Organic Chemistry Flashcard

question

Aliphatic
answer

Term applied to compounds that do not contain benzene or benzene-like rings as structural units.
question

Aromatic
answer

An electron-delocalized species that is much more stable than any structure written for it in which all the electrons are localized either in covalent bonds or as unshared electron pairs.
question

Alkanes
answer

Hydrocarbon in which all the bonds are single bonds. These have the general formula CnH(2n+2)
question

Alkenes
answer

Hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon double bond (C=C); also known by the older name olefin.
question

Alkynes
answer

Hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon triple bond.
question

Valence bond model
answer

bases the connection between two atoms on the overlap between half-filled orbitals of the two atoms
question

Molecular orbital model
answer

assembles a set of molecular orbitals by combining the atomic orbitals of all of the atoms in the molecule
question

Sigma bond
answer

a bond along the internuclear axis
question

Bonding orbital

Nonbonding orbital

answer

lower energy, sigma or pi

higher energy, sigma* or pi*

question

Methane
answer

simplest alkane, most abundant
question

Ethane
answer

second most abundant alkane
question

Propane
answer

third most abundant alkane
question

sp3 hybridization
answer

A model to describe the bonding of a carbon attached to four other atoms or groups. The carbon 2s orbital and the three 2p orbitals having 25% s character and 75% p character. These orbitals are directed toward the corners of a tetrahedron.
question

Methyl
answer

CH3
question

n-butane
answer

“normal” therefore unbranched, isomer of C4H10
question

isobutane
answer

isomer of C4H10, has a branched chain
question

Methylene groups

Methine groups

answer

CH2

CH

question

n-Alkanes
answer

“normal” alkanes, unbranched
question

n-Pentane
answer

has a chain 5 carbons
question

n-Hexane
answer

has a chain of 6 carbons
question

Homologous series
answer

Group of structurally related substances in which successive members differ by a CH2 group.
question

Primary carbon
answer

A carbon that is attached to only one other carbon.
question

Secondary carbon
answer

A carbon that is directly attached to two other carbons.
question

Tertiary
answer

A carbon that is directly attached to three other carbons.
question

Quarternary
answer

A carbon that is directly bonded to four other carbons
question

Cracking
answer

A key step in petroleum refining in which high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons are converted to lower molecular-weight ones by thermal or catalytic carbon-carbon bond cleavage.
question

Reforming
answer

Step in oil refining in which the proportion of aromatic and branched-chain hydrocarbons in petroleum is inceased so as to improve the octane rating of gasoline.
question

Intermolecular attractive forces
answer

Forces between two atoms or groups in SEPARATE molecules.
question

van der Waals forces
answer

Intermolecular forces that do no involve ions (dipole-dipole, dipole/induced dipole, and induced dipole/induced dipole forces)
question

Induced dipole
answer

Force of attraction resulting from a mutual and complementary polarization of one molecule by another. Also referred to as London forces or dispersion forces.
question

van der Waals radius
answer

A measure of the effective size of an atom or a group. The repulsive forces between two atoms increases rapidly when they approach each other at distances less than the sum of their van der Waals radii.
question

Hydrophobic effect
answer

Exclusion of nonpolar molecules from water (like dissolves in like)
question

Parrafin hydrocarbons
answer

An old name for alkanes and cycloalkanes
question

Combustion
answer

Burning of a substance in the presence of oxygen. All hydrocarbons yield carbon dioxide and water when they undergo combustion,
question

Heat of combustion
answer

Heat evolved on combustion of a substance. It is the value of -deltaH for the combustion reaction.
question

Enthalpy
answer

The heat content of a substance; H.
question

Potential energy
answer

The energy a system has exclusive of its kinetic energy.
question

Intramolecular forces
answer

Forces between two atoms or groups WITHIN the same molecule.
question

Oxidation number
answer

The formal charge an atom has when the atoms in its covalent bonds are assigned to the more electronegative partner.
question

sp2 hybridization
answer

A model to describe the bonding of a carbon attached to three other atoms or groups. The carbon 2s orbital and the two 2p orbitals are combined to give a set of three equivalent _____ orbitals having 33.3% s character and 66.7% p character. One p orbital remains unhybridized. A trigonal planar geometry is characteristic of _____ hybridization.
question

Pi bond
answer

The bond between the left over unhybridized p orbital on carbon; above and below the internuclear axis; in double and triple bonds.
question

Pi electrons
answer

Probability of their location is highest above and below the internuclear axis
question

sp hybridization
answer

Hybridization state adopted by carbon when it bonds to two other atoms as, for example, in alkynes. The s orbital and one of the 2p orbitals mix to form two equivalent ____-hybridized orbitals. A linear geometry is characteristic of ____ hybridization.
question

1 carbon
answer

methane
question

2 carbons
answer

Ethane
question

2 carbons
answer

Ethane
question

5 carbons
answer

pentane
question

3 carbons
answer

propane
question

4 carbons
answer

butane
question

6 carbons
answer

hexane
question

7 carbons
answer

heptane
question

8 carbons
answer

octane
question

9 carbons
answer

nonane
question

10 carbons
answer

decane
question

10 carbons
answer

decane
question

11 carbons
answer

undecane
question

12 carbons
answer

dodecane
question

13 carbons
answer

tridecane
question

14 carbons
answer

tetradecane
question

15 carbons
answer

pentadecane
question

16 carbons
answer

hexadecane
question

17 carbons
answer

heptadecane
question

18 carbons
answer

octadecane
question

19 carbons
answer

nonadecane
question

20 carbons
answer

icosane
question

21 carbons
answer

henicosane
question

22 carbons
answer

docosane
question

23 carbons
answer

tricosane
question

24 carbons
answer

tetracosane
question

30 carbons
answer

triacontane
question

31 carbons
answer

hentriacontane
question

32 carbons
answer

dotriacontane
question

40 carbons
answer

tetracontane
question

50 carbons
answer

pentacontane
question

100 carbons
answer

hectane

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member