Organic Chemistry IBSL

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Organic Chemistry
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Chemistry of carbon compounds (excluding metal carbonates and oxides).
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Functional Groups
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an atom or group of atoms, other than hydrogen, that imparts specific physical and chemical properties of a homologous series of organic compounds.
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Homologous series
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A series of organic compounds flow a regular structural pattern and have the same general molecular formula and differ only by the addition of CH2 groups
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Isomer
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compounds with the same molecular formula but different molecular structures and physical and/or chemical properties
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Structural isomer
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Isomer in which the atoms are joined in a different order so that they have different structural formula
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Benzene ring
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the hexagonal unsaturated ring of six carbon atoms present in benzene and many other aromatic molecules.
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Alkane
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Saturated hydrocarbons that have the general formula CnH2n+2(if acyclic)
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Substitution
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A reaction in which one atom or group of atoms is replaced by another atom or functional group
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Radical
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reactive species with unpaired electrons
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Free radical
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A species with one or more unpaired electrons, often produced by photolysis. They act as highly reactive intermediates in atmospheric chemistry.
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Initiation
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Step which produces the radicals
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Propagation
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Step which forms most of the product and in which the radicals are reformed
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Termination
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Step which consumes radicals generating only products
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Alkene
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Unsaturated hydrocarbons a carbon-carbon double bond and with the general formula CnH2n (if acyclic).
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Saturated hydrocarbons
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hydrocarbons contain only single C-C bonds
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Unsaturated hydrocarbons
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hydrocarbons contain double or triple bonds
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Addition reaction
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Unsaturated hydrocarbons with a carbon-carbon triple bond and with the general formula CnH2n-2 (if acyclic).
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Polymerisation
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A chemical reaction in which small molecules called monomers are joined together covalently to form a polymer.
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Monomer
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repeating base unit(s) of a polymer;
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Polymer
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long chain molecules that are formed by the joining together of a large number of repeating units
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Alcohol
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simplest group of organic compounds containing oxygen; it contains the hydroxyl (-OH) group.
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Aldehydes
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A homologous series of compounds with the general formula, RCHO, where the -CHO group (the aldehyde group) consists of a carbonyl group attached to a hydrogen atom. R is an alkyl or aryl group.
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Reflux
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The process of boiling a liquid in a flask fitted with a condenser so that the condensed liquid runs back into the flask.
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Halogenoalkanes
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A homologous series of organic compounds in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms of an alkane have been replaced by halogen atoms
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Nucleophile
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reagents that attack at a centre of positive charge by donating an electron pair; lone pair of electrons and may also have a negative charge.
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Nucleophilic substitution
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the substitution in which the halogen atom is readily replaced by other atoms or groups of atoms
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Aliphatics
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Compounds which do not contain a benzene ring; they may be saturated or unsaturated
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Carboxylic acids
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The homologous series which -COOH functional group present in it
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Hydrogenation
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The addition of hydrogen across a double bond.
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Hydration:
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A reaction where an unsaturated molecule adds a molecule of water, or where water molecules interact with ions in aqueous solution.
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Heterolytic fission
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the type of bond breakage, where both the shared electrons go to one of the products.
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Addition reaction
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reaction in which the double bond of alkene is converted to a single bond and two new bonds are formed to the species it reacts.
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Electrophile
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electron-deficient species which is therefore attracted to parts of molecules which are electron rich; positive ions or partial positive charge.

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