Organic final

The lowest energy orbital is filled first
Pauli exclusion principal
Each orbital can accommodate a max of 2 electrons that have opposite spins
Hund’s rule
Dealing with degenerate orbitals such as p orbitals one election is placed in each degenerate orbital first, before electrons are paired up
Sigma bond
Overlap of 1s orbital. All sigma bonds are sigma bonds
VAlence shell electron pair repulsion theory. Electrons are as far away from each other as possible.
Steric number
In order to predict the geometry of a small compound, small compound, we focus on the central atom and count the number of sigma bonds AND lone pairs. The total is the steric number.
If steric number is 4
Must use 4 orbitals – sp3 hybridized. Tetrahedral. (if no lone pairs=tetrahedral) if one lone pair= trigonometry pyramidal. (two lone pairs–bent)
Steric number 3
Sp2 hybridized ( double bonds) if one lone pair it’s bent, if none then it’s trigonal planar
Steric number 2
Sp hybridized. linear.
Double bonds are
Sp2. has 2 bonding interactions, 1 sigma and 1 pi bond.
Triple bonds are
Sp. Has three bonding interactions, one sigma and two pi bonds.
Each molecuele on the end of a sigma bonds
Own 1 of the electrons
Difference in electronegativity values less than .5
Covalent bond
Difference in electronegativity values between .5 and 1.7
Polar covalent
Difference in electronegativity values greater than 1.7
Ionic bond
Dipole dipole interactions
Electronegativity difference between atoms in a molecule. Attraction between molecules results in an elevated melting and boiling point
Hydrogen bonding
Protic compounds- proton connected to an electronegative atom. More hydrogen bonds- higher boiling point
Fleeting dipole dipole interactions
Hydrocarbons- boiling point increases with molecular weight
Brancing of hydrocarbons
Cause decrease in boiling point.
Bronsed lowery acid/ base
Proton donor/ proton acceptor
High pka
Weak acid
The atoms bearing double bonds
Adjacent to double bonds
Eclipsed conformation
Highest in energy
Lowest energy conformation
Anti conformation
Less steric hendrance
Sterioisomers that are not mirror images of one another (ex cis and trans)
Meso compounds
2 chiral centers on adjacent Cs, ALWAYS RS
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