# Physical Science EOC Review – Flashcards

## Unlock all answers in this set

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speed
the rate of change of position (distance per time or d/t)
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velocity
speed with direction
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acceleration
the rate of change of velocity (velocity per time)
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mass
quantity of matter (inertia)
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weight
gravitational force
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inertia
tendency to continue at rest or with constant velocity (mass or laziness)
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If distance is 800 m and time is 200 s, what is speed?
4 m/s
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friction
opposes motion
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force
a push or pull
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Newton's First Law
Law of Inertia
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Newton's Second Law
F=ma
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If m=50 kg and a=2 m/s², what is force?
100 N
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gravity
attraction between any two objects
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acceleration due to gravity on earth
9.81 m/s²
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centripetal force
directed toward center, causes circular motion
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Newton's Third Law
action/reaction
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momentum
p=mv
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If m=3 kg and v=5m/s, find momentum
p=15 kg m/s
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Conservation of Momentum
momentum can be transferred but overall doesn't change
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kinetic energy
energy in the form of motion (1/2 mv²)
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potential energy
energy stored due to position
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elastic potential energy
energy stored by something that can stretch or compress
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chemical potential energy
energy stored in chemical bonds
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gravitational potential energy
energy stored by object's above earth's surface (mgh)
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mechanical energy
potential energy + kinetic energy
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Law of Conservation of Energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed
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work
transfer of energy that occurs when a force makes an object move (Fxd)
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energy
the ability to cause change (do work)
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If F=10 N and d=5 m, find work
W = 50 joules
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power
the rate of work (W/t)
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simple machine
does work with only one movement
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lever
a bar free to pivot or turn about a fixed point
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pulley
a grooved wheel with a rope, chain, or cable running along the groove
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wheel and axle
consists of two wheels of different sizes that rotate together
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inclined plane
a sloping surface such as a ramp that reduces the amount of force needed to do work
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the screw
an inclined plane wrapped in a spiral around a cylindrical post
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the wedge
an inclined plane with one or two sloping sides
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compound machine
two or more simple machines used together like a bicycle
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temperature
related to the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of an object
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thermal energy
the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of all the molecules in an object
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heat
thermal energy that flows from something at a higher temperature to something at a lower temperature
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change in thermal energy
Q = m x (T₂ - T₁) x C where C is specific heat
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conduction
transfer of thermal energy through direct contact (like ironing)
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convection
transfer of energy in a fluid (gas or liquid) by movement of the the heated particles
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transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves (like sunlight)
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heat insulator
a material that doesn't allow heat to flow through it easily
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static electricity
the accumulation of excess charges on an object
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Law of Conservation of Charge
charge can be transferred from object to object but it cannot be created nor destroyed
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electrical conductor
a material that allows electrons to move easily through it
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electrical insulator
a material that doesn't allow electrons to move easily through it
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voltage difference
the push that causes electrical charge to move
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volts
the unit of measure of voltage difference
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circuit
a closed, conducting path
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electric current
the flow of charges through a wire or any conductor
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amperes
the unit of measure of electrical current
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resistance
the tendency for a material to oppose the flow of electrons changing electrical energy into thermal energy or light
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ohms
the unit of measure of electrical resistance
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ohm's law
V = IR
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If current = 2 amps and resistance = 4 ohms, what is the voltage difference?
8 volts
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series circuit
the current has only one loop to flow through like a string of Christmas lights
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parallel circuit
contain two or more branches for current to move through like our houses do
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fission
splitting the atom
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fusion
two nuclei combined (or fused) to form a nucleus with larger mass like with hydrogen in the sun
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wave
a repeating disturbance or movement that transfer matter through matter or space
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medium
matter that waves travel through
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transverse wave
the medium moves back and forth at right angles to the direction the wave travels
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compressional wave
the medium moves back and forth in the same direction the wave travels like sound waves
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rarefaction
the less dense region of a compressional wave
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wavelength
the distance between one point on a wave and the nearest point just like it
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crest
the highest point of a transverse wave
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trough
the lowest point of a transverse wave
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frequency
the number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point each second
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amplitude
related to energy of wave /distance from rest position to crest or trough on transverse wave
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reflection
when a wave strikes an object and bounces off it
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refraction
the bending of a wave caused by a change in its speed as it moves from one medium to another
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diffraction
an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it
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resonance
the ability of an object to vibrate by absorbing energy at its natural frequency (high pitch shatters glass)
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electromagnetic waves
vibrating electric charges that can travel through space where no matter is present
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low frequency electromagnetic waves with long wavelengths
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x-rays
high frequency electromagnetic waves with short wavelengths
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visible light
the range of electromagnetic waves that we can detect with our eyes
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solids
particles packed together tightly and constantly vibrating in place
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liquid
particles move more freely past each other but aren't free to move far apart
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gases
particles are far apart/ no definite shape or volume
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plasma
matter containing positive and negative charged particles at very high temperatures (as in the stars)
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Archimedes Principle
why ship float/ buoyant force
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Pascal's Principle
pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid
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Bernoulli's Principle
explains how lift helps planes to fly
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pressure
force exerted per area (measured in pascals)
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Boyle' Law
as pressure increases, volume decreases
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Charles's Law
as temperature increases, volume increases (hot air balloon)
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element
all the atoms of a substance is alike
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pure substance
either an element or a compound
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compound
a substance in which the atoms of two or more elements are combined in a fixed proportion
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heterogeneous mixture
a mixture in which the different materials can be distinguished easily
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homogenous mixture
a mixture in which two or more substances are blended evenly throughout
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colloids
suspend light like fog
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solution
a homogeneous mixture that will never settle/ the particles are so small they can't be detected by a microscope
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physical property
characteristics that you can observe without changing the identity like color, shape, size, melting point, etc.
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physical change
a change in size, shape, or state of matter
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chemical property
characteristic of a substance that indicates it can undergo a chemical change (like ability to burn)
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chemical change
a change of one substance to another like burning, rusting, or corroding
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distillation
a process for separating substances in a mixture by evaporating a liquid and recondensing its vapor
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best tool for measuring volume of liquid
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conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed/ same before and after reaction
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nucleus
center of atom containing protons and neutrons
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atom
smallest piece of matter that still retains the property of the element
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protons
positively charged nuclear particles
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neutrons
nuclear particles with no charge
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electrons
negatively atomic particles that orbit the nucleus
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mass number
sum of protons and neutrons
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atomic number
the number of protons
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number of neutrons
mass number - atomic number
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isotopes
atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
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periodic table
elements arranged by increasing atomic number
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chemical formula
tells what elements a compound contains and the exact number of atoms like H20
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chemically stable
outer energy level is complete
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chemical bond
a force that holds atoms together in a compound
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ion
a particle charged by the addition or subtraction of electrons
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ionic bond
chemical bond involving the transfer of electrons
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covalent bond
chemical bond involving the sharing of electrons
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oxidation number
how many electrons an atom gains, loses, or shares to become stable
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binary compound
compound composed of two elements
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CuO
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metals
conduct electricity, ductile, malleable, shiny (on left of periodic table)
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metalloid
semi-condcuctors like silicon (transition elements)
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non-metals
usually gases, do not conduct electricity very well (on right of periodic table)
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balanced equation
same number of atoms on both sides of the chemical equation like 2H2O→2H2+O2
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synthesis reaction
two or more substannce combine to form another substnace O2 + 2H2→2H2O
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decomposition reaction
one substance breaks down or decomposes into two or more substances 2H2O→2H2+O2
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exothermic reaction
energy given off in a chemical reaction is primarily in the form of heat
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endothermic reaction
energy needed (absorbed) in a chemical reaction is primarily in the form of heat
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catalyst
speeds up reactions
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inhibitor
slows down reactions
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acid
pH less than 7
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base