Parenting and Child Development Essay
Parenting and Child Development Essay

Parenting and Child Development Essay

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  • Pages: 5 (2426 words)
  • Published: November 10, 2021
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In his recent book, The Nurture Assumption, Harris claim that parents have little or no influences on the future personality of their children. Research conducted for several decades has indicated existence of a significant link between the quality of parenting and outcomes in children. They indicate that parents have strong influence on their children through direct interaction, transmission of family stories and emotional identification. They influence the development of their children’s cognitive abilities, ethical values, beliefs, coping defenses among others. Parenting is the aspect of raising a child. It is the process through which parents promote and support a child physical, social, emotional, intellectual and financial from childhood to adulthood (Bornstein and Bornstein, 2007). Psychologists refers to parenting as an ultimate and a long-term investment which requires parents or anyone thinking of becoming one to be prepared to give it more than they expect in return. They regard it as the most rewarding life job, but with the stresses in the contemporary society, it may be a source of unhappiness for many people once they become parents. Parents have different personal philosophies of raising their children. In today’s society, there is a lot of controversy surrounding ways in which parents raise their children. Some are torn between breastfeeding and bottle-feeding a child. They do not know the right way to discipline their children, whether to expose them to religion or not, place them in a day care among many other issues. According to American Psychological Association, parenting practices across the globe should focus on the promotion of children health and safety, transmis

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sion of cultural values and preparation of children to become productive adults later in their lives (American psychological association, 2013).

From talking, reading to making values, parents have an enormous influence over a child development. They play an enormous role in the development of social and cognitive abilities that children need for success in school and life. They strong provide a solid foundation and a good start for optimal child development and overall growth. However, they should understand that children also have their temperaments, which they come to this world with, and it is their role as parents to provide them with an interface for interaction with the world to prepare the child to attain complete independence (Bornstein and Bornstein, 2007). Although the rapid changes in the world has subjected parenting to various changing styles, it is important to note that no matter the type of parenting style chosen, the scientific goals of child development should remain stable. This paper, therefore, wishes to explore the impact of parenting on child development. It will discuss the concepts of tiger parenting and helicopter parenting and their influence on children development.

How parents respond to and discipline their children greatly affects the children cognitive and social development. Factors that influences child a development process stem from a mixture of some stimuli that they encounter, whether from individuals or the surroundings. They can influence your children either positively or negatively. The type of parenting style that a parent used on the child will greatly influence children’s lives. Parenting styles differ in four areas including parent’

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nurturance or warmth, communication skills, discipline strategy and maturity expectations. There are three types of parenting styles including authoritarian, permissive and authoritative parenting which influence children school competence, antisocial behavior, violence, delinquency, sexual activity, depression, and self-perception (Bornstein and Bornstein, 2007).

The level of parent involvement may lead to positive or negative outcomes in child development. Several attempts have been made by various scholars to warn of the dangers of parental over-involvement. Today, helicopter parenting has become a new cultural phenomenon (Kim et al, 2013). Helicopter parents are those parents who are extremely obsessed with their children and tend to get themselves over- involved in almost all aspects of their lives (Schiffrin et al. 2014). They break all the acceptable barriers of parental participation, cross lines and overstep boundaries to be with their children. Psychologists say that the main point of parenting is to help grow children capable of making good choices and decisions on themselves and taking adult tasks but not growing children who will always remain dependent on their parents to make decisions for them or sort out their problems. Studies indicate that parents become over-involved in their children’s life for various purposes. First, most of them are anxious about the children’s future success and think it upon them to clear every path that they require making it smooth for them to be successful. This makes them to keep different kinds of connections with their children even when they have grown into adults. Secondly, the emotional gaps from social life and marriages contribute to helicopter parenting. Parents who are emotionally needy will always keep their children as close as possible to fill their emotional gaps and experience the closeness they are longing for (Padilla et al. 2012). Psychologists argue that parents should recognize the purpose of parenting is to offer support and not to control a child. Children’s as they grow and become independent adults, their need for autonomy increases, thus, they should adjust their involvement levels and control to certain developmental levels.

Recent studies indicate that helicopter parenting may have several adverse effects on a child development. According to self-determination theory, helicopter parenting violates a child’s basic psychological needs leading to negative outcomes. The theory identifies three innate fundamental needs that are necessary for healthy development and functioning of human beings. The first component is the need for autonomy or the desire for making one’s choices. The second component is the need for competence or a feeling of confidence in a person’s ability and accomplishments while the third is the need for relatedness or the need for feeling part of a genuine and caring relationship. The fulfillment of these three components of psychological needs is important in the achievement of greater satisfaction in life and reduces the levels of anxiety and depression experiences as a result of over-controlling (Schiffrin et al. 2014). Helicopter parenting reduces children autonomy and competence and can result in undermined relationships between themselves and their child.

Over-involved parents may create anxiety, depression and decreased levels of perseverance in their children. Children of these patients may often fell less competent and unprepared to manage life and the

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