Health & Wellness ch. 11

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when regulatory genes fail to regulate normal cells
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results in cancer/abnormal proliferation of cells
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oncogene (cancer-causing gene) formation – 3 mechanisms
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1. Genetic mutations: miscopying of genes during cell division 2. Viral infections (HIV & HPV) 3. Carcinogens (environmental agents)
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Cancerous cell characteristics
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-live forever b/c of telomerase (enzyme) -Lacks contact inhibition (cells accumulate, changing the function of tissue/organ) -Spreads to distant sites (metastasis) -Commands circulatory system to provide additional blood supply (angiogenesis-make them very hardy cells)
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benign tumors
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don’t spread – can be dangerous IF they crowd out normal tissues
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*TNM cancer staging system
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T=extent of primary tumor N=whether or not it progressed to regional lymph nodes M= presence or absence of metastasis
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*cancer spread stages
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I = In situ (hasn’t spread yet) II = Local (still in situ, but growing, confined to 1 organ) III = Regional (extending into neighboring tissue/lymph node) IV = Distant (metastasized/spread somewhere else)
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types of cancer
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Carcinomas, Sarcomas, Lymphomas, Leukemia, Neuroblastoma, Adenocarcinoma, Hepatoma
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melanoma
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Sun exposure affecting the melanin of the skin
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sarcomas
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formed in connective tissue, bone, blood
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carcinomas
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85% of malignant tumors (found in organs, skin, nerves, membranes)
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skin cancer (risk factors & prevention)
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Risk factors: severe sunburn during childhood or during young adulthood Prevention: reduce sun exposure, sunscreen, avoid tanning booths
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skin cancer (early detection & treatment)
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Early detection: self-examination, most diameters larger than pencil eraser Treatment: surgery, chemotherapy, interleukin-2
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*prophylactic mastectomy
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-what Angelina Jolie did -removing breasts to reduct risk of breast cancer -for women at high risk of getting cancer
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*Melanoma characteristics:
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A = asymmetry (2 halves don’t match) B = border irregularity C = color (change) D = diameter > 6 mm
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Lung cancer- risk factors & prevention
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Risk factors: Smoking, Environmental pollutants (radon), genetic predisposition Prevention: Don’t smoke/2nd hand & bad environment (air pollution)
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Lung cancer – treatment
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low success rate: surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, medications
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colorectal cancer- risk factors and prevention
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Risk factors: genes, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption Prevention: removal of polyps, exercise, dietary changes
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colorectal cancer- early detection & treatment
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Early detection: rectal exams, stool tests, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy Treatment: surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
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breast cancer risk factors
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-early onset of menstruation, late menopause -having no kids or first child later in life -Use of hormone replacement therapy -Specific genetic mutations -BRCA1 & BRCA2 -Family history -Obesity, sedentary lifestyle -High degree of breast density
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best detections of breast cancer
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mammograms & monographs
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*#1 and #3 cancer killing for men and women
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#1 lung cancer (accounts for 30% of all cancer-caused death), #3=colon
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*top deaths – Men
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lung, prostate, then colorectal
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*top death – women
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lung, breast, then colorectal
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*#1 incidence (new cases) men
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prostate, lung, then colon
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*#1 incidence (new cases) women
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breast, then lung, then colon
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*Caution acronym – 7 warning signs of cancer
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C- Change in bowel/bladder A- a sore that doesn’t heal U- unusual bleeding/discharge T-thickening or lump in penis/breast I-indigestion/swallowing difficulty O-obvious change in mole/wart N-nagging cough or hoarseness
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Breast cancer- early detection
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Breast self-examination, mammography (best)
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____% people still living 5 years after diagnosed w/ bladder cancer; what is the death rate?
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80% (20% death rate)
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HPV
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some cause genital warts
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aids
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acquired immune deficiency syndrome (late symptoms of HIV)
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*metastasis
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spread of cancer to distant sites (thru circulatory or lymph system)
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___ % of people with lung cancer survive 5 year mark
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16%
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__% survive with colorectal cancer within 5 years
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95%
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recommended screenings for colon cancer
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age 50 (45 for African Americans)
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**1 in ___ women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime
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8
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_% women who found breast cancer localized to breast w/in 5 year mark
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98%
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men ages ___ = most age of testicular cancer for men
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ages 15-34
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prostate cancer
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Location of the Prostate Gland within the Male Reproductive System
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prostate cancer- risk factors & prevention
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Risk factors: Age, African American ethnicity, family history, dietary fat intake Prevention: Moderation of fat intake, increased intake of vitamin E and selenium, drug therapy
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prostate cancer- early detection & treatment
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Early detection: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, ultrasound rectal exam Treatment: surgery, radiation, brachytherapy (radioactive seeds)
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testicular cancer- risk factors & prevention
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Risk factors: family history, environmental factors, undescended testicles (empty scrotum) Prevention: self-exams, correction of undescended testicles in children
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testicular cancer- early detection & treatment
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Early detection: self-exams, awareness of symptoms Treatment: surgery, chemo, radiation
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cervical cancer – risk factors & prevention
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Risk factors: HPV infection, smoking, socioeconomic factors Prevention: sexual abstinence, careful selection of sexual partners
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cervical cancer – early detection & treatment
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Early detection: pap tests (test screens for precancerous cellular changes) Treatment: surgery (minor or major), radiation, chemo
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uterine cancer- risk factors & prevention
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Risk factors: Early menarche (1st menstrual cycle), late menopause, infertility, never having given birth, using estrogen replacement therapy or tamoxifen, obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer Prevention: Minimize high levels of estrogen, regular gynecological care
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uterine cancer- treatment
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Surgery, radiation, chemo, hormone treatment
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*silent killer cancer
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ovarian cancer (vague symptoms), very deadly
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vaginal cancer
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Risk factors: Prenatal exposure to DES Early detection: Pap test Treatment: Surgery
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ovarian cancer- prevention & early detection
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Prevention: similar for breast cancer, prophylactic oophorectomy Early detection (“silent”): Annual pelvic exams, awareness of potential symptoms, tests, ovaSura, CA125, & HE4, genetic screenings
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ovarian cancer treatment
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Surgery, chemotherapy, drug therapy
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pancreatic cancer- risk factors & prevention
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Risk factors: Male gender, smoking, high-fat diet, high alcohol consumption Prevention: Abstaining from tobacco & alcohol, exercise, weight management
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pancreatic cancer- early detection & treatment
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Early detection (no early symptoms): CAT scan Treatment: No effective treatment, surgery, radiation, chemo
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lymphatic cancer: risk factors & prevention
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Risk factors: reduction of immune system protection, exposure to pollutants, viral infections Prevention: limit exposure to chemicals
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lymphatic cancer: early detection & treatment
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Early detection: enlarged lymph nodes, fever, weight loss Treatment: radiation, chemo, stem cell transplant
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preventative measures
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Know your family history Select & monitor your occupation carefully Don’t use tobacco products Monitor environmental exposure to carcinogens Follow a sound diet Control your body weight Exercise regularly Limit your exposure to sun Consume alcohol in moderation, if at all
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smoking accounts for ___% of all cases of lung cancer
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87%
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most common type of cancer in males
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prostate cancer; and is 2nd leading cause of cancer death
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*?STDs STOPPED
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-matching on exam

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