else to connect individuals with specific data
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Anonymity
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According to the text, the two most important ethical principles are _______ and ________
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anonymity; confidentiality
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Researchers can best protect the identity of participants whose disclosure is likely to result in legal action (for example, drug dealers, prostitutes) by
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destroying all records immediately after the data is used
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Which of the following statements is true regarding research risks?
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No study is completely risk-free
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True/False: An institutional review board (IRB) is designed to make sure that the researcher will not publish false results
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False
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True/False: Many federal agencies have adopted the \”Common Rule\” which outlines a set of regulations for human subjects research
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True
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True/False: A researcher observing behavior in a public place, for example, a bus station or a public library, is under no ethical obligation to disclose to those in the setting that he or she is conducting research
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True
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Research questions can be about
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local or global governments individuals or organizations entire society local or global governments as well as entire society (all of these)
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Scott believes that the higher a student’s GPA in the freshmen year, the more likely he or she will be to graduate from college in four years. This is an example of a
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hypothesis
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Values,_____________, and personal factors are three sources of research topics
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changing social and political climate
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Martha is a researcher who grew up in poverty and has struggled to be upwardly mobile in her career. Her research questions now center on the experiences and struggles of those currently in poverty. Because of her background, Martha should make sure her research is……
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value-free
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Before the 1970s,
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few studies focused on women
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Although researchers may be pleased to receive funding for their research, this may prove troublesome because
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funders may impose limitations on the topics under investigation and the release of research findings as well as only support research that interests them in pursuit of social and political ends
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Which of the following is a researchable question?
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Is high academic achievement in high school related to academic success in college?
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Which of the following is not a common source for finding academic materials for a literature review?
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all of these are common sources for finding materials for a literature review (internet search, books, articles, government documents)
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In searching for literature that is relevant to your topic, it is useful to
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use keywords and rely on academic indexes
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The value of a good literature search is that
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it provides an overview of the current state of research and narrows your inquiry
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A researchable question must be feasible. Which of the following is not an element of feasibility?
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There must be a grant to support the investigation
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Gaining access to data means
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the ability to obtain information to conduct the study
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Some topics may be interesting and important, but gaining access to the population may be very difficult. Which of the following presents the greatest obstacles?
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individuals who are members of a secret cult
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Some research is likely to be quite expensive while other research can be conducted with few costs. Of the following, which study design is likely to be the least costly?
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using available data from a library
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Research costs include
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All of these (salaries, pre-testing data costs equipment costs, data collection costs)
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The time it takes to complete all stages of a research project from the planning stages to the final report is referred to as
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Time expenditures
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True/False: A hypothesis is a testable relationship between how two variables are related
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True
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True/False: A researchable question is usually one that other researchers have already explored
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False
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True/False: Peer-reviewed journals include articles that have been evaluated by content experts before publication
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True
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True/False: An abstract is a summary of the research article that includes the major arguments and conclusions
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True
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sampling is a way to learn about ______ by obtaining information from _____ of a larger population
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a larger population ; a subset
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A sample is
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a subset of a population
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In a probability sample, every element in the population has a(n) ________ chance of being included in the sample
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equal
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Instances where all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected are known as
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Simple random samples
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A biased sample means
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it is a sample that is not representative of the population from which it is drawn
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A parameter refers to a ____________ characteristic while a statistic refers to characteristics from a _________________.
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population; sample
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The larger the size of the samples taken from the population, the more likely that
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the statistic will be an accurate estimation of the population parameter.
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Many phone numbers are not listed in telephone books. How do surveyors combat this issue?
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Surveyors use random digit dialing to formulate their call lists
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As a surveyor, you call households on your call list and 10% never answered the call. What kind of error have you encountered?
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Nonresponse error
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The sampling distribution of any statistic tends to hover around the population parameter, especially as the number of samples gets
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very large
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You want to draw a sample of the employees at a large university ensuring that in your sample you have people represented from all personnel categories: administrators, faculty, secretarial staff, cleaning staff, mail room staff, technicians, students, etc. You want to use a probability sample. Which type of probability sample would be best for your purposes?
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stratified sample
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To improve the representativeness of samples, one can use a technique where randomization is used at several points. Sampling methodologies that use this technique include
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Multistage
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Which of the following is not an example of a nonprobability sample?
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Determinate
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A researcher hand selects elements to be in his sample based on how much they will facilitate this study. This researcher is using sampling
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purposive
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A researcher is interested in studying a small and elite population. She finds one element and then asks that respondents provide her with the names of others in the group. This researcher is using ____________ sampling.
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snowball
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True/False: You don’t need to sample when the number of things you want to examine is small.
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True
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True/False: If you sample a population where every person has an equal chance of being selected, you have a probability sample
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True
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True/False: When one is conducting a research study, it is a good idea to first consider whether one wants results that are generalizable. This issue is very critical in determining what approach is best to use in sampling
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True
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True/False: A stratified sample allows us to make certain that we account for individuals who may represent small numbers in the population
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True
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True/False: If we make accommodations to oversample certain members of a sample, we are taking a cluster sample
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True
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The strategy of how data will be collected is referred to as the
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Study Design
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Cross-sectional research
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is both the most widely used type of research and generally has large samples
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Cross-sectional designs are often used to
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test causal hypotheses
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The focal research, Moving On? Continuity and Change after Retirement by Adler and Clark utilized what kind of study design?
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both panel and longitudinal
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If we were interested in how individuals’ attitudes about smoking marijuana change from adolescence to adulthood,marriage and parenthood, the most appropriate study design would be
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longitudinal
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Longitudinal research requires data collection at least______different times
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two
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What is one way to combat issues of internal validity?
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Conduct longitudinal studies versus cross-sectional studies AND do not ask people about things that occurred in the past.
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In conducting longitudinal research, a panel design has several advantages. These include
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both the ability to track individuals over the course of time and the ability to collect data that reflects immediate experience rather than relying on individual memory
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Study A involves two samples from the same population that are surveyed at two different times. Study B involved collecting data from the same sample over two time periods. Study A is a ______study and Study B is a __________study.
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trend; panel
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Panel conditioning is
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the effect of repeatedly measuring variables on members of a panel study.
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The advantage of trend studies is that they
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all of these (avoid panel attrition, avoid panel conditioning, save the expense of finding the original participants, enable the researcher to collect data anonymously)
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A trend design collects data at different times from
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different samples
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As we administer the same survey to panel members on several occasions, there is a chance they will be affected by the questions. This is known as
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panel conditioning
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Trend studies are disadvantageous because
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they cannot identify changes in individuals and they cannot pinpoint the cause of changes
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A cohort is a group of people who
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have an event or an experience in common
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If we are interested in learning about how social and economic elites influence decision making in one city and will rely upon census data, newspaper accounts, interviews, and surveys to do this research, we are relying on the ________study design.
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Case
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If we are interested in generating new theoretical perspectives in an area where little research has been done, we would most likely use
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a case study
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True/False: A study design must balance ethical, practical, and methodological issues
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True
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True/False: If a researcher has a good idea about how one variable affects another, she will be interested in testing a causal hypothesis.
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True
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True/False: One of the potential problems with longitudinal research is keeping in contact with respondents over time and keeping their information confidential.
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True
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___________ research is designed to explain why something varies
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Explanatory
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Experimental designs have the advantage of being superior to non-experimental designs because they most clearly achieve the purpose of
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Explanation
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An experimental design has the advantage over non-experimental approaches in determining the order in which events occur and
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controlling the effects of other variables
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In an experimental design, the independent variable is
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Manipulated
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An experimental design is appropriate if it is _________ to do so
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Practical and ethical
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____________ validity refers to the agreement between a study’s conclusion and what is actually true
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Internal
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In one type of quasi-experimental study design, in place of a control group, one uses a
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Comparison group
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Experimental designs are especially helpful for determining the time order of variables and in minimizing the effects of
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third variables
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Field experiments typically have better generalizability because they occur outside an official laboratory setting. On the other hand, there are disadvantages, which include which of the following?
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All of these (Researchers do not have complete control over the setting. It may be impossible to run the experiment so that it is methodologically sound Researchers are usually at the mercy of others in the setting and must abide by institutional constraints.)
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To minimize the effects of an experimenter affecting the research results, we can use a(n)
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Double Blind Study
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What type of experimental design is best when ethical concerns prevent the ability of the researcher to perform a true controlled experiment?
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A quasi-experimental design
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A placebo
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must appear authentic and is a simulated treatment of the control group
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In a classic experimental design, it is important to take measures of control and experimental groups
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Before and after the treatment
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True/False: In experimental designs, the researcher is manipulating the independent variable and seeing what happens to the dependent variable.
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True
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True/False: In a classic experimental design, the independent variable can be manipulated, controlled, introduced, or it can occur naturally.
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False
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True/False: The classic experiment is also referred to as the pretest-posttest control group experiment.
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True
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True/False: Before conducting an experiment, we can minimize the chances that the control and experimental groups are different from each other in important ways by randomly assigning the population to each group.
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True
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True/False: Selecting treatment and control groups from the population by method of random sample increases the study’s generalizability.
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True
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True/False: Internal validity is not an issue with quasi-experiments because there are experimental and control groups.
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False
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True/False: One advantage of experimental designs in laboratory settings is that you know with some confidence that only one group has been exposed to the treatment introduced by the researcher
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True
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Survey research typically involves administering _____ to _____
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the same set of questions; a large number of individuals
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A data collection method that involves administration by a trained interviewer of a survey instrument with closed- ended responses is a
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Structured interview
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Surveys typically use large probability samples and a(n) _______ study design
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cross-sectional
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The response rate is calculated by
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dividing the number of completed surveys by the number in the sample
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Which type of survey tends to have the highest response rate?
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In person interview
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If those who respond to a survey are different (e.g., better educated, higher income, politically involved) from those who do not respond, a researcher is faced with
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Non-response bias
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Group-administered questionnaires
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are typically inexpensive and also raise ethical concerns about voluntary participation
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A group administered questionnaire has the advantage that
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All of these (the researcher can explain the survey and answer any questions that may arise, the conditions under which the questionnaire is administered are the same for all respondents, it is less expensive to conduct than mail surveys)
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The biggest survey administered in the United States is the
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U.S. Census
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Which type of survey method has the lowest response rate?
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Web surveys
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Sending a questionnaire by email
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All of these (is useful for geographically dispersed samples is inexpensive is good for large samples raises the question of coverage error)
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Refers to a change in a respondent’s answer based on the fact that an interviewer is present
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Interviewer Effect
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Open ended questions allow for respondents to answer
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in their own words
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A scenario the researcher creates to obtain information in an interview or survey
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Vignettes
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Screening and contingency questions can be used in questionnaires and surveys to
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reduce the number of questions individuals have to respond to that may not apply to them
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True/False: The most widely used method of data collection is the questionnaire
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True
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True/False: In the focal research by Lang and Podeschi, respondents were given questionnaires which contained a cover letter ensuring respondent’s anonymity
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True
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True/False: Both a respondent’s gender and race can affect responses to questions on a survey or questionnaire
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True
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True/False: Response rates among cell phone surveys are higher than among landline surveys
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True
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True/False: The anonymity of respondents of mailed questionnaires cannot be guaranteed
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True
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The purpose of qualitative interviewing is to
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understand how individuals subjectively see the world and make sense of their lives
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Qualitative interviews vary in terms of
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All of these (number of times each respondent is interviewed the length of each interview the degree of structure of each interview the number of interviewees and interviewers participating in the session)
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In collecting data, qualitative interviewing has been used in conjunction with
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observational techniques
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Semi-structured interviews
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are designed ahead of time but are modified as appropriate for each participant
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A researcher has prepared a list of topics he wishes to cover and the order he plans to ask them in an interview. This plan is called a(n)
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interview guide
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The advantage of an unstructured interview is that
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it focuses on the respondent’s understanding of the social world and allows the researcher to understand their viewpoints
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A researcher is interested in gaining in depth stories from individuals about their experiences with violence. A pilot test has shown that individuals take anywhere between 10 and 15 minutes to relate these experiences. What interview approach is most appropriate here?
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Unstructured interview
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A researcher asks participants to share a photo that \”best represents their childhood.\” This researcher is using
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visual methods
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Which of the following is not a benefit to group interviewing?
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All of these are benefits of group interviews (Group sessions are less time consuming Group sessions are cost effective Members in group can help other respondents recall information Group sessions can be stimulating to respondents)
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Locating respondents in qualitative research
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all of these are part of locating respondents in qualitative research (is not always a simple process often involves gatekeepers sometimes requires snowball sampling may entail posting notices on bulletin boards)
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Claudia is the director of an agency. She is the only one who can give the researcher permission to interview participants. Claudia is a(n)
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gatekeeper
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Consent forms
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All of these (provide information to the respondent on the nature of the research ensure confidentiality and anonymity provide contact information on the principle investigator are approved by the Institutional Review Board prior to the interview)
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Analyzing the data from qualitative interviews usually involves
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transcribing interviews from tape recordings or notes and reading this for themes and patterns
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Typically, the analysis of interviews is
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inductive
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Conducting and transcribing interviews is
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both time consuming and labor intensive
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Imagine that you have conducted qualitative interviews with a small sample of nurses about their jobs. You have done 25 interviews, each about 30 minutes long, resulting in about 20 pages of transcription. Now that you have about 500 pages of data, how would you go about analyzing the data?
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select topics that participants have talked about, create categories through coding, and after categorizing, look for patterns
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Qualitative data processing is
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time consuming and often rewarding
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True/False: Typically, ethical concerns are greater in qualitative interviewing because the personal identity of the respondent is known and because individually identifying data may be collected
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True
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True/False: Because of their high level of engagement, qualitative interviews have a high response rate
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True
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True/False: In most interviewing protocols, it is usually better to establish rapport before proceeding with difficult or sensitive topics
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True
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When a researcher is participating in ________________ observation, the goal is to remain aloof.
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Non-participant
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Collingham’s focal research used
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participant observation
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_____________ observations involve clear decisions about what kind of things are to be observed
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Controlled
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A researcher describes his observation using basic language and without much detail. He is using a _______ description
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Thin
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A researcher is watching a group of teens at the mall. She is watching from about 100 yards away. Her role is a(n)
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Complete observer
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Sally is a researcher engaging in observational methods. She is taking part in all activities of those she is observing. What is her observer role?
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Complete participant role
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What other methods also relies on observations?
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all of these methods rely on observation in one way or another
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Most participant observers practice which type of sampling?
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Purposive
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When new interviewees or settings slook very similar to interviewees or settings observed previously, this is referred to as
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theoretical saturation
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The term for a participant in observational research who is interviewed is called a(n)
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informant
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When the observed take on different attributes simply as a result of being observed, this is called
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demand characteristics
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Observational research has some potential disadvantages as well as advantages over other forms of research.
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Frustrating and energy consuming
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True/False: Observational research includes participant observation but does not include non participant observation
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False
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True/False: \”Qualitative methods\” can include qualitative interviewing ad the use of available data
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True
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True/False: Observation is useful if you do not know much about the subject under investigation
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True
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True/False: The most important reason for doing observational studies is because of their cost effectiveness
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False
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True/False: Purposive and other non-random methods of sampling are the mot common kinds of sampling approaches in observational studies
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True
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True/False: Data collected from observational methods can be generalized to a larger population
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False
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True/False: Observational research techniques are often a problem because they cause the researcher to intrude into the lives of the research subject
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True
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True/False: Thick descriptions are based on bare bone facts versus context and motives
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False
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______________ data is collected by the researcher and _____ data is collected by someone other than the researcher.
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Primary; secondary
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If a researcher collects original data for her own purposes, she is relying on _________________ to study a research question
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Primary data
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Secondary data is
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data that has been collected by someone else
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What is the dependent variable in the focal research by Martinez and Lee?
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homicide
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The unit of analysis for studies based on secondary analysis is almost always
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individuals
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Emily Durkeim’s classic study on suicide is based on
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secondary data analysis
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________________ is/are statistics provided by large organizations
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Existing statistics
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One of the most frequently employed sources of existing statistics is/are the
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US Census Bureau
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In general, the _________ in studies based on existing statistics is not the individual
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unit of analysis
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If we examined the extent of war and tear in carpeting in a museum to study the popularity of exhibits, we could be employing
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an erosion measure
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Letters, emails, Twitter feeds, and autobiographies are included in
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Personal records
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The \”continuum of availability\” refers to
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the fact that at least available data is often worth exploring
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The fact that we cannot be certain about the _________________ the available data that has been collected is a disadvantage to using this as a source of information.
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Reliability of
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Sometimes you can locate data that very nearly meet your research needs, so the issue of _______________ arises.
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Validity
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What has been the dominant mode of social science research in the twentieth century?
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Using secondary data
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Secondary data are frequently contrasted with
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primary data
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True/False: A major disadvantage of using an unobtrusive measure is that your subjects are likely to be inconvenienced
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False
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True/False: If we take group based results and infer that individuals in those groups share those characteristics, we are committing ecological fallacy
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True
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True/False: Martinez and Lee compared the context of immigrant homicides, including Haitians, Jamaicans, and Mariels in Miami.
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True
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True/False: In the focal research by Martinez and Lee, Martinez had to spend hours with police detectives who acted as gatekeepers for the data
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True
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Content Analysis allows researchers to study
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available recorded data
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Content analysis is not appropriate for
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evaluating Census data
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The focal research by Arthur, Clark, Clark and Racine used_________________ as the unit of analysis
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anthologies
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What was the key variable in the focal research by Arthur, Clark, Clark and Racine?
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the visibility of minorities in anthologies
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What was a main finding in the focal research by Arthur, Clark, Clark, and Racine?
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Some minority groups experienced gatekeeper issues and were not represented in anthologies until the 1990s
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Content analysis dates back to
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the late 1600s
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Like other kinds of social research, one of the first steps in content analysis is to determine
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the units of analysis that the research will focus on
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_______________ are the units about which information is collected and ___________ are the units from which information is collected
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units of analysis; units of observation
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Units of analysis
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are the units about which information is collected
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What type of sampling is used in content anlaysis?
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All of these (simple random stratified)
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Quantitative content analysis depends on
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the researcher’s capability to create meaningful variables
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Generally speaking, quantitative content analyses tends to ________________ and qualitative content analysis tends to ___________
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be deductive; be inductive
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Visual analysis is
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a set of techniques used to analyze images
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One advantage of content analysis is that
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it can be conducted with a relatively small expenditure of time, money, and person power
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True/False: Content analysis is a method of data collection in which some forms of communication are studied systematically
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True
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True/False: Generally, the questions asked by content analyzers have to do with who says what to whom, why they say it, and how and with what effect it is said.
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True
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True/False: Content analysis can be applied only to recorded communication
answer

False
question

True/False: There are times when the unit of analysis and the unit of observation can be the same thing
answer

True
question

True/False: Content analysis is a technique that depends on the researcher’s capacity to create and record meaningful variables for classifying units of analysis
answer

True
question

True/False: Quantitative content analysis focuses on verbal communication rather than statistical
answer

False
question

Research that is focused on the interpretation of the action of, or representation of meaning created by, individual cases is known as__research
answer

qualitative
question

____is the process of clarifying what is meant by a concept
answer

conceptualizing
question

Operationalization is specifying what particular___ will be used for a variable
answer

indicators
question

A researcher who defines \”elite families\” as those with annual incomes larger than $250,000 has___ this concept.
answer

operationalized
question

___is an example of a composite measure
answer

An index
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If a researcher was interested in creating a multidimensional composite measure of \”adjustment to adolescence\”, she would create a(n)
answer

index
question

A/n is an index in which some items are given more weight than others
answer

Scale
question

A researcher assigns her observations into categories. She is her variables
answer

coding
question

When a measure yields the same results time after time, the measure is
answer

reliable
question

error occurs when the measurement we obtain is not accurate
answer

measurement
question

A researcher is checking the reliability of a measure by comparing results from one time to another. This researcher is using the method.
answer

test-retest
question

A measure has validity if it corresponds with behavior that it is supposed to be associated with
answer

perdictive
question

A researcher designs a survey question asking respondents to indicate their class standing as either: First-Year, Sophomore, Junior, Senior, or Graduate Student. What level of measurement did she use?
answer

ordinal
question

variables are those whose categories can be ranked
answer

ordinal; ratio
question

Letter grades given at the end of the term are an example of measurements; calculated GPA’s are a type of _______________ measurement
answer

ordinal; ratio
question

The practical reason for paying attention to levels of measurement is related to
answer

summarizing information
question

True/False: Quantitative research is focused on variables, including their description and relationships
answer

True
question

True/False: It’s easy to create indexes and scales that are both reliable and valid
answer

False
question

True/False: Content validity is a test for validity which involves utilizing the judgment of experts in the field
answer

True
question

True/False: A set of categories that defines class assignment as freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior is an ordinal level of measurement
answer

True
question

Evaluation research is distinguish from basic research by
answer

its immediate usefulness and its specific practical implications
question

Applied research
answer

is research with a practical purpose and helps to create, modify, and implement programs and activities that make a difference in people’s lives
question

Ethical concerns in applied research
answer

are equally important as in basic research
question

Outcome evaluations usually begin with a question like
answer

what is the reason the program is doing what it is doing?
question

Which of the following is not a question typically asked in a cost effectiveness study?
answer

Is the program saving money?
question

Stakeholders are
answer

People or groups affected by the program
question

What was the program used for evaluation in the focal research by Harrison and Norton-Hawk?
answer

a women’s prison in Ecuador
question

____________ is research that determines whether a program is being implemented as designed.
answer

Process evaluation
question

Formative analysis usually occurs
answer

in the early stages of the program development and design
question

Which type of evaluation research is best used in the early implantation stages of the program or policy?
answer

formative
question

When selecting an evaluation strategy, which of the following is not usually an important factor?
answer

the education level of program staff
question

If the independent variable affects the dependent variable, this is called a ______________ hypothesis
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Causal
question

Participatory action research
answer

involves researchers working with the community memers to empower a community
question

Which of the following statement is accurate?
answer

Evaluation researchers must balance issues of reliablility and validity with practicality
question

True/False: Cost-benefit analysis is used to determine if the program saves money for program participants
answer

False
question

True/False: They are basically two kinds of evaluation: outcome evaluations and costs-benefit evaluations
answer

False
question

True/False: Stakeholders are people who are affected by a program
answer

True
question

True/False: Evaluation research design includes choices about study design, measurement techniques, sample selection, and methods for analyzing data
answer

True
question

True/False: Evaluation research is a scientific method that does not need to consider who the intended audience is for its findings
answer

False
question

True/False: In participatory action research, the researcher must be intimately involved in the community
answer

True
question

Examining the relationship between a mother’s occupation and her daughter’s selection of an occupation is an example of
answer

bivariate analysis
question

Measures of central tendency do not include
answer

standard deviation
question

Of the following variables, the one most appropriate for analyzing central tendency by using the mean is a city of residence
answer

Height
question

In a frequency distribution, we are
answer

displaying the number of cases that fall in categories
question

As a measure of dispersion, a __________________ tells us how far the mean is from individual scores.
answer

standard deviation
question

The graph of a normal distribution looks like a(n)
answer

bell
question

Crosstabulation is a technique used to
answer

examine the association between two variables
question

A contingency table helps to display
answer

How categories within variables are related
question

If as the value of A (let’s say height) increases, B (let’s say weight) also increases, we can say that they
answer

are positively related
question

A researcher computes a statistic with a probability of p>.05. This means that
answer

the relationship is likely not strong enough to suggest that it exists in the population
question

The ___________ model allows a researcher to examine more than two variables at a time
answer

elaboration
question

The elaboration technique that helps a researcher determine that the original relationship was spurious is known as
answer

explanation
question

Social anthropological approaches to qualitative research aims to
answer

discover regular patterns in social interaction
question

In writing a report, it is important to complete a literature search so that
answer

you are able to present an argument that this research is important to do and you ground yourself in teh field and are well informed about the topic
question

In ____________________, a research is summarizing the data that has been collected into more manageable categories
answer

data reduction
question

In coding, the goal is to
answer

create categories that flow from the data and apply these to cases
question

Dr. Eaton adds extensive commentary to her coding so that she can better understand their meaning. She is using
answer

memoing
question

True/False: Measures of dispersion indicate how varied the population is with respect to certain values
answer

True
question

True/False: One form of data display is cross-tabulation of variables you are interested in
answer

True
question

True/False: How individuals account for the world, create meaning and interpret situations is a major focus for interpretivists
answer

True

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