# Physical Science EOC Review – Flashcards

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speed
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the rate of change of position (distance per time or d/t)
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velocity
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speed with direction
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acceleration
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the rate of change of velocity (velocity per time)
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mass
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quantity of matter (inertia)
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weight
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gravitational force
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inertia
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tendency to continue at rest or with constant velocity (mass or laziness)
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If distance is 800 m and time is 200 s, what is speed?
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4 m/s
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friction
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opposes motion
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force
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a push or pull
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Newton's First Law
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Law of Inertia
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Newton's Second Law
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F=ma
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If m=50 kg and a=2 m/s², what is force?
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100 N
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gravity
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attraction between any two objects
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acceleration due to gravity on earth
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9.81 m/s²
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centripetal force
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directed toward center, causes circular motion
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Newton's Third Law
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action/reaction
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momentum
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p=mv
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If m=3 kg and v=5m/s, find momentum
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p=15 kg m/s
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Conservation of Momentum
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momentum can be transferred but overall doesn't change
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kinetic energy
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energy in the form of motion (1/2 mv²)
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potential energy
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energy stored due to position
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elastic potential energy
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energy stored by something that can stretch or compress
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chemical potential energy
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energy stored in chemical bonds
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gravitational potential energy
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energy stored by object's above earth's surface (mgh)
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mechanical energy
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potential energy + kinetic energy
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Law of Conservation of Energy
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energy cannot be created or destroyed
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work
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transfer of energy that occurs when a force makes an object move (Fxd)
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energy
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the ability to cause change (do work)
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If F=10 N and d=5 m, find work
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W = 50 joules
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power
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the rate of work (W/t)
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simple machine
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does work with only one movement
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lever
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a bar free to pivot or turn about a fixed point
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pulley
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a grooved wheel with a rope, chain, or cable running along the groove
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wheel and axle
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consists of two wheels of different sizes that rotate together
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inclined plane
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a sloping surface such as a ramp that reduces the amount of force needed to do work
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the screw
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an inclined plane wrapped in a spiral around a cylindrical post
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the wedge
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an inclined plane with one or two sloping sides
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compound machine
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two or more simple machines used together like a bicycle
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temperature
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related to the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of an object
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thermal energy
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the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of all the molecules in an object
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heat
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thermal energy that flows from something at a higher temperature to something at a lower temperature
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change in thermal energy
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Q = m x (T₂ - T₁) x C where C is specific heat
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conduction
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transfer of thermal energy through direct contact (like ironing)
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convection
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transfer of energy in a fluid (gas or liquid) by movement of the the heated particles
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radiation
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transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves (like sunlight)
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heat insulator
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a material that doesn't allow heat to flow through it easily
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static electricity
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the accumulation of excess charges on an object
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Law of Conservation of Charge
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charge can be transferred from object to object but it cannot be created nor destroyed
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electrical conductor
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a material that allows electrons to move easily through it
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electrical insulator
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a material that doesn't allow electrons to move easily through it
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voltage difference
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the push that causes electrical charge to move
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volts
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the unit of measure of voltage difference
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circuit
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a closed, conducting path
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electric current
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the flow of charges through a wire or any conductor
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amperes
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the unit of measure of electrical current
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resistance
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the tendency for a material to oppose the flow of electrons changing electrical energy into thermal energy or light
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ohms
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the unit of measure of electrical resistance
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ohm's law
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V = IR
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If current = 2 amps and resistance = 4 ohms, what is the voltage difference?
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8 volts
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series circuit
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the current has only one loop to flow through like a string of Christmas lights
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parallel circuit
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contain two or more branches for current to move through like our houses do
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fission
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splitting the atom
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fusion
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two nuclei combined (or fused) to form a nucleus with larger mass like with hydrogen in the sun
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wave
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a repeating disturbance or movement that transfer matter through matter or space
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medium
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matter that waves travel through
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transverse wave
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the medium moves back and forth at right angles to the direction the wave travels
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compressional wave
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the medium moves back and forth in the same direction the wave travels like sound waves
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rarefaction
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the less dense region of a compressional wave
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wavelength
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the distance between one point on a wave and the nearest point just like it
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crest
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the highest point of a transverse wave
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trough
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the lowest point of a transverse wave
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frequency
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the number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point each second
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amplitude
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related to energy of wave /distance from rest position to crest or trough on transverse wave
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reflection
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when a wave strikes an object and bounces off it
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refraction
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the bending of a wave caused by a change in its speed as it moves from one medium to another
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diffraction
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an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it
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resonance
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the ability of an object to vibrate by absorbing energy at its natural frequency (high pitch shatters glass)
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electromagnetic waves
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vibrating electric charges that can travel through space where no matter is present
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radio waves
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low frequency electromagnetic waves with long wavelengths
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x-rays
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high frequency electromagnetic waves with short wavelengths
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visible light
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the range of electromagnetic waves that we can detect with our eyes
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solids
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particles packed together tightly and constantly vibrating in place
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liquid
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particles move more freely past each other but aren't free to move far apart
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gases
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particles are far apart/ no definite shape or volume
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plasma
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matter containing positive and negative charged particles at very high temperatures (as in the stars)
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Archimedes Principle
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why ship float/ buoyant force
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Pascal's Principle
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pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid
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Bernoulli's Principle
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explains how lift helps planes to fly
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pressure
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force exerted per area (measured in pascals)
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Boyle' Law
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as pressure increases, volume decreases
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Charles's Law
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as temperature increases, volume increases (hot air balloon)
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element
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all the atoms of a substance is alike
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pure substance
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either an element or a compound
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compound
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a substance in which the atoms of two or more elements are combined in a fixed proportion
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heterogeneous mixture
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a mixture in which the different materials can be distinguished easily
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homogenous mixture
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a mixture in which two or more substances are blended evenly throughout
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colloids
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suspend light like fog
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solution
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a homogeneous mixture that will never settle/ the particles are so small they can't be detected by a microscope
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physical property
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characteristics that you can observe without changing the identity like color, shape, size, melting point, etc.
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physical change
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a change in size, shape, or state of matter
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chemical property
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characteristic of a substance that indicates it can undergo a chemical change (like ability to burn)
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chemical change
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a change of one substance to another like burning, rusting, or corroding
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distillation
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a process for separating substances in a mixture by evaporating a liquid and recondensing its vapor
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graduated cylinder
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best tool for measuring volume of liquid
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conservation of mass
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mass is neither created nor destroyed/ same before and after reaction
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nucleus
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center of atom containing protons and neutrons
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atom
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smallest piece of matter that still retains the property of the element
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protons
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positively charged nuclear particles
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neutrons
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nuclear particles with no charge
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electrons
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negatively atomic particles that orbit the nucleus
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mass number
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sum of protons and neutrons
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atomic number
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the number of protons
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number of neutrons
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mass number - atomic number
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isotopes
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atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
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periodic table
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elements arranged by increasing atomic number
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chemical formula
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tells what elements a compound contains and the exact number of atoms like H20
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chemically stable
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outer energy level is complete
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chemical bond
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a force that holds atoms together in a compound
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ion
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a particle charged by the addition or subtraction of electrons
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ionic bond
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chemical bond involving the transfer of electrons
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covalent bond
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chemical bond involving the sharing of electrons
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oxidation number
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how many electrons an atom gains, loses, or shares to become stable
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binary compound
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compound composed of two elements
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CuO
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Copper Oxide (add -ide)
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metals
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conduct electricity, ductile, malleable, shiny (on left of periodic table)
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metalloid
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semi-condcuctors like silicon (transition elements)
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non-metals
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usually gases, do not conduct electricity very well (on right of periodic table)
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balanced equation
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same number of atoms on both sides of the chemical equation like 2H2O→2H2+O2
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synthesis reaction
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two or more substannce combine to form another substnace O2 + 2H2→2H2O
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decomposition reaction
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one substance breaks down or decomposes into two or more substances 2H2O→2H2+O2
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exothermic reaction
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energy given off in a chemical reaction is primarily in the form of heat
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endothermic reaction
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energy needed (absorbed) in a chemical reaction is primarily in the form of heat
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catalyst
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speeds up reactions
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inhibitor
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slows down reactions
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acid
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pH less than 7
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base
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pH greater than 7
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heat capacity
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Q = Cpm∆t
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∆t
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t₂ - t₁
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