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organic vs inorganic chemistry

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What makes something organic?
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always contains carbon, usually contains hydrogen, and may contain nitrogen and oxygen
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organic compound
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a compound that contains the element carbon
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what makes something inorganic?
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a compound that doesn’t contain carbon. exceptions: carbon dioxide environmental and calcium carbonate
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most organic compounds occur naturally only in
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living organisms or their byproducts
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sugar(from a plant) and oil (from a plant) are examples of
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organic compounds
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most organic compounds have
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covalent bonds and form non-polar molecules
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the formula for glucose is
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C6H12O6
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An important inorganic compound is
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H20
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Why is water so important to living organisms?
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all living organisms need water to survive and 65% of your body is water
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cohesion
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the force of attraction between molecules of the same substance *it is cohesion that explains why a drop of water holds together*
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polarity
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when a molecule has an unequal distribution of charge
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polar molecule
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one end of the molecule is more negatively charged than the other end
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water molecules attract to each other because
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water molecules have a positive end and a negative end
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non-polar
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equal distribution of charge in a molecule
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Adhesion
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the attraction between the molecules of one substance and the molecules of another substance
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What is adhesive to many substances? (property of adhesion allows water to dissolve many substances)
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Water
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Water is known as the _________ _______ because many things can be dissolved in water
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Universal Solvent
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what allows water to travel from the ground to the leaves of a tree
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Adhesion (uses capillary action)
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hydrophilic
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any substance that has an affinity or is “attracted” to a water molecule *ex)food coloring
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Hydrophobic
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any substance that does not have an affinity for water or it is “repelled” by water *ex) oil/fats
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organic compounds are
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complex and large
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carbon atoms like to
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bond with other carbon atoms and form chains *ex) C-C-C-C-C
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Carbon has the ability to make _____ bonds
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four
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carbon chains can form
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rings and branches
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size and variety of these compounds are
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unlimited
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Hydroxyl group
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R-OH
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Carboxyl group
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amino group
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phosphate group
phosphate group
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carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid
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4 main types of organic compounds
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carbohydrate
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an organic compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
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carbohydrates are in a _______ ratio
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1:2:1
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Monosaccharide
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the simplest carbohydrate “simple sugar” * the building blocks of carbohydrates*
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examples of monosachharides
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glucose, fructose, galactose * all have the formula C6H12O6
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Glucose, fructose, and galactose have the same formula but can be different molecules because
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they have different structural formulas
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isomer
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organic molecules that have the same chemical(molecular) formula but a different structural formula(arrangement of atoms)
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most sugars usually end in
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-ose
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examples of sugar that do not end in -ose
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starch, glycogen
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sugars are important because
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they contain large amounts of energy. Nearly all living organisms use glucose for energy. Sugars can be used for cellular structural support in an organism
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dehydration synthesis
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a process that bonds smaller molecules(monomers) together by removing H2O
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the process of dehydration synthesis forms
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larger moleculers called macromolecules or polymers
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mono means
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one
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di means
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two
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poly means
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three or more
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disaccharide
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the molecule formed by joining two simple sugars (monosaccharides) by dehydration synthesis
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glycosidic bond
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name of the bond that holds monosaccharides together when forming a disaccharide/ polysaccharide
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polysacchride
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many simple sugars bonded together through dehydration synthesis to create a chain of repeating subunits *they are polymers*
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Polysaccharides used for structural molecules
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cellulose(indigestible fiber in plants), chitin( hard shell on insects), Peptidoglycan(gives support to cell walls in bacteria)
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Energy storage polysaccharides
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starch (plants store glucose as starch), Glycogen (animals store glycogen in the liver: insulin helps to convert glucose that we eat into glycogen to store in the liver for later use)
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hydrolysis
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the reversal of dehydration synthesis. Therefore, it is the breaking up of macromolecues into smaller subunits by adding water
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disaccharide/ polysaccharide is broken down into simple sugars by
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adding H2O
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lipid
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an organic compound made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
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How do you tell the difference between a carbohydrate and a lipid?
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less oxygen atoms in lipids than in carbohydrates
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examples of lipids
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fats, oil, waxes
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function of lipids
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lipids are part of a cell structure and serve as reserve energy supply; insulation also acts like a protective coating
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lipids are_____________________in H2O because_____________
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lipids are insoluble in H2O because they are non-polar (hydrophobic)
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a molecule of fat is formed by
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the dehydration synthesis of 3 fatty acid molecules and 1 glycerol molecule
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fatty acid
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chain of carbon atoms which hydrogen atoms are bonded, a carboxyl group is also present
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glycerol
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saturated fat
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fats that are formed from fatty acids that have single to single carbon bonds
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saturated fat examples
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solid at room temperature; butter and lard
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fats from animals tend to be
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saturated fats
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unsaturated fat
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one pair of carbon atoms are joined by a double bond/ triple bond of the fatty acid that makes up the fat
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examples of unsaturated fats
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liquid at room temperature, olive oil and cod liver oil
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unsaturated fats tend to be from
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plants and fish
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polyunsaturated fats
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a fat that has fatty acid chains with more than one double or triple bond
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diets high in saturated fats tend to increase
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cholesterol levels, increasing the risk for strokes and heart attacks
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nucleic acids are compounds that contain
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carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
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DNA (deoxyribosenucleic acid)
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is found in the nucleus of the cell. DNA is the hereditary information passed from parents to offspring
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what does DNA look like?
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long chain of repeating units called nucleotides. Two chains twist together to form a double helix (twisted ladder formation)
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Diagram of DNA
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what makes up a DNA nucleotide?
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phosphate group, sugar (deoxyribose), nitrogenous base; adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
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the two families of nitrogenous bases are
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pyrimidines and purmines
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pyrimidine
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has a six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms (the nitrogen atoms tend to take up H+ from solution, which explains the term nitrogenous base)
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examples of pyrimidine
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cytosine, thymine and uracil
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purine
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larger with a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring
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examples of purine
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adenine and guanine
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complementary bases
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only adenine and thymine pair up with one another. Only guanine and cytosine pair up without one another. Two bases that pair together. A is complementary to T and C is complementary to G.
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RNA (ribonucleic acid)
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found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell. RNA isn’t responsible for protein synthesis(making proteins)
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what’s does a RNA nucleotide look like?
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Repeating units of RNA nucleotides. Only one chain of bases (doesn’t need NOT form a double helix)
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What makes up a RNA nucleotide?
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phosphate group, sugar (ribose), nitrogenous bases; adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine
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DNA and RNA work together to control the
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development and activisties of ALL cells in a organism
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proteins
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very large complex compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Some contain sulfur and phosphorus as well.
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Where are proteins found?
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Proteins are found throughout livings organisms. Proteins make up muscle, bones, hormones(insulin), antibodies(protect us against disease) and enzymes(allows chemical reactions).
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A human has ten of thousands of different proteins, each with a
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specific structure and function.(shape determines structure)
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proteins are very
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large and complex
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proteins vary extensively
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in structure, each protein having a unique 3D shape
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what are proteins made out of of?
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amino acids(monomer)
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amino acid(monomer)
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the buliding blocks of proteins
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How many common amino acids are there?
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20
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An amino acid consigns of a central carbon atom and
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1 carboxyl group (COOH), 1 amino group(NH2), 1 hydrogen atom, and 1 aidan chain( R- which isn’t different in each amino acid)
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alamine
alamine
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glycine
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peptide bond
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the bond between two amino acids
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2 amino acids can be bonded together by
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dehydration synthesis
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the bond forms between the
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amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another
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the resulting molecule is a
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dipeptide or a polypeptide
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diagram of a dipeptide
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polypeptide (polymer)
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a long chain of amino acid an that form as a result of dehydration synthesis
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diagram of a polypeptide
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all proteins are usually made up of
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at least one polypeptide chain…Usually hundreds of polypeptide chains folded and coiled into specifics conformations