Oceanography 1

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Asthenosphere
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Partially melted, plastic-like portion of the upper mantle.
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Mesosphere
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Mantle
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Bathymetry
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The measurement of depth of the ocean.
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Lithosphere
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The rigid, brittle portion of the Earth’s structure.
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Seismicity
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Distribution, magnitude and frequency of earthquakes in an area.
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Lithosphere
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Least dense layer of the Earth.
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Lithosphere
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Thinnest layer of the Earth.
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Lithosphere
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Made up of mainly granite and basaltic rock.
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Seismicity
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Used to help determine location of plate boundaries.
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Paleo
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Ancient
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Proto
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First, Beginning, Original
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Iso
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Equal, the same
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Logy
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The study the science of
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Strata
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Layers
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Panthalassia
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Ancient precursor of the Pacific Ocean.
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Bathymetry
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Measurement of ocean depth and seafloor topography.
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Paleomagnetism
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Study of magnetism over geologic time.
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Pangea
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Supercontinent 250 million years ago.
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Paleoceanography
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Study of changes in the character of oceans due to geographic changes that occurred long ago.
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Paleomagnetism
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Provided evidence that indicated that the sea-floor was spreading.
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Convection
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Vertical transfer of heat
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Singularity
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Precursor of the universe.
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As the protoearth cooled, a series of concentric spheres were formed based on
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Density
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Convection
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Distributes energy (heat) in a fluid through a circulation cell.
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Density
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lb per gallon.
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Initial state of protoearth.
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Homogeneous
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Moho
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The boundary layer between the earth’s crust and mantle.
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Density
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Mass per unit volume.
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Physiographic zone
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A specific physical feature of the Earth.
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Prime Meridian
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An imagery line on the surface of a sphere adopted as zero degree of longitude.
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Convention
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Circulatory motion that occurs in a fluid at a non-uniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity.
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Nebula
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Gaseous and dusty space cloud.
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Mantle
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Rich in ferromagnesian minerals, between crust and core.
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Core
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Composed of iron and nickel.
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Crust
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Outermost portion of the Earth, basalt and granite.
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Crust
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Brittle portion of the Earth’s structure.
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Graphia
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the act of recording and describing
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major recognized Oceans ranked by size:
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Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic
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The first stage of the history of oceanography is characterized by records of
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the efforts of individual mariners
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The third stage of the history of oceanography is characterized by
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the development and use of new technology and collaboration among scientists
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del Cano
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first to complete a circum-global voyage
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The Universe is approximately how old?
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13.8 billion years
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If you apply heat to a material, the agitation of its molecules and atoms
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Increases
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When air is heated, its density
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Decreases
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The earth contains a solid inner core that is then immediately surrounded by the mantle.
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False
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When the water vapor content of the atmosphere increases, atmospheric pressure:
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decreases
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When the temperature of the atmosphere decreases, atmospheric pressure:
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Increases
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One distinction between an ocean and a sea is
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one may be surrounded by land or ocean currents
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The Earth is approximately how old?
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4.8 billions years
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Continental crust is composed mainly of ___________ which is a light colored and less dense rock than ocean crust.
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granite
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Oceanic crust is composed of _______which is a dark colored and relatively more dense rock than continental crust.
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Basalt
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If two of Earth’s plates collided and one was made of granite and the another made of basalt, what would happen?
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the granite plate would rise on top of the basalt plate
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The three ocean physiographic provinces are:
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continental margin, deep ocean, mid-ocean ridge
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Density is usually expressed as
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grams per cubic centimeter
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When Earth was a molten mass, elements and compounds separated from each other according to their
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density
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What effect does an increase in pressure have on the melting temperature of a substance?
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Increases the melting temperature
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The sea floor remains below sea level, and the tops of the continents above it, because
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the continental land mass is thicker
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The degrees of latitude in a hemisphere:
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90
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The degrees of longitude in a hemisphere:
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180
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Island Chains are formed when a tectonic plate moves across a
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mantle plume
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Oceanography is customarily divided into four major disciplines, which are
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physical, geological, chemical, biological
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What is the correct sequence in which one should carry out the Scientific Method?
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Observe and then Pose a Question, Formulate a hypothesis, Test hypothesis, Develop a theory
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The Earth’s core contains high concentrations of
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iron and nickel
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Which major scientific society sponsored early oceanographic investigations?
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Royal Society of London
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The asthenosphere is a portion of the
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mantle
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The scientific method includes all of the following except:
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validation of theory.
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The International dateline roughly follows this degree of longitude.
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180
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The nebular hypothesis suggests that:
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all bodies in the solar system formed from an enormous gas cloud.
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Continental crust is thicker and less dense than oceanic crust.
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True
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The ocean with the greatest number of islands.
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Pacific
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The ocean with the greatest area of land that drains into it.
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Atlantic
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The shallowest ocean.
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Arctic
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Lines of equal latitude are called:
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Parellel
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The most dangerous quadrant of a hurricane is the
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Northeast
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A hurricane in the northern hemisphere rotates in a _________ direction.
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Counter-clock wise.
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A hurricane forms due to an extremely _________ pressure zone.
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Low
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A hurricane in the western Pacific is called a
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Typhoon
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A hurricane in the indian ocean is called a
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Cyclone
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The three states of matter:
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Solid liquid gas
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The three types of plate boundaries are
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Convergent, Divergent, and Transform
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The ______________ Ocean is formed by the joining of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans south of 50o in the southern hemisphere.
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Southern
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Greenwich, England
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was selected as the location of the prime meridian or 0 degrees longitude
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The name of the tropical storm that impacted the US southeastern coast this year was
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HERMINE
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The San Andreas Fault is an example of what type of plate boundary
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TRANSFORM
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Winds are caused by air moving horizontally over the Earth from a ______________ to a ________________ region of atmospheric pressure. Lines of equal atmospheric pressure on a weather map are called _____________________.
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High, Low, Isobars
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1st layer
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Crust
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2nd Layer
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Mantel
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3rd Layer
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Core
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4th Layer
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Ocean
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5th Layer
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Lithosphere
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6th layer
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Asthenosphere
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7th layer
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Mesosphere
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8th layer
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Liquid Outer Core
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9th layer
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Solid Inner Core

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