Obstacles to standardization in international marketing strategies
Market Entry Strategies Retailers entering a foreign market, whether by direct investment, or through alliances or acquisitions (Wallmart buying Asda in UK and Woolco in Canada) must have a format which has proved competitive in other markets. This format should include • merchandising and assortments • a pricing pledge • display • location • service quality • Building a consumer database. Cultural Implications for New merchandise The problems many UK retailers have, when they open up outlets abroad, is due to their very success in the UK.
Formats and products have been developed specifically for UK consumer types, which do not necessarily suit other markets. Although fashion at the branded and medium/upper levels is quite international, at mass merchandise levels, national tastes are more diverse. One might also cite the failure of C&A in UK in 2000 (controlled from the Netherlands). The nature of merchandise desired in a particular country or community is governed by local tastes, values and government regulations.
Industrial goods such as steel, chemicals, computer and agricultural equipment tend not to be culturally bounded. However, consumer goods such as food and drinks, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals tend to be culturally centred and, therefore, require marketing adaptation for foreign markets, even if the product is a standardized brand. The degree of marketing adaptation will depend on the dichotomy between the home and host culture and the host country’s economic circumstances.
When designing merchandise for a particular market, manufacturers have two essential tasks to perform. Firstly, they must analyze consumers in foreign markets. Secondly, they need to tailor the company’s products, packages and promotions to local consumers and the actual environment. When doing this, the research team must take into account the availability of indigenous raw materials, national legal requirements (for example, standard unit measurements) and any other factor of local relevance.
Peculiarities of national tastes, values and traditions, imply that a retailer cannot standardize many product ranges; for example a UK retailer of television sets, hoping to supply the French consumer has to be aware that the receiving system in France is Secam, therefore, those manufactured for the widely used Pal system would be unsuitable for its continental neighbours. Also, a furniture retailer must realize that a standard bed size in Germany has to be longer than those for France due to the difference in the average height of the population.
Other factors such as national health and safety regulations will prevent food retailers selling the same type of beef in the US and France and so forth. A retailer attempting to export an un-adapted formula is likely to run into difficulties as has indeed been the experience of many international retailers. Much of the failure of Marks and Spencer to conquer the Canadian market has been attributed to the company’s failure to recognize the fact that the St Michael image and product, so loved by its domestic consumers, was not appealing to the Canadians.
And even when consumer goods are standardized, the retailer has to pay special attention to the quantities stocked in each size, colours etc. , as these will differ from country to country. As a result of the power of advertising, many luxury consumer goods are standardized and sold internationally. Hence, a Hermes scarf bought in London will be the same as those acquired in Paris, Milan or New York because the customers are purchasing a specific value which transcends national boundaries and tastes.
Pond’s Cold Cream, Coca Cola and Colgate toothpaste have been cited as evidence that a universal product and marketing strategy for consumer goods can win worldwide success (Levitt, 1983). But it would seem that these products all possess the following common characteristics: • Universal brand-name recognition (usually achieved by huge financial outlays)/as a result of decades of intensive promotion. • Minimal product knowledge requirements for consumer use
• Effective Merchandising that demands low information content However, a successful universal strategy for consumer goods is the exception and not the rule. The markets are, in reality, not as globalised as the existence of the high profile international brands might suggest; for example international retailers have to contend with foreign regulations rejecting many goods to be sold in their domestic markets.
Foreign retailers that have made an impact on the UK market in recent years include Aldi, the German discount food retailer and Toys “R” Us from the USA. Each of these retailers has found new methods of presenting old products to the British people and, in the case Toys “R” Us, have become real threats to their British rivals.
A manufacturer may elect to make a single standard item for all its markets (for example Coca Cola) and profit from the economies of scale. But the retailer may be obliged to offer a variety of products made to different specifications in all its foreign markets. The retailer is thus unable to benefit from the purchasing power of supplying standard items in its retail outlets world-wide.
However, the experience of retailers overseas will depend on the sectors in which they operate. In its global operations, Toys “R” Us duplicates marketing strategies that have worked in the US, under the assumption that children are essentially the same everywhere Fast-moving consumer goods, including personal care products, have traditionally been prone to stringent health and safety legislation, often necessitating modifications in order to satisfy national tastes.
However, the ecologically sound principles of the Body Shop and the increase in environmental awareness encouraging consumers to question the composition of products, has facilitated the company’s growth. Its products are “perceived” as universal because they are “natural” and not tested on animals. Hence, unlike less focused retailers such as Marks and Spencer and Storehouse, the Body Shop can appeal to a specific “international” customer and sell the same product in all its overseas markets without modification.
The Body Shop manufactures and markets naturally-based skin and hair care products. It is a highly-focused niche targeted at the environmentally and ecologically conscious international consumer. In the niche market chosen by the Body Shop, the impact of culture is greatly reduced when compared with other retailers supplying mixed goods. Conclusion Businesses of all sectors need to fully evaluate and understand the nature and habits of foreign markets in their efforts to undertake overseas expansion.
This is even more of a necessity in retailing which has to cater directly to a multitude of needs and tastes. Hence a retailer expanding abroad must possess characteristics similar to those of a chameleon in order to blend in with local customs and be fully accepted. The rush by many retailers to internationalize during the boom years of the 1980s led a number of them to employ market entry and development strategies, which, in retrospect, were inappropriate both to the organization and/or the nature of the foreign markets.
Whether these retailers have persevered with their internationalization strategies unchecked or with modifications, their experiences in overseas markets have highlighted the importance of culture, and the need to select the most suitable market entry method. In overseas markets, the retailer is inevitably confronted with a range of unfamiliar obstacles both internal and external to its organization.
The accepted norms of a country impact upon the nature of the product the retailer can offer and the way in which the goods may be presented to the foreign public. International retailing is extremely complex as no two countries have perfectly converging characteristics. Retailers need to acquire a thorough understanding of the implications and effects of local cultures on their foreign operations.
Culture is the basis for nations’ behaviour patterns, tastes, values and laws. In order to unravel the peculiarities of overseas markets, the retailer has to conduct a careful cultural assessment. The information gathered should then govern all aspects of foreign market strategies. A retailer incapable of comprehending the cultural subtleties of foreign cultures has to contend with complications arising from well-intentioned but inappropriate strategies.
The implications of culture on the survival of the overseas retailing venture are numerous because culture is all-pervasive and retailers are obliged to conform to the social norms of every country entered. Failure to understand and adhere to regulations dictated by local tastes and values leads to the alienation of both consumers and local authorities. A detailed cultural assessment is a prerequisite for the smooth introduction of a novel retailing concept or establishment in foreign markets.
A number of experienced retailers have fallen victim to the dilemma presented by divergence in cultural characteristics. A retailing formula successful in country A may not necessarily be accepted in country B, even if both countries share a common heritage and/or language. Culture is thus a major barrier to foreign market entry for the retailer because social norms and values alter continuously and even the slightest errors in cultural assessment could prove catastrophic to the international retailer.
Reference 1.Anderson E J and Coughlan A T (1987) “International Market Entry and Expansion via Independent or Integrated Channels of Distribution” Journal of Marketing, Vol 51, January: pp 71-82 2. Buzzell and Quelch (1990) “International Marketing Management” Addison-Wesley Clutterbuck D (1980) “Breaking through the Culture Barrier” International Management, December: pp 41-42 3. Corder S P (1989) Introducing Applied Linguistics, London: Penguin The Economist (1999) “European Retailing – Business Report” May 4. Euromonitor (1997) “Hong Kong” World Economics Fact book.
5. Herkovits M (1970) Cultural Dynamics, New York: Random House 6. Hofstede G (1980) Culture’s Consequences “International Differences in Work Related Values” Sage, Beverley Hills, CA 7. Katsikeas C S and Piercy N F (1991) “The Relationship between Exporters from a Developing Country and Importers Based in a Developed Country : Conflict Considerations” European Journal of Marketing Vol 25, No. 1: pp6-25 8. Kale S H and McIntyre P (1991) “Distribution Channel Relationships in Diverse Cultures” International Marketing Review Vol 8, No.
3: pp31-45 9. Larcombe K (1994) “Border Crossing” Retail Week, January 10. Levitt T (1983) “The Globalisation of Markets” Havard Business Review May-June: pp 92-102 11. Linquist H and Persson J (2000) “The Joy of Shopping: A Study of Shopping Trips as Social Events” 7th EIRASS Conference on Retailing and Service Science. Sintra, Portugal, July 12. O’Grady S and Lane H W (1992) “Culture: an Unnoticed Barrier to Canadian Retail Performance in the United States” Academy of International Business Conference, November, Brussels 13.
Robinson T M, Clarke-Hill C M (199)) “Directional Growth by European Retailers” International Journal of Retailing and Distribution Vol 18, No5. 14. Shiro T and Skolnik A M (1996) “Europe 1992 – Impact on Retail Sector” Retail Control, May-June 15. Shoham A, Rose G M and Kropp F (1997) “Conflicts in International Channels of Distribution” Journal of Global Marketing Vol 11, No. 2: pp5-27 Stone G (1962) “City Shoppers and Urban Indentification” Glencoe, Illinois 16. Usenier J-C (2000) “Marketing Across Cultures” FT/Prentice Hall, 3rd Edition Whitehead M (1991).
Get access to
Guarantee No Hidden