Periodic Table Trends

Who is the first to organize elements according to atomic mass?
Dmitri Mendeleev
Who organized the elements according to atomic number?
Henry Mosely
How is the periodic table arranged?
by properties
Groups
Families, columns
Periods
rows
Group 1
The Alkali Metals
soft, highly reactive, quickly react with oxygen in air, when added to cold water-reacts vigorously, form ion with a +1 charge
characteristics of group 1
Group 2
The Alkali Earth Metals
harder, denser, stronger, and have higher melting points than the alkali metals. less reactive than the alkali metals. form ion with a +2 charge
characteristics of group 2
the alkaline earth metals have ____ electrons in the highest energy level
2
Groups 3-12
The Transitional Metals
Metallic elements that have varying properties, not as reactive as the elements in previous groups, fill the d orbitals, have higher melting points than previous groups with 1 exception
Groups 3-12..Transition Metals
What is the exception of _________, the transition metals have higher melting points than groups 1 and 2
Mercury
Group 13
Boron Group
Has 3 valance electrons
The Boron Group, 13
Ends in a px1 orbital
group 13,Boron group
Group 14
Carbon group
has 4 valance electrons
carbon, group 14
ends in py1 orbital
carbon, 14
group 15
Nitrogen Group
has 5 valance electrons
Nitrogen group, 15
ends with pz1 orbital
group 15, Nitrogen
Group 16
Oxygen Group
six valance electrons
oxygen, 16
group 17
Halogen
7 valance electrons
group 17, halogen
ends in a px2 electrons
group 16, oxygen
ends in a py2
group 17, halogens
combine easily with metals, especially the alkali metal, to form compounds known as salts. the most reactive nonmetal elements
group 17, halogens
group 18
Noble Gas
have full s and p orbitals in the highest energy level, have low reactivity because this electron configuration is very stable meaning it is resistant to change, 8 valence electrons, very stable elements
group 18, noble gases
What are the 2 groups of the rare earth elements?
Lanthadides and Actinide
Lanthanides
atomic numbers from 58 to 71, end in a 4f orbital, all shiny reactive metals
Actinide
atomic numbers from 90 to 103, end in a 5f orbital, unstable and radioactive, only the first 4 have been found naturally on earth. the remaining actinides are known only as laboratory made elements
Hydrogen
because of its unique properties, hydrogen is in a group by itself
four regions of the periodic table
metals, nonmetals, metalloids, noble gases
metals (6)
good conductors of heat and electricity, solids under ordinary condition (except mercury), ductile, malleable, luster, left side of table
ductile
can be drawn into fine wire
malleable
can be hammered or rolled into thin sheets
luster
shiny
Nonmetal
opposite of metals…right side of table
Metalloids (3)
have some characteristics of metal and others characteristic of nonmetal, semi conductor, found along stair step line
Periodic Law
properties of elements tend to change with increasing atomic number in a periodic way
Atomic Radius
one half of the distance from center to center of 2 like atoms
atomic radius trend
increases down column, decreases across the row
Ionization energy
amount of energy needed to remove an electron from a specific atom or ion in its ground state in the gas phase
ionization energy trend
decreases down column, increases across row
electron negativity
tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is combined with another atom
electronegativity trend
decreases down column, increases across row
electronegativity trend
decreases down column, increases across row
electronegativity trend
decreases down column, increases across row
electronegativity trend
decreases down column, increases across row
electronegativity trend
decreases down column, increases across row
electronegativity trend
decreases down column, increases across row
electronegativity trend
decreases down column, increases across row
electronegativity trend
decreases down column, increases across row
electron affinity
amound of energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
affinity trend
decreases down, increases across
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