Personality Psychology Final Exam 4

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B.F. Skinner
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Was the first person to describe operant conditioning
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Skinner argued that psychology is the science of
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behavior
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Skinner believed that behavior can be controlled by
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its consequences
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Skinner rejected ____ as a valid personality
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all of the answers -traits -unconscious
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Skinner believed people are subjects who express
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overt responses and nothing more
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The research supporting Skinner’s theory was conducted on
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rats and pigeons
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Skinner’s influence on psychology
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has wide practical applications
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A positive reinforcement
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increases the frequency of responding
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Random reinforcement produces
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consistent, idosyncratic behavior
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Ivan Pavlovs classical conditioning involves
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All answers
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to condition a dog to salivate at the sound of a bell, Pavlov
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rang the bell shortly before the dog smelled meat powder
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Skinner said that societies should be deigned so that
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reinforcements cause people to behave in ways considered desirable
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Skinner’s term for voluntary, exploratative behavior is
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operant behavior
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A negative reinforcment
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increases frequency of respnding
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Skinner believed that personalty is a(n)
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pattern or collection of operant behaviors
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When Skinner failed to reinforce rats in a Skiner box continuously, the rats
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eventually stopped pressing the lever
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In fixed-interval reinforcement
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reinforcement is unrelated to the number of responses
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An employee paid on a weekly basis operates under a ___ schedule of reinforcement
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fixed interval
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fixed int. interval is hortened response
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increases
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fixed ratio
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higher resonse rates
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slot machines operate on a ___ scheudle of reinformcent
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variable ratio
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Good example of variable ratio schedule
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casino gambling
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shaping a behavior that is not likely to occur spontaneously is accomplished by
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successive approximation
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Secret to shaping behavior is
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reinforcing only successive approximation of te final behavior desired
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superstitious behavior is learned quickly when there are
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short intervals between reinforcemnts
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To Skinner, self-control
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…or…. behavior longest one
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When a toekn economy was instituted in a psyciatric hosptal
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dramatic increae in appropriate patient behavior
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Sarahs mom wants sarah to learn to speak only when spoken to, what kind of learning?
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discriminiation learning
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Behavior modified in a token economy
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usually reverts to origiinal state when tokens are no longer provded
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Behavior modification therapy, unconscious motivating forces are
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ignored
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In behavior modification, Skinner advocated using
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only positive reinforcement
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According to Skinner, human behavior is controlled by
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reinforcers
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Skinner believed people function
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like machines
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Skinner’s assesment methods
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preferred the intensive study of a single subject at a time
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Learning is for Dollard and Miller
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Both learning to use old behaviors in a new situation and learning new labels for old behavior
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Psychotherapy according to Dollard and Miller involves
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learning to use old behaviors in situations
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All of the following are ways Albert Badura differs from Skinner except
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all of the above
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Bandura believes that all forms of behavior can be learned
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without directly experiencing any reinforcement and by observing the behavior of others
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The fundamental feature of Bandura’s theory is his
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idea of learning by observation or example
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Bandura pointed out that operant conditionging is
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an inneficient way to learn certain skills
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In modeling, new responses are aqcuired
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before ever perforing or displaying them
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Bandura’s famous Bobo doll experiment demonstrated the power of
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modeling
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The behavior of children who watched an aunt model attack a Bobo dolls was
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twice as aggressive as the behavior of children in the control groups
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According to Bandura, parents of aggressive children are probably
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aggressive
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Bandura believed that people are more likely to discard their inhibition against aggressive behavior if they see people doing so. Called
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disinhibition
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According to studies, disinhibiting power of modeling is enhanced when the
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all of the answers
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In modeling experiments, as the similarity between model and subject decreases, the degree of modeling
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decreases
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all characteristics of models are important except
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bonds of friendship between model and subject
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Which are more likely to be imitated
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all of the answers
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Which kind of behavior is most likely to imitated by children
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aggressive
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People who are low in ____ and ____ are much more likely to imitate a model’s behavior than are people high in those two areas
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self-confidence/self-esteem
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Bandura’s research has shown that observers pay closer attention to modeled behavior that
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produces positive or negative consequences rather than neutral outcomes
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According to Bandura, attentional processes
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can be influenced by the model’s attractiveness and confidence
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In moedling and observational learning reinformcement
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not required for learning to occur
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Bandura sees the self as a
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set of cognitive processes and structures
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Bandura says much of our behavior is regulated by
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self-reinforcement
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If you want competent, confident people, find ways to increase their sense of
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self-efficacy
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Self- efficacy is determined by
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how well me meet our behavioral standards
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Persons high in self-efficacy
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believe they deal effectively with life events
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Seeing other people fail at some activity
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can lower self-efficacy
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All of the following are was of increasing sef-efficacy
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counseling to increase inactive attainmnet
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All of the following statements about the developmental aspects of modeling are the except
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modeling is
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By the age of ___ children developed sufficient attentional
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2
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Self-efficacy in old age
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lowered because of declining physical abilities
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Bandura;s apporoach of behavioral modification is based on the assumption hat
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abnormal behavior is learned
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Bandura applied modeling techniques
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to eliminiate fears and other intense emotional reactions
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Snake phobia overcome by
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observe live model then handle snake
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advantage of modeling as therapy is that it can
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be used with groups
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modeling approach to behavior modifiction
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can improve self-efficacy
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arguing in favoor of behavior modification Bandura says it
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actually increases personal freedom
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According to Bandura’s position on free will versus determinism we are
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along wiht our environment reciprocal determinants of each other
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Bandura sees human nature as influenced by
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past learning experiences
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Research on self efficacy sows that it is
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partly a function of gender and age
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research suggests that women perceive theselfselves as high in self efficacy
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when they have traditionally female occupations
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high self efficacy is associated with
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all asnwers
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self efficacy has been shown to influence
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academic performance
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list of all responses which can occur in a given situation
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response hierarchy
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a habit is
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connneciton between a stimulus and a response
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a cue is
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a stimulus that provides information about the likelihood that reward wirll follwo
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A drive is
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stimulus which impels the organism into action

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