Fathers in different stage of people life
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Over the old ages the function of male parent as an indispensable influential portion of kid ‘s life, from the really beginning has been ignored. The male parent is treated as the 3rd individual in a mother-child relationship couple ; he merely comes into image in ulterior old ages of the kid ‘s life as gender function theoretical account. He is taken as the breadwinner of the household, who is distant, punitory, apathetic and autocratic ; inciting fright and a sense of obeisance in the kid. He has ne’er been taken as one who has the demand to emotionally connect with his offspring like the female parent. Furthermore societal stereotypes of maleness and gallantry related to male make it even harder to visualize a male parent being nurturing, loving and keeping feminine qualities of a female parent. But with clip the function of male parent has changed, in this 21st century with development of dual-earner households where female parents earn excessively. Now the parenting duties health professional is divided between both the parents. With construct of single-parent and homosexual households, parenting has touched new dimensions.
This paper is an effort to withstand all these set thoughts about the male parent, and convey to illume the existent features of a male parent and the nature of his function throughout his kid ‘s life, through in-depth interview of immature grownups about their past experiences with their male parents at different phases of life, and how these contributed to their overall development. As this survey analyses the perceptual experience of immature grownups of their male parents, it gives us the penetration into demands of kids at different phases of life. There are few research that have studied the kineticss of father-child relationship, which makes this effort even more meaningful as an effort for adding more information on this subject, particularly in Indian scene, because with urbanisation the household system in India is altering and with this alteration there ‘s a displacement in rearing manner. The findings of this survey would assist professionals to better understand a kid ‘s demand from a male parent and this would help him to assist those male parents who are to-be-fathers, holding job covering with their kids, new to parenthood, single- parents, primary health professional of the kid, or traveling through separation/divorce and have kids. It would besides do it easy to understand the unrealized demands of those kids at different point of life whose male parents have been absent from their life.
This research tries to reply the undermentioned inquiries:
Is the male parent every bit of import as the female parent in an person ‘s life? Is he as capable a parent as the female parent harmonizing to the person?
What are the assorted maps of the male parent at different phases of life?
How does the presence or absence of male parent make a difference to the immature grownup ‘s perceptual experience in the present? ( absence here include male parents who have died, have abandoned household or are separated from female parent )
REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
Harmonizing to Freudian psychoanalytical position the male parent is considered to be a fear instigating factor in a boy ‘s life due to which he identifies with him, but James E. Lieberman ( 1991 ) in his missive, “ WHY OEDIPUS REALLY LOVED HIS FATHER ” , states that it was non the green-eyed monster that made Oedipus kill his biological male parent but a mere accident and act of fury, and during this act he was ignorant of the fact that Laius is his biological male parent. It was love, Oedipus had for his adoptive male parent, Polybus that made him go forth his place in fright of perpetrating the offense of killing him and get marrieding his ain female parent, as he was unaware of the fact that he was their adoptive boy. Therefore in this article Lieberman makes it clear that a male parent is more than a sperm-donor, e.i. his function as a male parent involves more than being biologically parent. In another research survey based psychoanalytical position of function of male parent as “ being the 1 who castrates ” shows the importance of designation with him as a gender function theoretical account for boy for healthy development of sexual orientation later in life ( Paulo R. Ceccarelli and Belo Horizonte, 2003 ) . This survey explains that the lack/absence of a male parent who demands regard from the boy and ballad strong secure base for him to project his oedipal composites by invariably specifying bounds, can take to “ the building of the ‘nostalgia of the male parent ‘s protection ‘ as the transmutation of this male parent into the symbolic male parent ” and his projection of his demand for a male parent figure onto his sexual spouses and besides specifying his sexual penchant ( the instances described in the survey were of boies who had homosexual orientation ) . Even Freud himself could non deny his deep rooted demand of a male parent, clear from his quotation mark, “ I can non believe of any demand in childhood every bit strong as the demand for a male parent ‘s protection ” . ( Sigmund Freud ( 1:72 ) ) . This is the ground he tried to move as a protective male parent towards his clients to supply them with a to the full incorporating environment. Harmonizing to Zoja ( 2001 ) in his book ‘The Father: Historical, Psychological, and Cultural Perspectives ‘ with Jungian analytical position, points out that a male parent can ne’er be a true male parent because he can ne’er accept his feminine original as he has non been able reconcile his function of male parent to that of being the sperm-donor and has been invariably over projecting his incompetency over his spouse. Furthermore he explains that a individual female parent can presume the function of a male parent in preteen old ages of the kid because the adult female has been able to accommodate her function of female parent with her function of lover, but subsequently dues change in group kineticss and development of construct of gender-identity in adolescent old ages, demand for an existent male male parent figure arises, for these striplings form ‘gangs ‘ which ‘have a petroleum and regressive masculine psychological science ‘ and its unconscious map is to dispute the male parent ‘ merely as the packs of animate beings are placed in masculine hierarchy. Lisa Miller ( 2004 ) in ‘The Oedipus composite as observed in work with twosomes and their kids ‘ , in the description of her first instance in the paper shows how the female parent ‘s unsolved Oedipus composites and the nostalgia related to her ain male parent got projected on her girl and hubby, made it hard for the male parent and girl to organize an independent bond of their ain. Hence it ‘s rather clear from psychoanalytical point of position that the male parent is non merely of import for a kid ‘s biological being but besides for his/her psychological being.
Harmonizing to the writer of The Daddy Shift, Jeremy Adam Smith ( 2009 ) in last decennary there has been a displacement ( addition ) in the engagement of male parent in child rearing/care-giving activities though most of the research still highlight it being less than that of female parents, in itself it is a major alteration in the kineticss of household construction. He says that this displacement does non demarks the loss of maleness and power in male parents but enables the male parent to actively prosecute with his kid other than merely seeking to continue his breadwinner place in household so that his kids can bask extreme luxuries of life. He argues that ab initio the providing and car-giving duties were every bit divided between the two parents, but with industrialisation and outgrowth of patriarchal society the maps of female parent and male parent obtained a stereotyped function. Science the addition in adult females employment in the 20th century once more the male parent can take portion actively as a individual in his kid ‘s life with the fiscal support from his spouse. This does non intend he is taking over the function of the female parent, who continues to stay the Centre of the kid ‘s initial universe but supplying the kid with more accountable paternal nurturance which has gone losing from the kid ‘s life before emancipation of adult females. Thus throughout his book he stresses on the importance of a male parent throughout the life span of the kid from the birth itself. Supporting his beliefs and findings Trevena Moore and Milton Kotelchuck ( 2004 ) advocates the engagement of urban male parents in their kid ‘s wellness attention for a better over-all development of kid. Even Pruett ( 2010 ) in his paper the Role of the male parent theories from the findings of his survey that holding one ‘s male parent as a primary nurturing figure during early developmental ripening, while one ‘s female parent stayed really near ( most female parents continued to suckle after returning to work ) , creates a bedrock trust and comfort with present and future male and female objects.
Pruett ( 2000 ) in his book ‘Fatherneed: Why Father attention is every bit indispensable as Mother attention for Your Child? ‘ through his findings show that yearlings interact otherwise with their male parents in comparing to their female parents, they seek comfort from female parents and interaction with male parents, as female parents rapidly supply them with reassurance but male parents encourage them to digest defeat a spot longer therefore assisting them to develop into grownups with greater ego-strength and defeat tolerance. His survey besides shows that kids who are actively involved with their male parent from birth through adolescent twelvemonth have greater emotional balance, stronger wonder and self-assurance.Similarly Gretchen S. Lovas ( 2005 ) reported that some male parents provide really high degrees of Emotional Availability to their immature kids as that of the female parents and assisting the male parents improve their relationship with their kids would be helpful in a better holistic development of the kid as the male parents offer different accomplishments, resources, and experience than female parents and carry through different maps with respect to child raising.
James R. Barclay ( 1980 ) in his survey defines the function of a male parent in his adolescent boy ‘s development of values as that of: ‘the masculine function theoretical account, the communicator ( listening to different positions and offering problem-solving methodological analysiss ) , the moral theoretical account ( endeavoring to populate someplace between the absolutist and complete relativist ) and the fallible reinforcing agent ‘ . Sipsma, Biello, Cole-Lewis and Kershaw ( 2010 ) show that Sons of adolescent male parents were 1.8 times more likely to go adolescent male parents than were boies of older male parents, as they lacked proper male parent figure in their early as their male parent themselves have non mature plenty to supply them with the strong security which is associated with a male parent. Jones, Kramer, Armitage and Williams ( 2003 ) showed that the sensed quality of father-son ( and mother-son ) relation was negatively correlated with psychological separation: better the sensed quality, the less psychologically separated they were. Adolescent boys with non-resident male parents who had more frequent contact with their male parents experienced less psychological separation and more of overall healthy discreteness. Thus the engagement of male parent in a kid ‘s adolescent old ages particularly the boy is more of import so as to supply him with better gender function and therefore maintaining a cheque on kid ‘s maladaptive behaviours such as that of prosecuting in early sexual dealingss, perpetrating delinquency and mistreating substances.
As the kid stairss into maturity the parents measure in their old-age which marks a sensible rise in their concerns about each other. In a survey by E. L. Hay, K. L. Fingerman, and E. S. Lefkowitz ( 2007 ) show that grownups worry about their parents decreasing wellness irrespective of their gender but the extent of concern depends on the emotional investing both the parent and the grownup kid has done in their relationship. The death of male parent drastically affect the kid ‘s growing and his absence makes it harder for the kid to allow travel away the figment he/she carries of him which finally affects the ulterior confidant dealingss. Natasha Tarpley ‘s ( 1994 ) self narrative about her ‘yearning for Daddy ‘ adequately describes the psychological injury a kid goes through who has been near to her/his male parent and besides shows how the kid grows up with a nothingness that can non be filled except by the male parent himself.
Hence it can be clearly seen from above reappraisal of literature that a male parent is neither merely a 3rd individual in a mother-child nor merely a breadwinner of the household, but he is outstanding of import individual in his kid ‘s life. His physical and psychological presence or absence makes a large difference in how the kid as an grownup will develop.
Therefore it is really of import to analyze the function of male parent in a kid ‘s life from his/her position because as a male parent, the parent is carry throughing certain specific demands of the kid which can be best defined by the kid, himself/herself.
RESEARCH PARADIGM & A ; THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
Individual experience is a phenomenon which can be best described by the topic who experiences it. As the content of survey is analysis of the immature grownups ‘ ( 18-25yrs ) subjective experiences at different phases of their life and the function their male parent played in determining these experiences, therefore the research paradigm is phenomenological in nature.
The theoretical model is that of a societal constructionist, because it emerges with a certain thought of world and is based on the premise that there are multiple worlds as world varies from individual to individual. Its theory develops by analysing the subjects of the content of the subjective description of world therefore the initial perceptual experience of world supports on modifying with geographic expedition of the phenomenon.
RESEARCH METHOD/ DEGIGN
The method of sampling is purposive and structured. The sample size is 10 which includes immature grownups of age scope 20-25years who have at least one life parent. Thus the survey excludes all those grownups who have been orphan throughout their lives and those whose both parents died really early.
Data Collection and Analysis
Roll uping of informations is to be done in two stages:
Phase I includes choice and in-depth interview of immature grownups of age 20-25 old ages about their experiences at different phases of life and the function their male parents played in modeling these experiences. In phase-I a demographic information is collected from the population and participants are selected purposively harmonizing to the inclusion standards of the survey Then these immature grownups are to be interviewed intensively through unstructured interview method. By analysis of the subjective content of their narrations of their life histories, the general subjects are discovered. After the subjects are developed the 2nd stage of informations aggregation is to be carried.
In Phase II a focal point group method is applied for farther analysis of the subjects extracted from the in depth interview of each of them.
The participants would be explained the nature of survey before roll uping their demographic informations. They would informed in inside informations about the intent of the survey and assured that any personal information shared with the research worker will non be made public or disclosed without the participant ‘s consent. The consent of the participants would be taken before carry oning focal point group treatments so that the participant does non experience uninformed. The participant would be free to endorse out from the survey if he/she feels it evokes excessively much anxiousness and is incapable of get bying with it. The consent will be in composing. The participants will hold full right to measure the consequences obtained from the survey and will besides hold the right to kick if he/she finds any breach of confidentiality.
The information collected would be both in signifier of written field notes and tape-recording of the narrations so that it can be re-analyzed latter. As the information would be collected by unstructured open-ended interview method the inquiries would chiefly be about the relationship of the participant with the male parent and about the experiences at different phases of life with the male parent and how these mould the participant ‘s present. Therefore seeking to reply the research inquiries described above.
To maintain a path of research procedure a clip bound would be assigned to each portion of the procedure, and the day-to-day activities would besides be noted down. With completion of the stipulated clip for a peculiar undertaking in the procedure, the day-to-day notes refering to it would be summarized to look into if it needs any farther attending or alteration.
The information collected would be undergo content analysis to find the subjects under which the subjective experiences would be coded and decisions would be drawn on footing of assorted fond regard and household theories to outdo history for the phenomenon in general.
To look into the cogency of the decision drawn from this survey a communicative cogency can be carried by opening discoursing it with experts in the this field, like professionals who work with households and encounter father-child couples or research workers who have studied the same phenomenon or even the general population which of class consist of male parents, female parents and kids of all age groups.
As the research in phenomenological in nature and propose for an in-depth analysis of the subjective content of the life narrations, it would at least take 6 months and upper limit of 8 months to be completed.
Fiscal assistance would be needed for the undermentioned intents and their approximate costs are besides accounted for ( in Rs )
Accessing articles and informations that rare non free from the concerned right of first publication holder, printing, binding and other related undertaking – 4000/-
Stationary like pens, journals for note maintaining etc – 2000/-
Transportation system to the topographic point the interview would be taking topographic point and those sites where the focal point group agreements could be made and booking charges if needed – 6000/-
Instrument for entering – 3000/-
Entire budget ( about ) – Rs 15,000 /