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Personality Theory Rogers Essay

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According to Rogers psychology starts and ends with what type of experiences
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Subjective experiences of the individual
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Subjective experiencing of reality serves as the basis for all the individuals…
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Judgements and behavior
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What plays the key role in determining the person’s behavior
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inner subjective reality
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What does the inner experience include
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Everything that is occurring within the organism at a particular moment
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What is said to comprise a person’s phenomenal field
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All inner experience both conscious and unconscious
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What is conscious experience
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Conscious experience, or awareness, is the aspect of the phenomenal field that can be symbolized, that is, verbalized or imagined
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What is unconscious experience
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Experience that cannot be verbalized or imagined by the person
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What did Rogers say about healthy people
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They can symbolize their experiences accurately and completely
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What did Rogers say about unhealthy people
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Unhealthy people distort or repress their experiences and are unable to symbolize them accurately and sense them fully
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What is self-actualizing according to Rogers
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1. It is within each of us 2. It is an innate motivation 3. It is an active controlling drive toward fulfillment of our potentials that enables us to maintain and enhance ourselves
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What kind of aspects does the actualizing tendency have
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Both biological and psychological aspects
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Maintenance needs
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Include those for food, air, safety Also include our tendency to resist change and to maintain our self-concept as it is
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Enhancement Needs and when do infants do this
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1. Include needs to grow and realize one’s full human potential 2. Constantly motivated to enhance ourselves 3. Infants do this when they try to discover things around them or try to learn how to walk even when they fall down and feel discomfort (trying to enhance ourselves from the begining)
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According to Rogers we are all basically what?
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Good
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People develop an innate goodness only if
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Society acts toward them in a helpful, encouraging way
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How does society affect self-actualizing
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Society can facilitate or hinder movement towards self-actualization
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What did Rogers believe about the way infants perceive their expereinces
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He believed that infants perceive their experiences as reality
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How do infants interact with their reality according to Rogers
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Infants interact with their reality in terms of their basic actualizing tendency Their belief is directed toward the goal of satisfying their need for self-actualization as they perceive it thus they engage in an organismic valuing process
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What is an organismic valuing process
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An innate bodily mechanism for evaluating which experiences are right or wrong for the person. People experience satisfaction in those behaviors that maintain and enhance them and aversion to those behaviors that do not
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Why is the valuing process for complex for adults
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Because at this point in the developmental process, the adult is making much more complicated judgments about a variety of experiences relating to issues in art, politics, career, ethics, personal relationships, and so forth Value judgments in these areas are often changing
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What did Roger’s say that was most healthy about people that incorporate a variety of opinions into into their own value system
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After listening to what others think, they must ultimately trust the wisdom of their own bodies if they are to grow constructively
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What did Rogers feel about the result of people trusting themselves fully?
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If they can trust themselves fully, their feelings and intuitions may be wiser than their thinking or what they have learned from others
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What will happen to people who are able to utilize their organismic valuing process fully
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They will inevitably begin to experience personal growth and movement towards realization of their potentials
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In Rogers view people that are able to utilize their organismic valuing process fully and move toward realization of their potentials are moving towards becoming what
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Fully functioning persons
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What five characteristics define a person who is a fully functioning person
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1. They are open to experience 2. They are characterized by existential living 3. They trust their organism 4. They are creative 5. They live richer lives than do other people
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They are open to experience
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Open to all their feelings and accept them rather than shut them out
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Those that are characterized by existential living (3)
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1. Live their experiences as they occur in the present, without trying to impose preconceived meaning on them 2. They are open and flexible 3. They deal with the experience as it is and they discover its meaning for themselves
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They trust their organisms
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1. They do what feels right 2. They make their own choices, experience the consequences and correct them if they are less than satisfying
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They are creative
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People live creative lives when they are open to new experiences, able to trust their own judgments, and when they are willing to take risks
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They live richer lives than do other people
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Not in the sense of happiness They live a life that is exciting, challenging, meaningful, and rewarding It involves taking risks experiencing pain occasionally, and facing challenging courageously
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Emerging persons
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People of the future whose interpersonal relationships are characterized by honesty, cooperation, and concern for others They welcome change and opt for growth even when it is painful to do so
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Five characteristics of emerging persons
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1. They are honest and open 2. They are indifferent to material comforts and rewards 3. They are caring persons 4. They have a deep distrust of cognitively based science and a technology that uses science to exploit and harm nature and people 5. They have a trust in their own experience and a profound distrust of all external authority
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The social self
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Self concept based largely on the expectations of others We have a strong need for positive regard and want to please others
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How is the social self primarily acquired
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Through contact with others
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What does the social self suggest
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Suggests that we come to evaluate ourselves in terms of what others think and not in terms of what we actually feel
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Why did Rogers feel we rely so heavily on the evaluation of others
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Because we have a strong need for positive regard
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What is a strong need for positive regard
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Learned or innate tendency to seek and need approval from others
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The desire for positive regard from others may become more compelling than..
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Our own organismic valuing process
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True self
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A self-concept that is based on our actual feelings about our experiences
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What leads to a social self-concept
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The need to seek approval and avoid disapproval
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What does a social self-concept carry with it
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Conditions of worth
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Conditions of worth (3)
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1. Stipulations upon which our sense of self-worth depends 2. They are associated with the belief that we are only worthwhile if we perform behaviors that others think are good and refrain from actions that others think are bad 3. Stipulations we put on ourselves and which other put on us
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In Rogers view what is the ideal condition of a healthy self-concept and movement toward becoming fully functioning
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Unconditional positive regard
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Unconditional positive regard
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A deep and genuine caring by others, uncontaminated by judgments or evaluations of our thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
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With unconditional positive regard the what happens to the self concept
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It does not carry any conditions of worth
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What happens between the true self and experience that results in unconditional positive regard
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There is a congruence between the true self and experience
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Congruence
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State of harmony that exists when there is no discrepancy between the person’s experiencing and his or her self-concept
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What did Rogers believe happens when we are guided by the expectations of others that run counter to our innate evaluations
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Problems occur Our social selves prevent our getting in touch with our true selves and actual feelings and movement toward actualization is hindered
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What did Roger’s self theory predict about people that are self-accepting
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They should also be more accepting of the behaviors of others
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What did Rogers believe about the assessment of a person’s personality
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It must be based on an exploration of the person’s feelings and attitudes towards himself or herself and others
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What assessment technique did Rogers use for the impact of person-centered therapy
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Q-Sort
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According to Rogers what happens to a person’s self concept during therapy
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It should change over the course of therapy He believed that the initial discrepancies between the way in which clients view themselves and the way in which they would like to view themselves are reduced by effective counseling
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Q-Sort
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Self-report procedure designed to measure the discrepancy between a person’s actual and ideal self
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Instead of asking “How can I treat and cure this person” the therapist should ask
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How can I provide a relationship which this person may use for his own personal growth
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What conditions did Rogers believe the therapists should enact in order to allow the client to establish the capacity to change (6)
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1. The client and the therapist are in psychological contact 2. The client is in a state of in-congruence and feels anxious about it 3. The therapist is congruent about the relationship 4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard for the client 5. The therapist experiences an empathetic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference 6. The client perceives the therapist’s unconditional positive regard and the therapist’s empathetic understanding
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At the very least what did Rogers say was necessary for therapy
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All clients must be treated with respect and dignity and be given positive support by their therapist
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If the six conditions for therapy are met and operative what changes should be observed in the clients (6)
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1. A vulnerable client must 2. Have contact of some duration with a counselor who is 3. Congruent and who demonstrates 4. Unconditional positive regard and who 5. Listens with empathy to a client. In addition, the client must 6. Perceive the congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy
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As a result of this process Rogers believed that people will…
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Become what they organismically are rather than what other people want them to be, and will be more psychologically healthy
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What did Rogers believe was the problem with education (4)
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1. Too much emphasis is placed on cognitive skills such as learning facts and not enough on development of affective skills such as how to be a loving and sensitive person 2. Disagreed with the constant supervision of children, found it distrustful 3. Instead he believed students should be able to make their own educational goals so that they would be positively motivated to learn 4. Too authoritarian
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Why was one reason that Rogers thought that marriage now is more difficult to maintain then in years past
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Increased life expectancies mean that flaws in a relationship that might have been endured in previous times, when the life expectancies were lower, will no longer be tolerated in a relationship that is expected to endure for 50 years or more
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What did Rogers feel was important for a healthy marriage (6)
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1. Difficulties are brought into the open 2. Communication is more open and more real, with mutual listening 3. Value separateness 4. Women’s independence is valuable in the relationship 5. Expected roles replaced with behaving in ways that each partner wants 6. Either partner may form satellite relationships, which often cause great pain but enrich growth
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What are satellite relationships
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Close secondary relationships outside the marriage that may or may not involve sexual intercourse but are valued for themselves
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What part of Roger’s ideals for a healthy marriage is controversial
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People disagree with Roger’s ideas for a satellite relationship because they believe this would be immoral, illegal, and grounds for divorce
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Roger’s person centered theory
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Structural model for Roger’s own needs that could explain and predict outcomes of client-centered therapy
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What is the actualizing tendency that suggests that all living things tend to move toward completion and fulfillment of potentials
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The Master Move
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Two basic assumptions of person-centered theory
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1. All matter tends to evolve from simpler to more complex forms 2. An actualizing tendency, which suggests that all living things, including humans, tend to move toward completion, or fulfillment of potentials
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In order to become actualized a person needs to do what
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Form a mutual relationship with someone
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All behaviors lead back to..
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Being self actualized and these tendencies
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When does the sense of self or personal identity begin to emerge and what happens once it is established
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Infancy It allows a person to strive towards self-actualization
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Self-concept
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1. How we perceive ourselves 2. Not always accurate 3. Once formed it is resistant to change unless we actively try and change it
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Ideal self
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The self we aspire to be
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How does psychopathology form
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When there is a gap between the self-concept and the ideal-self
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What is the valuing process in infants
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Organismic valuing process
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Why is the valuing process in adults more complex
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People have different views on different things, thus their judgment become clouded
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What do people who are getting more self-actualized do when they hear judgments by others
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They hear the judgments of other people but still go on with their gut instinct
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The Fully Functioning person
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If people are able to utilize their organismic valuing processes fully, they will inevitably begin to experience personal growth and movement toward self-actualization
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Fully functioning people are
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Self-actualizing people
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Client centered therapy?
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1. Client centered therapy is non-directive 2. You cannot tell someone what to do, do not give advice 3. Do not repeat what they say but summarize it back to them
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Self regard
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Having good feelings about yourself
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What happens as awareness of self emerges in infants
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Infants begin to receive positive regard from another person, that is, to be loved or accepted
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People naturally value experiences that satisfy
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Their needs for positive regard
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How can self regard be acquired
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As a result of experiences with positive regard Only after they perceive that someone else cares for them and values them
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People are not unconditionally…
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accepted
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Instead of being unconditionally accepted people receive
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Conditions of worth
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What does conditions of worth mean
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They feel that they are loved and accepted only when and if they meet the conditions set by others
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External evaluations (3)
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1. These are our perceptions of the way other people view us 2. Same concept as positive regard 3. View people have from outside
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Incongruence
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Conditions of worth may lead to false sense of self-concept Source of psychological disorders
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What is the first and second step of understanding a false sense of self-concept
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1. Understanding the difference between True Self and the Social Self 2. Next step is finding out a way to change it
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Empathy
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You are not feeling sympathy or pity You are feeling exactly how they are feeling along with them and tell them that you are feeling this way as well
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Three conditions that are crucial to client centered therapy, they are necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic growth
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1. Counselor congruence 2. Unconditional positive regard 3. Empathetic Listening
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Counselor congruence in therapy
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A therapist whose organismic experiences are matched by an awareness and by the ability and willingness to openly express those feelings
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Unconditional Positive Regard in therapy
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Exists when the therapist accepts and prizes the client without conditions or qualifications
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Empathic Listening in therapy
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The ability of the therapist to sense the feelings of a client and also communicate these perceptions so that the client knows that another person has entered into his or her world of feelings without prejudice, projection, or evaluation
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Rogers saw the process of therapeutic change as taking place in seven stages
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1. Clients are unwilling to communicate anything about themselves 2. They discuss only external events and other people (do not talk about things within the family with other people 3. They begin to talk about themselves, but still as an object 4. They discuss strong emotions that they have felt in the past 5. They begin to express present feelings 6. They freely allow into awareness those experiences that were previously denied or distorted 7. They experience irreversible change and growth
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Outcomes when client centered therapy is successfully(3)
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1. Clients become more congruent, less defensive,more open to experience, and more realistic (have more of an accurate perception of themselves and everything around them) 2. The gap between their ideal self and their true self narrows and as a consequence, clients experience less physiological and psychological tension 3. Finally clients’ interpersonal relationships improve because they are more accepting of others
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The person of tomorrow
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If people receive the three necessary and sufficient conditions for psychological health, then they will grow toward becoming the “fully functioning person” or “person of tomorrow”
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What faulty assumptions did Rogers believe education put in place (3)
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1. Students cannot be trusted to pursue their educational goals 2. Creative people develop from passive learners 3. Evaluation is education; education is evaluation
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What did Roger mean by Students cannot be trusted to pursue their own educational goals
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He felt that teachers exhibit mistrust in students by constantly supervising them If students were allowed to make their own choices concerning their educational goals he believed that there would be no need to monitor them They would be motivated to study and learn
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What did Rogers mean by Creative people develop from passive learners
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He argued that in an atmosphere of trust, mutual respect, and freedom from constraints, students would be free to test their own ideas and become creative individuals Thus he objected the notion that students are passive learners and expected to repeat back information
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What did Rogers mean by evaluation is education education is evaluation (3)
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1. He did not believe in examinations because they mark the beginning and end of education 2. Believed that students would lack sufficient time to pursue their own interests under such grueling schedules 3. Wanted to ensure basic concepts early on so that they can spend more time on their interests
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Roger’s recommendations to counter the nonproductive education orientation
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Students should be able to choose their own goals and to pursue them with the help and encouragement of faculty
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Why did Rogers believe marriage was a failing institution
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He opposed traditional marriage in which the husband is the ultimate authority and the wife occupies a more subservient role