Prescription drugs are defined as those drugs ________.
that are not safe to use except under professional medical supervision
The majority of drugs are used to control, improve, or cure symptoms, conditions, or diseases of a physiological or psychological nature. These drugs would be said to have a ________ use.
A schedule defines drugs by their ________.
potential for physical or psychological dependence
Drug legislation was passed in the early 1900s to protect the public from ________.
unscrupulous drug sellers and mislabeled, dangerous drugs
Powdered rose hips from the rose plant are still used as a natural source of ________.
The FDA Modernization Act ________.
Gave FDA authority to accelerate approval process
by 2000, review time had fallen to less than 15 months
Critical drugs can be approved as fast as 6 months
Some investigational drugs can be prescribed before approval
A drug used today for treating congestive heart failure ________.
has been used since the thirteenth century
Aspirin was first introduced about the year ________.
1900 (Actually 1899)
The 1951 Durham-Humphrey Amendment to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act defined ________ drugs as those drugs that could only be given to patients under the care of a physician.
The medicinal use of foxglove to make the drug digoxin (Lanoxin) is an example of a modern drug derived from ________.
Currently, the burden of proof for showing that a drug is safe before it can be marketed is the responsibility of the ________.
The first federal drug law was ________.
the Food and Drug Act
The government agency responsible for regulating the manufacturing and dispensing of controlled substances is called the ________.
All of the following are advantages to reclassifying a prescription drug to be an over-the-counter drug (OTC) EXCEPT ________.
there is a greater chance for drug-drug interactions
The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 did all of the following EXCEPT ________.
introduce the word “Narcotic”
The drug Premarin, a female hormone replacement used to treat the symptoms of menopause, is derived from ________.
pregnant mare’s urine
Pharmacology is ________.
the study of drugs and their interactions with living organisms
Which drug was historically introduced first?
Morphine for pain, from crude opium
The Controlled Substances Act created ________ categories of drugs based on their potential for addiction.
When analgesic drugs are used to control arthritis pain, this is an example of the ________ use of drugs.
An example of a Schedule I drug is ________.
The FDA will allow a prescription drug to be reclassified as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug if ________.
patients can monitor their own conditions and don’t need to have special monitoring or tests
Jamie Alvarez is going to fly in an airplane for the first time. She is afraid she might experience motion sickness, so she has decided to take the over-the-counter drug Dramamine. This is an example of ________.
the preventive use of drugs
The medical use of drugs during radiological procedures and other types of medical tests to provide evidence of a disease process is known as ________.
a diagnostic use
All of the following are minerals that are included in multivitamin supplements EXCEPT ________.
An OTC drug is defined as a drug that can be purchased without a prescription and is generally considered safe for consumers to use if the label’s directions and warnings are followed carefully and all warnings are heeded.
The Orphan Drug Act facilitates the development of drugs to treat patients who are poor and needy and cannot afford medical care.
In order to prevent diseases, the American Academy of Pediatrics issues an annual immunization schedule listing the immunizations to be given to children before they enroll in school.
The isolation of potassium from water in 1803 by a German pharmacist marked the beginning of modern drug treatment using chemically pure ingredients.
False, it was morphine
A schedule drug is also known as a controlled substance.
Thyroid supplement drugs are composed of synthetic materials and the mineral iodine.
We know from reading the newspaper that cocaine is available illegally as a street drug, but cocaine is also a Schedule II drug with legitimate medical uses.
Drugs in the 1700s and 1800s were mostly useless, containing only water and oils, and they never contained addictive drugs.
Legend drugs are also known as over-the-counter drugs.
Prescription drugs must be obtained with a written order or a voice order.
In the early 1900s, cocoa butter was an ingredient in making hand-rolled suppositories.
Pharmacology is one of the oldest branches of medicine.
The Egyptians applied moldy bread to abrasions, a practice that actually had some therapeutic basis.
The opium poppy has been used for centuries as a painkiller and also as a recreational drug to induce euphoria and a trance-like state.
A drug or a medicine can be thought of as any nonfood chemical substance that affects the mind or the body.
Which drug name accurately describes its molecular structure and distinguishes it from all other drugs?
The chemical name of a drug ________.
is too lengthy and complicated for everyday use by healthcare professionals
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
The drug’s original trade name can be used by other companies after the patent expires.
Which of the following is registered with the U.S. Patent Office as a registered trademark?
Once the FDA gives final approval for drug marketing, the drug company creates a ________.
Stem cells are cells that are capable of ________.
differentiating into any type of body tissue
In the past, without the use of computers, designing a new drug by changing the molecular structure of an existing drug was ________.
a slow process of trial and error
This drug contains a double-strength dose, as shown by its trade name.
There are ________ phases of human testing for new drugs.
The first recombinant DNA technology drug approved by the FDA was ________.
a human version of insulin
The Human Genome Project ________.
mapped all 3.2 billion parts of the human genome
The United States Adopted Names (USAN) Council ________.
works with the drug company to determine the generic name for a drug
Information from the human genome has led to the development of the subspecialty areas of ________ in research and drug design.
pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics
Each drug is assigned a 10-digit code, broken up into three segments. Which of the following is NOT information that can be obtained from the 10-digit code?
the drug type
The brand name of the drug Lithobid was selected to indicate ________.
how often the drug is to be given
Both the ethical and the tissue rejection issues of stem cell therapy can be avoided if ________.
the patient’s own bone marrow or blood is used
Drugs can be created or designed using all of the following techniques EXCEPT ________.
observing the toxic effects
All of the following are examples of new drugs discovered in the environment EXCEPT ________.
a placebo used in double-blind studies
The patent on a new drug is in effect for ________ years.
From the moment of its discovery or design, every drug has a ________ name that is assigned by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
What incentive does the FDA give to drug companies that agree to do clinical trials of their drugs on children?
a six-month extension on their new drug patent
Once a drug has been approved by the FDA, the drug is guaranteed to stay on the market indefinitely because it has received FDA approval.
A drug company may evaluate thousands of different chemicals before finding one that moves successfully through all phases of testing and is finally approved by the FDA for release and marketing.
In double-blind studies, each patient receives both the drug and a placebo.
The animal phase of drug testing precedes testing on humans.
Genetic engineering came about as a result of deciphering the human genome.
An isomer is a drug that has the same chemical formula as another drug, but has those atoms arranged in a different way.
The pharmacodynamics of a drug are tested during the human phase of drug testing.
Once a drug has received its final approval from the FDA, its ingredients, doses, manufacturing process, labeling, and packaging cannot be changed.
Even though drug manufacturers are held to the linguistic standards of the FDA, some trade name drugs are often difficult to spell.
A drug company is protected by a 17-year patent on any new drug that is approved by the FDA. However, part of the 17-year patent period is lost during the testing process.
Every drug company must provide the FDA with a complete list of all prescription drugs they currently have on the market.
No matter how a drug was originally discovered or designed, it must be thoroughly tested by the FDA before it can be marketed.
The advertising of both prescription and OTC drugs is regulated by the FDA.
The higher the number of the therapeutic index, the more desirable it is, because it indicates that the drug has a wide margin of safety.
While it is physiologically impossible for a placebo to exert any pharmacological effect, patients often report a decrease in certain types of symptoms after taking a placebo.