Oceanography Final Exam

question

71%
answer

What percent of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans?
question

78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen
answer

What are the two most abundant gases in the atmosphere? What is the percentage of each by volume?
question

Infiltration
answer

Water moves from surface of Earth into ground
question

Glacial ice, Antarctica, Greenland
answer

What is the 2nd largest reservoir in the hydrosphere, and where is it located?
question

Continental crust
answer

Mostly granitic, thicker and less dense
question

Oceanic crust
answer

Mostly basalt, is thinner and denser
question

Seafloor spreading
answer

Movement of the seafloor away from a mid-ocean ridge
question

Convection in the Earth’s mantle
answer

What is the driving force behind continental drift?
question

Alfred Wegener and Frank B. Taylor
answer

Who proposed the idea of continental drift?
question

Oceanic crust
answer

What type of lithosphere is created at a divergent plate boundary?
question

Pillow basalt
answer

Lava that cools rapidly on the ocean floor
question

Black smoker
answer

Substance that precipitates from hydrothermal vent waters; accumulate as dark clouds and accumulate in the form of conical chimneys
question

Mid-Atlantic Ridge
answer

What is an example of a divergent plate boundary?
question

Age increases, depth increases, heat flow from mantle decreases
answer

What happens to the age of the ocean floor, the depth, and the heat flow from the mantle as you move away from a mid-ocean ridge?
question

Almost ten times faster
answer

How fast is the spreading rate of the East Pacific Rise compared to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?
question

Melting of subducting plates
answer

How does an island arc form?
question

Where two colliding plates meet
answer

Where does an oceanic trench develop?
question

Aleutian Islands, Japan
answer

What are two examples of oceanic-oceanic convergent plate boundaries?
question

Iron and magnesium
answer

What two metals increase the density of the oceanic plate?
question

Volcanic activity and subduction
answer

How does a continental arc form?
question

Andes Mountains, Cascades
answer

What are two examples of an oceanic-continental convergent plate boundary?
question

Himalayas
answer

What is an example of a continental-continental convergent plate boundary?
question

San Andreas Fault
answer

What is an example of a transform plate boundary?
question

All of them
answer

Which types of plate boundaries are associated with earthquakes?
question

Transform plate boundary, continental-continental convergent plate boundary
answer

What type of plate boundaries are not associated with volcanoes?
question

86%
answer

In any sample of seawater, from anywhere in the world, what % of the salt accounts for sodium chloride?
question

Quartz
answer

What is the principle component of most beach sand?
question

Diatoms and radiolarians
answer

Which organisms are silica-based?
question

Coccolithophores and foraminifera
answer

Which organisms are calcium carbonate-based?
question

Equatorial latitudes
answer

Where do radiolarian-rich deposits form?
question

Hydrogenous sediment
answer

Sediment precipitated from seawater
question

Manganese nodules
answer

Black nodules containing manganese, copper, iron, cobalt, and nickel
question

Arctic
answer

Where in the ocean would you not find manganese nodules?
question

Oolith
answer

Tiny sphere of calcite that precipitates out of seawater
question

0.5 to 1.0 mm
answer

How big are ooliths?
question

Tektite
answer

Formed from a rock that was hit by a meteorite, then melted, then cooled back into the rock
question

Neritic
answer

In the continental margin
question

Calcareous ooze
answer

30% calcareous organisms
question

Foraminifera and coccolithophores
answer

Which organisms make up a calcareous ooze?
question

4500 m
answer

How deep is the CCD?
question

Siliceous ooze
answer

30% silica organisms
question

Diatoms and radiolarians
answer

Which organisms make up a siliceous ooze?
question

Siliceous ooze
answer

Which type of ooze is not inhibited by depth?
question

Exclusive economic zone (EEZ)
answer

Offshore zone that can be used exclusively by the country it is closest to; extends 200 nautical miles
question

Reservoir rock
answer

Rock that is less permeable than other rocks such as sandstone; responsible for trapping petroleum
question

Tropic of Cancer
answer

Where is the 90 degree sun angle on the summer solstice?
question

Equator
answer

Where is the 90 degree sun angle on the spring equinox?
question

Tropic of Capricorn
answer

Where is the 90 degree sun angle on the winter solstice?
question

Equator
answer

Where is the 90 degree sun angle on the autumnal equinox?
question

23.5 degrees
answer

What is the tilt of the earth?
question

100-200 m
answer

How deep is the photic zone?
question

Carbon dioxide and methane
answer

What are the common greenhouse gases?
question

Sea breeze
answer

Develops during daylight hours and blows inland from the ocean in response to differential heating of land and sea
question

Land breeze
answer

At night, land becomes relatively colder than the sea surface; circulation reverses and a breeze blows offshore
question

ITCZ
answer

Characterized by lots of rain and no wind
question

Horse latitudes
answer

Characterized by no rain and no wind
question

Polar front
answer

Characterized by lots of rain and very stormy
question

Subtropical anticyclones
answer

Term to describe where there is no precipitation and no wind
question

Thermohaline circulation
answer

Deep water currents below the pycnocline; much slower than surface currents
question

Density differences in the water
answer

What is the driving force behind thermohaline circulation?
question

Wave base
answer

Depth that orbital motion dies out; equals half the wavelength
question

Orbital motion
answer

Circular path traveled by molecules as a wave passes
question

Deep-water wave
answer

Wave in water deeper than its wave base
question

Fetch
answer

The distance the wind blows across an open body of water
question

Surf
answer

Nearly continuous train of waves breaking along a shore
question

Tidal period
answer

Time between successive high tides
question

Tidal range
answer

Difference between high tide and low tide
question

24 hours and 50 minutes
answer

How long is a tidal day?
question

Neap tide
answer

Sun, moon, and earth relative to each other form a right angle
question

Spring tide
answer

Sun, moon, and earth relative to each other are linear
question

Full and new moon
answer

When does a spring tide occur?
question

1/4 and 3/4 moons
answer

When does a neap tide occur?
question

Spring tide
answer

Which type of tide has the highest high tide and the lowest low tide?
question

Flood tides
answer

Tidal currents directed toward land, causing water levels to rise in harbors and rivers
question

Ebb tides
answer

Tidal currents flowing seaward with falling sea levels
question

Tidal bore
answer

When a flood tide enters a stream or estuary
question

750 km
answer

What is a typical wavelength of a tsunami?
question

Less than 1 m
answer

What is a typical wave height in the open ocean (in m)?
question

645 km/hr
answer

What is the celerity of a typical tsunami?
question

Coast
answer

Transition between land and ocean
question

Coastline
answer

Farthest inland extent of storm waves
question

Shore
answer

Land between low tide line and coastline
question

Shoreline
answer

Average low tide line
question

Breaker line
answer

Where the sand ends and meets the bedrock under the ocean
question

Upwash
answer

Breaking wave runs up onto the beach
question

Backwash
answer

Wave flows straight back to the ocean
question

Swash
answer

Upwash and backwash together
question

Longshore current
answer

Waves strike the beach at an angle, backwash leaves the beach, and together, the swash makes a zigzag path down the beach
question

Littoral drift
answer

Sand and other things in the water following the same path as the longshore current
question

Berm
answer

Platform of sand that slopes steeply upward
question

Salt marsh
answer

Composed of salt-tolerant plants that colonize shores that are protected from wave action
question

Mangroves
answer

Salt-tolerant woody trees
question

Headland
answer

Bedrock that is surrounded by seawater on 3 sides; wave refraction on each side erodes it
question

Sea stack
answer

Small island or rock formed from eroding headland
question

Barrier islands
answer

Elongate, narrow sand island parallel to coast; separated from coast by lagoon, bay, or estuary
question

Lagoon
answer

Body of water, separates barrier island from mainland
question

Sand spit
answer

Finger-like ridge of sand or gravel projecting partway across a bay or into a body of water
question

Jetty
answer

Perpendicular to shore; protects mouth of harbor or stream from closing off due to littoral drift
question

Breakwater
answer

Built parallel to shoreline; protects harbor from waves
question

Groin
answer

Built perpendicular to shoreline; purpose is to widen beach
question

Seawall
answer

Concrete or rock embankment; protects beaches, roads, and buildings from waves
question

5 to 20 degrees N or S of the equator
answer

Where do tropical cyclones develop?
question

Storm surge
answer

Extremely high waves that can flood cities or barrier islands
question

119 km/hr
answer

What is the minimum wind speed for a tropical cyclone to be classified as a hurricane?
question

Eye
answer

Center of the hurricane; winds calm, little or no rain, skies clear
question

Eyewall
answer

Most intense part of the hurricane; highest winds, heaviest rain
question

Cyclone
answer

Hurricane in the Indian Ocean
question

Typhoon
answer

Hurricane in the West Pacific
question

Tropical disturbance
answer

Low air pressure
question

Tropical depression
answer

Wind speeds of 23 mph
question

Tropical storm
answer

Wind speeds of 39 mph
question

Hurricane
answer

Wind speeds of 74 mph
question

When it reaches wind speeds of 39 mph
answer

When is a storm assigned a name?

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member