Phlebotomy essentials 5th edition, Final Exam study guide

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The term \”Phlebotomy\” is derived from what language and what does it literally mean
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Greek, incision into a vein
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Define integrity
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Integrity as a concept has to do with a personal feeling of \”wholeness\” deriving from honesty and consistency of character; this can be seen in the person’s actions, values, and beliefs.
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Examples of professional appearance
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hygiene, hair pulled back, short nails
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Failing to put the needle in the sharps makes a phlebotomist
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Negligent
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Example of a QA indicator regarding blood cultures
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Contamination rate will not exceed the national contamination rate
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Labeling a specimen must be
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Exact, after draw, in front of patient
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PPE order
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Gown, mask, gloves
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Principles of radiation
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Distance, time, shielding
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Osteo
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Bone
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Chondr/o
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Cartilage
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-itis
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Inflammation
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ESR
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Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
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Lipase means? Which portion is the suffix
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Fatty enzyme, -ase
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Respiratory Syncytial virus
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Major cause of respiratory disease in infants and young children
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Ovum is: Ova are: (Spelling: ovum & ova)
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Ovum: 1 egg Ova: more than one egg
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What is housed in the dorsal cavity
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Brain and spinal cord
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Another name for blood bank
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Immunohematology
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Example of a confirming response
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Repeating, nodding
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CLIA ’88 (Spelling)
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Government amendment that defines the responsibilities of medical personnel
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Drawing a patient’s blood without permission is
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Assult & battery
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Local public health agencies perform
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Diabetic screening, immunization, venereal disease screening
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Continuing education units are
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Proof of upgrading skills and education
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CPT is a
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National reimbursedment coding system
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Sodium & potassium are included in what panel
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Electrolytes
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Sharing a draw site of a patient is or is not a violation of privacy
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Is not
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Can an icteric bilirubin specimen be used for testing
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Yes
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What will happen if the CBC specimen has clots
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It will be rejected
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Can you test for electrolytes on a hemolyzed specimen? Why not?
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No, potassium
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What is indicated if a glucose specimen is lipemic
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Patient has not been fasting , extremely high cholesterol
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Dr. W.E. Deminig’s methods require
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Active participation by workers in decision making
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JCAHO (spelling) a key player in
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Quality assessment review techniques
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Quality management principles
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Customer service, constant improvement in employee participation
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PPE stands for
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Personal protective equipment (spelling)
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The needlestick Safety Prevention Act revised which areas
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Record keeping requirements, modification of definition for engineering controls, solicitation of employee input on engineering, and work practice controls, exposure control plan
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A corrective action plan is implemented for what type of QA indicator
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Threshold value
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Hand washing is important because it
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Breaks the chain of infection
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Break apart the words \”glycolysis\” what does each part mean
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Glyc= stored sugar O= combining vowel -lysis = breakdown
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How do you control severe external bleeding
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Direct pressure and elevation
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Class A fire
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Household combustibles, paper, clothes, wood
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Class B fire
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Flammable liquids and vapors
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Class C fire
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Electrical components
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What is the NFPA system for fire response
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R.A.C.E. Rescue Alarm Confine Extinguish
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Coughing and sneezing is what type of infection transmission
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Droplet
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The \”Do not use list\” applies to what type of documents
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Hand written and pre printed forms
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Polycythemia
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Many cells blood condition
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UTI
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Urinary tract infection (spelling)
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Condition of clotting
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Hemostasis
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Word root for kidney
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Nephr, ren
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Distal
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Farthest from point of origin
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Proximal
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Closest to point of origin
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A voluntary muscle is called a
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Skeletal
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Normal anatomical position is called the
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Frontal position
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Hormone, specific to the heart, is released when there is too much pressure or fluid
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BNP (spelling)
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Catabolism (Spelling)
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Breakdown of complex substances into simple substances
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Nervous system disorders
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Epilepsy, neurosis, MS
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Hormones produced by the reproductive system
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Testosterone, estrogen, proestrogen, HCG (spelling HCG)
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Accessory organs to the digestive system
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Lips and tongue, pancreas, liver, kidney
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Embolism
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Clot that is obstructed in a vessel
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Embolus
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Clot circulating in the blood stream
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Thrombus
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Blood clot in the vessel
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Pulmonary artery does what
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Carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
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White blood cells, leukocytes, are unique because they can
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Walk through walls
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Ateriosclerosis (Spelling)
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hardening of an artery
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Hemostasis refers to
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Coagulation process
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Clotted and spun down yields
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Serum
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How is blood type determine
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Antigen present in the red blood cells
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Visual difference between plasma and serum
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None
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Catheterized (spelling) urine specimen is collected how
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from bladder through a tube
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What type of blood enters the R atrium
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Deoxygenated
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NP culture swab detects the presence of
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Whooping cough
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How is TB diagnosed
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Sputum
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Fibrinogen is in plasma or serum
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Plasma
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Three common antiseptics
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Iodine, isopropyl alcohol, benzalkonium chloride
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Another name for alcohol? Collected in what additive?
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Ethanol, sodium fluoride
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Heparin prevents clotting by
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Inhibiting thrombin
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Light blue goes to
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coagulation
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70% isopropyl alcohol is used to
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Used as an anti septic to clean site of a venipunture
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Butterfly is used for
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Children and babies, small difficult vein
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Syringe tube order
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Blood culture, coagulation, serum, heparin, EDTA, gray tube
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Why wait for alcohol to dry
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Avoid stinging & contamination, allow stunting of microbes
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How do you treat a child
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Honesty, greet kid first, greet parent, establish a rapport
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Substance that provide increased surface for platelet activation are known as
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Clot activators (spelling)
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Mixing too vigorously cause
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Hemolysis
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Why do tubes fill automatically
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Vacuum (spelling)
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What preserves glucose
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Sodium fluoride
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How are we able to detect drugs of abuse?
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Blood, urine, hair, saliva
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Do we mix tubes immediately?
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Yes
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A refrigerated stool sample is not suitable for what test?
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Ova & parasites
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What is the abbreviation for not enough specimens?
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QNS (spelling) Quantity not sufficient
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Test used to diagnose cystic fibrosis
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Sweat chloride
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Fluid taken from lumbar puncture
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CSF
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What can you tell your patients regarding their tests
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Ask your doctor
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Basal state is
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Just waking up, fasting for 12 hours
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What is your number one job as a student phlebotomist
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Identify yourself as a student phlebotomist
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Describe a 3-Way ID
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Requisition, ID, verbal, armband
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Dorsal hand vein specimen should be collected using
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Butterfly and pediatric ETS tubes
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What special considerations do we make for the geriatric population
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Skin changes, vision, mental, hearing, and physical disabilities
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define venipunture
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Process of collecting blood from a vein
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ASAP and medemerge means you do these when
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Before routine draws
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Is there additional info needed for none blood specimens? what is it?
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Yes. Type and source
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Routine blood specimens should be to the lab by when
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Between 2 and 5 hrs.
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What would make you think the needle is not deep enough
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Hematoma
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What happens to a CBC if the infant is screaming
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White cells to be high
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Syncope
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Fainting
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Length of tourniquet application? Why?
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1 minute. Hemoconcentration
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Iatrogenic anemia
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Removing blood on a regular basis or in large quantities
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What happens if you fail the driving on a patient twice
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get another phlebotomist
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Tests that have to do with diurnal variations are most often
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Timed tests
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What would make you think you hit an artery
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Blood pulses into the tube
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fistula
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Surgical fusion of an artery and vein
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pre analytical phase
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Before testing
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Analytical phase
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Testing
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Post analytical phase
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Results
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Glucose drawn in sodium fluoride tube is stable at room temperature for how long
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24hrs
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Describe proper aliquot preparation
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Pipette contents , never pour
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How is a Cryoglobulin specimen transported
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37°c heat block
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What can we do immediately to a green top tube
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Centrifuge it
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Proper centrifuge use
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Balance tubes of equal size and volume opposite of each other
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Specimens that take longer to clot
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Patients with high white blood count, patients on blood thinners, and chilled specimens
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Maximum lancet heel depth
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2mm
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PKU disease
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Hereditary inability to metabolize phenylalanine
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Order of draw for capillary puncture
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CBG’s, EDTA’s, other additives, serum
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reference ranges are higher for? Lower for? (Capillary)
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Higher= glucose Lower= potassium, calcium, and total protein
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Capillary blood resembles
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arterial blood
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Causes of rejection of a specimen
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Hemolyzed, specimen on ice, QNS
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where do you look for unfamiliar test
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Reference Manual
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Common tests that need to be chilled
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Ammonia, ABG’S , if analyzed later than 30 minutes
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Transporting the tube stopper up
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Reduces agitation of contents, aids in clotting, reduces aerosol formation
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Potassium cannot be
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Chilled or hemolyzed
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Common preanalytical errors
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Failing to mix tubes, mislabeling, wrong order of draw
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But you need to remember when collecting blood cultures using a butterfly
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use the aerobic bottle first
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Thick blood smear is a size of a
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Dime (spelling)
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What is common to do with a patient that have hemochromatosis
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withdraw units of blood for treatment
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Cyanosis
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Blueish appearance
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Autologous donation
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Blood donation to yourself
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Bilirubin specimens are
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Protected from light
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Magnet and flea are used for
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Mixing a CBG
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What your fingers should you puncture? not?
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Puncture middle and ring ringers. Don’t puncture pointer, pinky, and thumb
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Inadequate mixing can cause
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Inaccurate results
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Pressing the Enter key allows you to
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Input data
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Applications software refers to
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Controlling normal computer operation, equipment used to process data, refers to programs used by software companies
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Accession number
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Identifies the specimen not the patient
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A bidirectional interface
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Allows data to go back and forth between systems
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My keyboard is an example of a
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Peripheral accessory
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Tests that are POCT
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Glucose , hematocrit , hemoglobin, ABG, occult blood testing, HCG (Spelling) HCG
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Test that monitor Heparin
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ACT
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Blood cultures require ______ antiseptic technique.
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Strict
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9:1 ratio is for what
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Coagulation and PT
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FUO patients get what test
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Blood cultures
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Ethanol test requirements
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Don’t use alcohol, use sodium fluoride tube
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Other than drawing blood what might your job require
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Processing, customer service, data entry, patient instruction
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Sputum is used for what diagnosis? Where does it come from?
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TB Phlegm from lungs
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Functions of a CPU
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Instruct the computer to carry out requested operations, manage processing and completion of required tasks, perform logical comparisons of data
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How is a suprapubic urine specimen collected
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Needle is inserted above the pubic bone guided by ultrasound
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Most common non blood specimen
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Urine
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Logging on
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Process of using a password and gaining access
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Name 24 hour urine tests
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Creatinine clearance
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Where is the amniotic fluid found? What is the special handling procedure
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In a pregnant uterus, connected from light. (Spelling amniotic fluid)
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Fluid around the heart
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Pericardial fluid (spelling)
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First morning urine is used for? Because?
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HCG, highly concentrated
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Hormone to detect pregnancy? How quickly after conception can it be detected?
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HCG, 8 to 10 days
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Why do we preserve urine specimens
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To ensure the cellular components doesn’t deteriorate and the metabolism is stunted
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When is a 2hrPP drawn
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2 hours after eating or glucola load.
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Needle angle for radial ABG? What size is the needle?
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45°, 22g
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Proper cleaning for ABG’s
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Providone iodine, concentric circles
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Ph (Spelling )
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Measurement of acidity and alkalinity in the blood
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ABG syringes are pretreated with
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Heparin
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Blood leaking into tissues is called a
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Hematoma
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Venous blood varies relative to the
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Metabolic needs of the area it serves
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What test involves IV administration of antihistamine or pentagastrin
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Gastrin test
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A C&S is used to detect
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Presence of a UTI
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Common ABG complications
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Hematoma, arterial spasm
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Procedure for 24 hour urine specimen
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Void first morning urine, start timing, collect for 24 hours, including next mornings void
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Ascites fluid comes from
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Peritoneal cavity
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Maintaining the integrity of an ABG requires
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analyze within 30 minutes of collection
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Why is heparin used for ABG’S
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Prevent clotting

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