Oceanography Test 2

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conservative ions
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concentrations of major constituents in seawater that vary little over time
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dissolved gases
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a situation which occurs when a gas becomes dissolved in another solute
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halocline
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vertical zone in oceanic water column where salinity changes rapidly with depth
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hydrogen bond
hydrogen bond
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as temperature goes up, density goes down (H20)
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non-conservative ions
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ions in smaller concentrations
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major constituents
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sodium, chloride, sulfate, potassium, calcium, magnesium
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marine organic compounds
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minor constituents
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elements whose concentration is less than 1 ppm
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nutrient
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phosporus, nitrogen, silicon
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ppt
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parts per thousand; used to measure concentration of a solute in seawater.
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photosynthesis
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(Co2 vs. O2)
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pycnocline
pycnocline
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situated between the mixed layer and the deep layer, is where water density increases rapidly with depth because of changes in temperature and/or salinity
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respiration salinity
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trace metals
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minute quantities; measured in ppm/ppb; important for helping or hurting life
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thermocline
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band of water that has a sharp temperature gradient
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Coriolis deflection
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an apparent deflection of the path of an object that moves within a rotating coordinate system. The object does not actually deviate from its path, but it appears to do so because of the motion of the coordinate system.
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downwelling
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winds cause water to converge towards a region
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Ekman spiral
Ekman spiral
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a structure of currents or winds near a horizontal boundary in which the flow direction rotates as one moves away from the boundary
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Ekman transport
Ekman transport
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net motion of fluid as the result of a balance between Coriolis and turbulent drag forces
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gyre
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a large system of rotating ocean currents
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polar easterlies
polar easterlies
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dry, cold prevailing winds that blow from the high-pressure areas of the polar highs at the north and south poles towards low-pressure areas
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pressure gradient
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a physical quantity that describes which direction and at what rate the pressure changes the most rapidly
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geostrophic current
geostrophic current
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an oceanic flow in which the pressure gradient force is balanced by the Coriolis effect
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trade winds
trade winds
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prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics
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upwelling
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a process in which deep, cold water rises toward the surface
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westerlies
westerlies
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prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude
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western-boundary intensification
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intensification of the western arm of an oceanic current
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breaker wave
breaker wave
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Originate from long period, low steepness waves and/or steep beach profiles. The outcome is the rapid movement of the base of the wave up the swash slope and the disappearance of the wave crest.
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constructive wave interference
constructive wave interference
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a type of interference that occurs at any location along the medium where the two interfering waves have a displacement in the same direction
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destructive wave interference
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a type of interference that occurs at any location along the medium where the two interfering waves have a displacement in the opposite direction
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dispersion
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waves of different wavelengths travel at different phase speeds
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wave fetch
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area of ocean or lake surface over which the wind blows in an essentially constant direction, thus generating waves
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internal wave
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gravity waves that oscillate within a fluid medium, rather than on its surface
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progressive wave
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wave front moves through the medium
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seiche
seiche
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standing wave in an enclosed or partially enclosed body of water
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standing wave
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a wave in a medium in which each point on the axis of the wave has an associated constant amplitude
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ocean swell
ocean swell
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a series of mechanical waves that propagate along the interface between water and air
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tsunami
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series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water
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wave base
wave base
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water depth beneath which there is no wave movement
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wave crest
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a point on the wave where the displacement of the medium is at a maximum
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wave frequency
wave frequency
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the number of waves that passes a given point per second
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wave height
wave height
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the difference between the elevations of a crest and a neighbouring trough
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wavelength
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the distance between successive crests of a wave
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wave period
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distance between two waves passing through a stationary point
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wave trough
wave trough
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the lowest point of a wave

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