The rationale of this study is to establish whether there is an existing the correlation between different work variables (perceived work achievement, working conditions, task identification, work and relationship with supervisors) that influence job satisfaction among men and women. An initial analysis of 130 respondents using hierarchical regression method had shown that job satisfaction is influenced by work achievements/rewards, prevailing organizational culture/conditions, work breakdown structure, the nature of the work and relationships forged with colleagues, more importantly superiors.Different implications of the analysis will be discussed. INTRODUCTION Because of rapid technological advancements and globalization, modern organizations gave more focus on efficiency and high productivity. The success or failure of the organization largely depends on the competitiveness of its human resources – employees who believe in its objectives/values and take pride in the organization itself demonstrate a high level of competency, efficiency and productivity (Steinhaus & Perry, 1996).
Due to economic and financial factors, it is a common scenario for many organizations to downscale their operations, resulting in a lowering of confidence in its workforce. Low confidence and low output are unhealthy and costly in the long run, that it why it is vital for the survival of the organization to determine the factors that affect the job satisfaction and eventually the commitment of its employees. The issue of job satisfaction as a major factor in organizational commitment has been acknowledged in the preliminary studies undertaken by Wanous (1976), Flynn (1985), Morrison (1997), among others.Most organizational managers take into account this issue because satisfied employees are committed employees and are expected to impact the company positively because of more exertions in terms of productivity and efficiency.
It is the objective of this paper to study whether work variables impact job satisfaction, which in turn affects work commitment. LITERATURE REVIEW Job Satisfaction On a general perspective, job satisfaction, simply put is pleasure and fulfilment of compatible various derived from working or performing a job (Locke, 1976).Since the reasons for working varies individually, i. e.
some considered work as a central aspect of their lives, while others work just to realize their financial needs, the issue of job satisfaction is the most studied research subject in organizational behaviour (Spector, 1997). Mottaz (1987) further sums job satisfaction as the result of the total job experience, a product of reward and values apparent in one’s job. There are two aspects or antecedents of job satisfaction (Spector, 1997). The first aspect consisted of factors that are external to the individual – interaction and treatment of colleagues and organization superiors, rewards and promotions and the nature of the work itself.The second antecedent is variables and reasons why the individual took the job. This comprised of job expectations, personality traits, need for fulfilment and recognition, personal drives and experiences (Chapell, 1995).
These antecedents jointly affects on how effective the individual fit the requirements of the job, which influences job satisfaction. In terms of rewards and promotion, this aspect reflects the inherent and extrinsic benefits that an individual gets from their work (Kalleberg, 1997). This may include task and organizational rewards.Task rewards are rewards obtained or connected with the performance of the job– i. e.
challenge derived from work, accountability and reliability, etc. Organizational rewards pertain to extrinsic rewards given by the organization to foster motivation and membership. They include tangible rewards – i. e. salary increases/bonuses, job promotions, job security, etc. (Mottaz, 1988).
Both forms contribute largely to an individual’s satisfaction with his job. A job that involves high compensation, greater career growth, tenure and fair/approachable management/supervisors leads to a positive work outlook.The higher the perception of work rewards and organizational values, the higher is the job satisfaction score (Beck, 1990). Organizational Commitment There have been a lot of definitions made regarding organizational commitment.
For the purpose of this study, organizational commitment is an attitude measurement that associate the worker to an organization (Mowday et al. , 1979). There are three categories of organizational commitment (Meyer & Allen, 1991). The emotional identification, association and connection with the organization are called affective commitment.
Continuance commitment is the understanding of the outlay should the individual consider to cede the involvement with the organization. Normative commitment is the obligatory perception to maintain the association with the organization. Employees that have a high degree of normative commitment to the organization feel they ought to stay with the organization that they are working for. In most cases, commitment to the organization is the end result of a symbiotic exchange between the worker and the individual, where the employee associates themselves with the organization and in return receives rewards or compensation (Angle and Perry, 1983).
According to this assumption, employees/individual enter the organization with a precise set of objectives, wants, abilities or expertise. It is to the expectation of the individual to look forward to a work environment or setting where they could achieve their full potential. Once this setting and requirements are provided, the organization is fulfilling its psychological agreement with its employee (Kotler, 1993). However, if the organization is perceived as failing to provide the expectations and the requirements perceived by the individuals within it, then commitment will decline significantly (Angle & Perry, 1983).