OB NCLEX Qs Intrapartum Essay

question

When caring for a client in the first stage of labor, the nurse documents cervical dilation of 9 cm and intense contractions lasting 45 to 60 seconds and occurring about every 2 minutes. Based on these findings, the nurse should recognize that the client is in which phase of labor? 1. Active phase 2. Latent phase 3. Descent phase 4. Transitional phase
answer

4 RATIONALES: In the transitional phase, the cervix dilates from 8 to 10 cm, and intense contractions occur every 1½ to 2 minutes and last for 45 to 90 seconds. In the active phase, the cervix dilates from 5 to 7 cm, and moderate contractions progress to strong contractions that last 60 seconds. In the latent phase, the cervix dilates 3 to 4 cm, and contractions are short, irregular, and mild. No descent phase exists. (Fetal descent may begin several weeks before labor but usually doesn’t occur until the second stage of labor.)
question

During labor, a client asks the nurse why her blood pressure must be measured so often. Which explanation should the nurse provide? 1. Blood pressure reflects changes in cardiovascular function, which may affect the fetus. 2. Increased blood pressure indicates that the client is experiencing pain. 3. Increased blood pressure signals the peak of the contraction. 4. Medications given during labor affect blood pressure.
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: Frequent blood pressure measurement helps determine whether maternal cardiovascular function is adequate. During contractions, blood flow to the intervillous spaces changes, compromising fetal blood supply. Increased blood pressure is expected during pain and contractions. Measuring blood pressure frequently helps determine whether blood pressure has returned to precontraction levels, ensuring adequate blood flow to the fetus. Although medications given during labor can affect blood pressure, the main purpose of measuring blood pressure is to verify adequate fetal status.
question

Because cervical effacement and dilation aren’t progressing in a client in labor, the physician orders I.V. administration of oxytocin (Pitocin). Why must the nurse monitor the client’s fluid intake and output closely during oxytocin administration? 1. Oxytocin causes water intoxication. 2. Oxytocin causes excessive thirst. 3. Oxytocin is toxic to the kidneys. 4. Oxytocin has a diuretic effect.
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: The nurse should monitor fluid intake and output because prolonged oxytocin infusion may cause severe water intoxication, leading to seizures, coma, and death. Excessive thirst results from the work of labor and limited oral fluid intake — not oxytocin. Oxytocin has no nephrotoxic or diuretic effects. In fact, it produces an antidiuretic effect.
question

Assessment of a client in active labor reveals meconium-stained amniotic fluid and fetal heart sounds in the upper right quadrant. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this situation? 1. Breech position 2. Late decelerations 3. Entrance into the second stage of labor 4. Multiple gestation
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: Fetal heart sounds in the upper right quadrant and meconium-stained amniotic fluid indicate a breech presentation. The staining is usually caused by the squeezing actions of the uterus on a fetus in the breech position, although late decelerations, entrance into the second stage of labor, and multiple gestation may contribute to meconium-stained amniotic fluid.
question

A client is admitted to the labor and delivery area. How can the nurse most effectively determine the duration of the client’s contractions? 1. By timing the period between one contraction and the beginning of the next contraction 2. By timing the period from the onset of uterine tightening to uterine relaxation 3. By timing the period from the increment (building-up) phase to the acme (peak) phase 4. By timing the period from the acme (peak) phase to the decrement (letting-down) phase
answer

Answer: 2 RATIONALES: To determine the duration of contractions, the nurse should time the period from the onset of uterine tightening to uterine relaxation. Timing the period between one contraction and the beginning of the next contraction helps determine the frequency of contractions. Timing the period from the increment to the acme or from the acme to the decrement supplies only partial information about contractions.
question

A client with intrauterine growth retardation is admitted to the labor and delivery unit and started on an I.V. infusion of oxytocin (Pitocin). Which of the following is least likely to be included in her care plan? 1. Carefully titrating the oxytocin based on her pattern of labor 2. Monitoring vital signs, including assessment of fetal well-being, every 15 to 30 minutes 3. Allowing the client to ambulate as tolerated 4. Helping the client use breathing exercises to manage her contractions
answer

Answer: 3 RATIONALES: Because the fetus is at risk for complications, frequent and close monitoring is necessary. Therefore, the client shouldn’t be allowed to ambulate. Carefully titrating the oxytocin, monitoring vital signs, including fetal well-being, and assisting with breathing exercises are appropriate actions to include.
question

A client with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome is admitted to the labor and delivery unit. The client’s condition rapidly deteriorates and despite efforts by the staff, the client dies. After the client’s death, the nursing staff displays many emotions. Who should the nurse manager consult to help the staff cope with this unexpected death? 1. The human resource director, so she can arrange vacation time for the staff 2. The physician, so he can provide education about HELLP syndrome 3. The social worker, so she can contact the family about funeral arrangements and pass along the information to the nursing staff 4. The chaplain, because his educational background includes strategies for handling grief
answer

Answer: 4 RATIONALES: The chaplain should be consulted because his educational background provides strategies for helping others handle grief. Providing the staff with vacation isn’t feasible from a staffing standpoint and doesn’t help staff cope with their grief. The staff needs grief counseling, not education about HELLP syndrome. Asking the social worker to contact the family about the funeral arrangements isn’t appropriate.
question

A client with active genital herpes is admitted to the labor and delivery area during the first stage of labor. Which type of birth should the nurse anticipate for this client? 1. Mid forceps 2. Low forceps 3. Induction 4. Cesarean
answer

Answer: 4 RATIONALES: For a client with active genital herpes, cesarean birth helps avoid infection transmission to the neonate, which would occur during a vaginal birth. Mid forceps and low forceps are types of vaginal births that could transmit the herpes infection to the neonate. Induction is used only during vaginal birth; therefore, it’s inappropriate for this client.
question

When caring for a client who’s having her second baby, the nurse can anticipate the client’s labor will be which of the following? 1. Shorter than her first labor 2. About half as long as her first labor 3. About the same length of time as her first labor 4. A length of time that can’t be determined based on her first labor
answer

Answer: 2 RATIONALES: A woman having her second baby can anticipate a labor about half as long as her first labor. The other options are incorrect.
question

The nurse is evaluating a client who is 34 weeks pregnant for premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Which findings indicate that PROM has occurred? 1. Fernlike pattern when vaginal fluid is placed on a glass slide and allowed to dry 2. Acidic pH of fluid when tested with nitrazine paper 3. Presence of amniotic fluid in the vagina 4. Cervical dilation of 6 cm 5. Alkaline pH of fluid when tested with nitrazine paper
answer

Answer: 1,3,5 RATIONALES: The fernlike pattern that occurs when vaginal fluid is placed on a glass slide and allowed to dry, presence of amniotic fluid in the vagina, and alkaline pH of fluid are all signs of ruptured membranes. The fernlike pattern seen when the fluid is allowed to dry on a slide is a result of the high sodium and protein content of the amniotic fluid. The presence of amniotic fluid in the vagina results from the expulsion of the fluid from the amniotic sac. Cervical dilation and regular contractions are signs of progressing labor but don’t indicate PROM.
question

After admission to the labor and delivery area, a client undergoes routine tests, including a complete blood count, urinalysis, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test, and gonorrhea culture. The gonorrhea culture is positive, although the client lacks signs and symptoms of this disease. What is the significance of this finding? 1. Maternal gonorrhea may cause a neural tube defect in the fetus. 2. Maternal gonorrhea may cause an eye infection in the neonate. 3. Maternal gonorrhea may cause acute liver changes in the fetus. 4. Maternal gonorrhea may cause anemia in the neonate.
answer

Answer: 2 RATIONALES: Gonorrhea in the cervix may cause neonatal eye infection during delivery as well as a serious puerperal infection in the client. Maternal gonorrhea isn’t associated with neural tube defects, acute fetal liver changes, or neonatal anemia.
question

The nurse observes a late deceleration. It’s characterized by and indicates which of the following? 1. U-shaped deceleration occurring after the first half of the contraction, indicating uteroplacental insufficiency 2. U-shaped deceleration occurring with the contraction, indicating cord compression 3. V-shaped deceleration occurring after the contraction, indicating uteroplacental insufficiency 4. Deep U-shaped deceleration occurring before the contraction, indicating head compression
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Answer: 1 RATIONALES: A late deceleration is U-shaped and occurs after the first half of the contraction, indicating uteroplacental insufficiency. It’s an ominous pattern and requires immediate action — such as administering oxygen, repositioning the mother, and increasing the I.V. infusion rate — to correct the problem. U- and V-shaped decelerations are variable decelerations occurring at unpredictable times during contractions and are related to umbilical cord compression. Deep U-shaped deceleration occurring before the contraction is early deceleration.
question

For a client who’s fully dilated, which of the following actions would be inappropriate during the second stage of labor? 1. Positioning the mother for effective pushing 2. Preparing for delivery of the baby 3. Assessing vital signs every 15 minutes 4. Assessing for rupture of membranes
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Answer: 4 RATIONALES: In most cases, the membranes have ruptured (spontaneously or artificially) by this stage of labor. Positioning for effective pushing, preparing for delivery, and assessing vital signs every 15 minutes are appropriate actions at this time.
question

The physician decides to artificially rupture the membranes. Following this procedure, the nurse checks the fetal heart tones for which reason? 1. To determine fetal well-being 2. To assess for fetal bradycardia 3. To assess fetal position 4. To prepare for an imminent delivery
answer

Answer: 2 RATIONALES: After a client has an amniotomy, the nurse should assure that the cord isn’t prolapsed and that the baby tolerated the procedure well. The most effective way to do this is to check the fetal heart rate. Fetal well-being is assessed via a nonstress test. Fetal position is determined by vaginal examination. Artificial rupture of membranes doesn’t indicate an imminent delivery.
question

A client in the fourth stage of labor asks to use the bathroom for the first time since delivery. The client has oxytocin (Pitocin) infusing. Which response by the nurse is best? 1. “You’ll have to wait until the vaginal bleeding stops.” 2. “You’ll have to wait until the oxytocin is infused.” 3. “You may use the bathroom with my assistance.” 4. “You may get up to the bathroom whenever you need to.”
answer

Answer: 3 RATIONALES: The nurse should tell the client that she may use the bathroom with the nurse’s assistance. The nurse should assist the client for the client’s first trip to the bathroom after delivery. It isn’t uncommon for a client to faint after delivery. Telling the client she must wait until her vaginal bleeding stops is inappropriate; vaginal bleeding continues for about 6 weeks after delivery. The nurse shouldn’t tell the client she can get up whenever she needs to use the bathroom; doing so places the client at risk for injury.
question

A client with Rh isoimmunization delivers a neonate with an enlarged heart and severe, generalized edema. Which nursing diagnosis is most appropriate for this client? 1. Ineffective denial related to a socially unacceptable infection 2. Impaired parenting related to the neonate’s transfer to the intensive care unit 3. Deficient fluid volume related to severe edema 4. Fear related to removal and loss of the neonate by statute
answer

Answer: 2 RATIONALES: Because the neonate is severely ill and needs to be placed in the neonatal intensive care unit, the client may have a nursing diagnosis of Impaired parenting related to the neonate’s transfer to the neonatal intensive care unit. (Another pertinent nursing diagnosis may be Compromised family coping related to lack of opportunity for bonding.) Rh isoimmunization isn’t a socially unacceptable infection. This condition causes an excess fluid volume (not deficient) related to cardiac problems. Rh isoimmunization doesn’t lead to loss of the neonate by statute.
question

The nurse is caring for a client in labor. The external fetal monitor shows a pattern of variable decelerations in fetal heart rate. What should the nurse do first? 1. Change the client’s position. 2. Prepare for emergency cesarean section. 3. Check for placenta previa. 4. Administer oxygen.
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: Variable decelerations in fetal heart rate are an ominous sign, indicating compression of the umbilical cord. Changing the client’s position may immediately correct the problem. An emergency cesarean section is necessary only if other measures, such as changing position and amnioinfusion with sterile saline, prove unsuccessful. Administering oxygen may be helpful, but the priority is to change the woman’s position and relieve cord compression.
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The nurse is caring for a woman receiving a lumbar epidural anesthetic block to control labor pain. What should the nurse do to prevent hypotension?
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Answer: 4 RATIONALES: Because the woman is in a state of relative hypovolemia, administering fluids I.V. before the epidural anesthetic is given may prevent hypotension. Administration of an epidural anesthetic may lead to hypotension because blocking the sympathetic fibers in the epidural space reduces peripheral resistance. Ephedrine may be administered after an epidural block if a woman becomes hypotensive and shows evidence of cardiovascular decompensation. However, ephedrine isn’t administered to prevent hypotension. Oxygen is administered to a woman who becomes hypotensive, but it won’t prevent hypotension. Placing a pregnant woman in the supine position can contribute to hypotension because of uterine pressure on the great vessels.
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The nurse notices that a client in the first stage of labor seems agitated. When the nurse asks why she’s upset, she begins to cry and says, “I guess I’m a little worried. The last time I gave birth, I was in labor for 32 hours.” Based on this information, the nurse should include which nursing diagnosis in the client’s care plan? 1. Anxiety related to the facility environment 2. Fear related to a potentially difficult childbirth 3. Compromised family coping related to hospitalization 4. Acute pain related to labor contractions
answer

Answer: 2 RATIONALES: A client’s ability to cope during labor and delivery may be hampered by fear of a painful or difficult childbirth, fear of loss of control or self-esteem during childbirth, or fear of fetal death. A previous negative experience may increase these fears. Therefore, Fear related to a potentially difficult childbirth is the most appropriate nursing diagnosis. The client’s anxiety stems from her past history of a long labor, not from being in the facility; therefore a diagnosis of Anxiety related to the facility environment isn’t warranted. There is no evidence of compromised family coping related to hospitalization. Although acute pain related to labor contractions may be a problem, this isn’t mentioned in the question.
question

The nurse is monitoring a client who is receiving oxytocin (Pitocin) to induce labor. The nurse should be prepared for which maternal adverse reactions? 1. Hypertension 2. Jaundice 3. Dehydration 4. Fluid overload 5. Uterine tetany 6. Bradycardia
answer

Answer: 1,4,5 RATIONALES: Adverse reactions to oxytocin in the mother include hypertension, fluid overload, and uterine tetany. The antidiuretic effect of oxytocin increases renal reabsorption of water, leading to fluid overload — not dehydration. Jaundice and bradycardia are adverse reactions that may occur in the neonate. Tachycardia, not bradycardia, is reported as a maternal adverse reaction.
question

A primigravid client, age 20, has just completed a difficult, forceps-assisted delivery of twins. Her labor was unusually long and required oxytocin (Pitocin) augmentation. The nurse who’s caring for her should stay alert for: 1. uterine inversion. 2. uterine atony. 3. uterine involution. 4. uterine discomfort.
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Answer: 2 RATIONALES: Multiple fetuses, extended labor stimulation with oxytocin, and traumatic delivery commonly are associated with uterine atony, which may lead to postpartum hemorrhage. Uterine inversion may precede or follow delivery and commonly results from apparent excessive traction on the umbilical cord and attempts to deliver the placenta manually. Uterine involution and some uterine discomfort are normal after delivery.
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The third stage of labor ends with which of the following? 1. The birth of the baby 2. When the client is fully dilated 3. After the delivery of the placenta 4. When the client is transferred to her postpartum bed
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Answer: 3 RATIONALES: The definition of the third stage of labor is the delivery of the placenta. The first stage of labor ends with complete cervical dilation and effacement. The second stage of labor ends with the birth of the baby. The fourth stage of labor includes the first 4 hours after birth.
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A client, age 19, goes into labor at 40 weeks’ gestation. When assessing the fetal monitor strip, the nurse sees that the fetal heart rate (FHR) has decreased to 60 beats/minute and that the waveforms sometimes resemble a V and begin and end abruptly. The nurse should interpret this pattern as: 1. variable decelerations. 2. decreased short-term variability. 3. increased long-term variability. 4. early decelerations.
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: On a fetal monitor strip, variable decelerations are characterized by an FHR that commonly decreases to 60 beats/minute; waveform shapes that vary and may resemble the letter U, V, or W; and deceleration waveforms with an abrupt onset and recovery. Decreased short-term variability manifests as fewer than 2 to 3 beats/amplitude of the baseline FHR. Increased long-term variability manifests as more than 5 to 20 beats/minute of the baseline FHR in rhythmic fluctuation. Early decelerations are seen as the descent, peak, and recovery of the deceleration waveform that mirrors the contraction waveform.
question

During labor, a client’s cervix fails to dilate progressively, despite her uncomfortable uterine contractions. To augment labor, the physician orders oxytocin (Pitocin). When preparing the client for oxytocin administration, the nurse describes the contractions the client is likely to feel when she starts to receive the drug. Which description is accurate? 1. Contractions will be stronger and more uncomfortable and will peak more abruptly. 2. Contractions will be weaker, longer, and more effective. 3. Contractions will be stronger, shorter, and less uncomfortable. 4. Contractions will be stronger and shorter and will peak more slowly.
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: Oxytocin administration causes stronger, more uncomfortable contractions, which peak more abruptly than spontaneous contractions. Oxytocin doesn’t affect the duration of contractions.
question

A client is admitted to the labor and delivery department in preterm labor. To help manage preterm labor the nurse would expect to administer: 1. ritodrine (Yutopar). 2. bromocriptine (Parlodel). 3. magnesium sulfate. 4. betamethasone (Celestone).
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Answer: 1 RATIONALES: Ritodrine reduces frequency and intensity of uterine contractions by stimulating B2 receptors in the uterine smooth muscle. It’s the drug of choice when trying to inhibit labor. Bromocriptine, a dopamine receptor agonist and an ovulation stimulant, is used to inhibit lactation in the postpartum period. Magnesium sulfate, an anticonvulsant, is used to treat preeclampsia and eclampsia — a life-threatening form of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Betamethasone, a synthetic corticosteroid, is used to stimulate fetal pulmonary surfactant (administered to the mother).
question

A client in labor for the past 10 hours shows no change in cervical dilation and has stayed at 5 to 6 cm for the past 2 hours. Her contractions remain regular at 2-minute intervals, lasting 40 to 45 seconds. Which of the following would be the nurse’s initial action? 1. Assess for presence of a full bladder. 2. Suggest the placement of an internal uterine pressure catheter to determine adequacy of contractions. 3. Encourage the mother to relax by assisting her with appropriate breathing techniques. 4. Suggest to the physician that oxytocin augmentation be started to stimulate labor.
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: A full bladder will slow or stop cervical dilation and produce symptoms that could be misdiagnosed as arrest in labor. Other strategies, such as internal uterine monitoring, relaxation, and oxytocin augmentation, would be appropriate later, but assessing the bladder first is key.
question

When caring for a client with preeclampsia, which action is a priority? 1. Monitoring the client’s labor carefully and preparing for a fast delivery 2. Continually assessing the fetal tracing for signs of fetal distress 3. Checking vital signs every 15 minutes to watch for increasing blood pressure 4. Reducing visual and auditory stimulation
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Answer: 4 RATIONALES: A client with preeclampsia is at risk for seizure activity because her neurologic system is overstimulated. Therefore, in addition to administering pharmacologic interventions to reduce the possibility of seizures, the nurse should lessen auditory and visual stimulation. Although the other actions are important, they’re of a lesser priority.
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The nurse applies an external electronic fetal monitor (EFM) to assess a client’s uterine contractions and evaluate the fetal heart rate (FHR). However, the client is uncomfortable and changes positions frequently, making FHR hard to assess. Consequently, the physician decides to switch to an internal EFM. Before internal monitoring can begin, which of the following must occur? 1. The membranes must rupture. 2. The client must receive anesthesia. 3. The cervix must be fully dilated. 4. The fetus must be at 0 station.
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Answer: 1 RATIONALES: Internal EFM can be used only after the client’s membranes rupture, when the cervix is dilated at least 2 cm and when the presenting part is at least at -1 station. Anesthesia isn’t required for internal EFM.
question

When assessing the fetal heart rate tracing, the nurse becomes concerned about the fetal heart rate pattern. In response to the loss of variability, the nurse repositions the client to her left side and administers oxygen. These actions are likely to improve which of the following? 1. Fetal hypoxia 2. The contraction pattern 3. The status of a trapped cord 4. Maternal comfort
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: These actions, which will improve fetal hypoxia, increase the amount of maternal circulating oxygen by taking pressure created by the uterus off the aorta and improving blood flow. These actions won’t improve the contraction pattern, free a trapped cord, or improve maternal comfort.
question

Which of the following would be an inappropriate indication of placental detachment? 1. An abrupt lengthening of the cord 2. An increase in the number of contractions 3. Relaxation of the uterus 4. Increased vaginal bleeding
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Answer: 3 RATIONALES: Relaxation isn’t an indication for detachment of the placenta. An abrupt lengthening of the cord, an increase in the number of contractions, and an increase in vaginal bleeding are all indications that the placenta has detached from the wall of the uterus.
question

A primigravid client is admitted to the labor and delivery area. Assessment reveals that she’s in the early part of the first stage of labor. Her pain is likely to be most intense: 1. around the pelvic girdle. 2. around the pelvic girdle and in the upper legs. 3. around the pelvic girdle and at the perineum. 4. at the perineum.
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: During most of the first stage of labor, pain centers around the pelvic girdle. During the late part of this stage and the early part of the second stage, pain spreads to the upper legs and perineum. During the late part of the second stage and during childbirth, intense pain occurs at the perineum.
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During assessment for admission to the labor and delivery area, a client and her husband ask the nurse whether their sons, ages 8 and 10, can witness the childbirth. Before answering this question, the nurse should consider which guideline? 1. The children and client should share a support person during the childbirth. 2. Children should attend childbirth only if it takes place at home. 3. Children shouldn’t attend childbirth because it will frighten them. 4. Each child attending the childbirth should have a separate support person.
answer

Answer: 4 RATIONALES: Each child attending the childbirth should have a support person — one who isn’t also serving as the client’s support person. The support person explains what is happening, reassures the child, and removes the child from the area if an emergency occurs or if the child becomes frightened. Children can attend childbirth in any setting. The decision to have a child present hinges on the child’s developmental level, ability to understand the experience, and amount of preparation.
question

During the active phase of the first stage of labor, a client undergoes an amniotomy. After this procedure, which nursing diagnosis takes the highest priority? 1. Deficient knowledge (testing procedure) related to amniotomy 2. Ineffective fetal cerebral tissue perfusion related to cord compression 3. Acute pain related to increasing strength of contractions 4. Risk for infection related to rupture of membranes
answer

Answer: 2 RATIONALES: Amniotomy increases the risk of cord prolapse. If the prolapsed cord is compressed by the presenting fetal part, the fetal blood supply may be impaired, jeopardizing the fetal oxygen supply. Because lack of oxygen to the fetus may cause fetal death, the nursing diagnosis of Ineffective fetal cerebral tissue perfusion takes priority over diagnoses of Deficient knowledge, Acute pain, and Risk for infection.
question

A diabetic client in labor tells the nurse she has had trouble controlling her blood glucose level recently. She says she didn’t take her insulin when the contractions began because she felt nauseated; about an hour later, when she felt better, she ate some soup and crackers but didn’t take insulin. Now, she reports increased nausea and a flushed feeling. The nurse notes a fruity odor to her breath. What do these findings suggest? 1. Diabetic ketoacidosis 2. Hypoglycemia 3. Infection 4. Transition to the active phase of labor
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: Signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include nausea and vomiting, a fruity or acetone breath odor, signs of dehydration (such as flushed, dry skin), hyperglycemia, ketonuria, hypotension, deep and rapid respirations, and a decreased level of consciousness. In contrast, hypoglycemia causes sweating, tremors, palpitations, and behavioral changes. Infection causes a fever. Transition to the active phase of labor is signaled by cervical dilation of up to 7 cm and contractions every 2 to 5 minutes.
question

During labor, a client tells the nurse that her last baby “came out really fast.” The nurse can help control a precipitous delivery by: 1. applying counterpressure to the fetus’s head. 2. encouraging the client to push. 3. massaging and supporting the perineum. 4. instructing the client to contract the perineal muscles.
answer

Answer: 3 RATIONALES: The nurse can help control a precipitous delivery by stretching the labia, such as by massaging and bracing the perineum with gentle back pressure. This helps prevent perineal lacerations — the primary maternal complication of precipitous delivery. Applying counterpressure to the fetus’s head reduces perineal stress temporarily; however, delivery proceeds when the client pushes with uterine contractions. Pushing puts further stress on the perineum, promoting delivery. When the fetus’s head exerts pressure on the perineum, contracting the perineal muscles is virtually impossible.
question

For a client who’s moving into the active phase of labor, the nurse should include which of the following as the priority of care? 1. Offer support by reviewing the short-pant form of breathing. 2. Administer narcotic analgesia. 3. Allow the mother to walk around the unit. 4. Watch for rupture of the membranes.
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: By helping the client use the pant form of breathing, the nurse can help the client manage her contractions and reduce the need for opioids and other forms of pain relief, which can have an effect on fetal outcome. In the active phase, the mother most likely is too uncomfortable to walk around the unit. The nurse will observe for rupture of membranes and may administer opioid analgesia but these don’t take priority.
question

When assessing a client who has just delivered a neonate, the nurse finds that the fundus is boggy and deviated to the right. What should the nurse do? 1. Have the client void. 2. Assess the client’s vital signs. 3. Evaluate lochia characteristics. 4. Massage the fundus.
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: Having the client void can determine whether the boggy, deviated fundus results from a full bladder — the most common cause of these fundal findings. Vital sign assessment is unnecessary unless the nurse suspects hemorrhage from delayed involution. In a client who doesn’t have a full bladder, the nurse should evaluate lochia characteristics to detect possible hemorrhage. If the client has a full bladder, massaging the fundus won’t stimulate uterine contractions (which aid uterine involution) or prevent uterine atony — a possible cause of hemorrhage.
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A nursing assistant escorts a client in the early stages of labor to the bathroom. When the nurse enters the client’s room, she detects a strange odor coming from the bathroom and suspects the client has been smoking marijuana. What should the nurse do next? 1. Tell the client that smoking is prohibited in the facility, and that if she smokes again, she’ll be discharged. 2. Explain to the client that smoking poses a danger of explosion because oxygen tanks are stored close by. 3. Notify the physician and security immediately. 4. Ask the nursing assistant to dispose of the marijuana that the client can’t smoke anymore.
answer

Answer: 3 RATIONALES: The nurse should immediately notify the physician and security. The physician must be informed because illegal drugs can interfere with the labor process and affect the neonate after delivery. Moreover, the client might have consumed other illegal drugs. The nurse should also inform security who are specially trained to handle such situations. Most hospitals prohibit smoking. The nurse needs to alert others about the client’s illegal drug use, not simply explain to the client that smoking is prohibited. Smoking is dangerous around oxygen and it’s fine for the nurse to explain the hazard to the client; however, the nurse must first notify the physician and security. The nursing assistant shouldn’t be asked to dispose of the marijuana.
question

Which of the following describes the term fetal position? 1. Relationship of the fetus’s presenting part to the mother’s pelvis 2. Fetal posture 3. Fetal head or breech at cervical os 4. Relationship of the fetal long axis to the mother’s long axis
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: Fetal position refers to the relationship of the fetus’s presenting part to the mother’s pelvis. Fetal posture refers to “attitude.” Presentation refers to the part of the fetus at the cervical os. Lie refers to the relationship of the fetal long axis to that of the mother’s long axis.
question

At 28 weeks’ gestation, a client is admitted to the labor and delivery area in preterm labor. An I.V. infusion of ritodrine (Yutopar) is started. Which client outcome reflects the nurse’s awareness of an adverse effect of ritodrine? 1. “The client remains free from tachycardia.” 2. “The client remains free from polyuria.” 3. “The client remains free from hypertension.” 4. “The client remains free from hyporeflexia.”
answer

Answer: 1 RATIONALES: Ritodrine and other beta-adrenergic agonists may cause tachycardia, hypotension, bronchial dilation, increased plasma volume, increased cardiac output, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, reduced urine output, restlessness, headache, nausea, and vomiting. These drugs aren’t associated with polyuria, hypertension, or hyporeflexia.
question

The nurse notices that a large number of clients who receive oxytocin (Pitocin) to induce labor, vomit as the infusion is started. The nurse assesses the situation further and discovers that these clients received no instruction before arriving on the unit and haven’t fasted for 8 hours before induction. How should the nurse intervene? 1. Notify the physicians and explain that they need to teach their clients before inducing labor. 2. Initiate a unit policy involving staff nurses, certified nurse midwives, and physicians in teaching clients before labor induction. 3. Report the physicians for providing inferior care. 4. Initiate a protocol order that allows the nurse to administer promethazine (Phenergan) before administering oxytocin.
answer

Answer: 2 RATIONALES: The best intervention by the nurse is to initiate a unit policy that involves the multidisciplinary team. This approach creates an atmosphere of collegiality and professionalism with the goal of providing the best care for clients in labor. Option 1 blames the physician and doesn’t promote multidisciplinary teamwork. Reporting the physicians is unnecessary because nothing indicates that the physicians provided inferior care. The nurse can approach the medical staff about initiating a protocol order that allows the nursing staff to administer promethazine; however, this option doesn’t address the problem — the lack of client education.
question

Several minutes after a vaginal delivery, nursing assessment reveals blood gushing from the client’s vagina, umbilical cord lengthening, and a globular-shaped uterus. The nurse should suspect which condition? 1. Cervical or vaginal laceration 2. Placental separation 3. Postpartum hemorrhage 4. Uterine involution
answer

Answer: 2 RATIONALES: Placental separation is characterized by a sudden gush or trickle of blood from the vagina, further protrusion of the umbilical cord from the vagina, a globular-shaped uterus, and an increase in fundal height. With cervical or vaginal laceration, the nurse notes a consistent flow of bright red blood from the vagina. With postpartum hemorrhage, usually caused by uterine atony, the uterus isn’t globular. Uterine involution can’t begin until the placenta has been delivered.
question

The nurse is assessing the fetal heart rate (FHR) of a client, who is at term, admitted to the labor and delivery area. Which of the following should the nurse identify as the normal range of the baseline FHR? 1. 60 to 80 beats/minute 2. 80 to 120 beats/minute 3. 120 to 160 beats/minute 4. 160 to 200 beats/minute
answer

Answer: 3 RATIONALES: In a full-term fetus, the baseline FHR normally ranges from 120 to 160 beats/minute. FHR below 120 beats/minute reflects bradycardia; above 160 beats/minute, tachycardia.
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An adolescent in the early stages of labor is admitted to the labor and delivery unit. The nurse notes lymphadenopathy and a macular rash on the palmar surfaces of the hands and plantar surfaces of the feet. Admission laboratory testing reveals trace ketones in the urine, white blood cell count 10,000/μl, hemoglobin 14.5 g/dl, hematocrit 40%, and the nontreponemal antibody test is positive. The nurse notifies the physician of the laboratory results. Which action by the nurse takes priority? 1. Notifying the laboratory that a repeat hemoglobin and hematocrit have been ordered. 2. Recommending that the client drink plenty of fluids. 3. Consulting with the infection control nurse. 4. Asking the client if she has been exposed to varicella in the past 3 weeks.
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Answer: 3 RATIONALES: A nontreponemal test screens the client for syphilis. The positive test result, along with the lymphadenopathy and rash, indicate that the client has secondary syphilis. Based on these findings, the neonate will most likely have signs and symptoms of congenital syphilis. The hemoglobin and hematocrit results are normal for a pregnant client. The laboratory results don’t show signs of dehydration, so having the client drink plenty of fluids isn’t necessary. The lesions associated with varicella are vesicular, and don’t resemble the rash associated with syphilis.
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The nurse is administering oxytocin (Pitocin) to a client in labor. During oxytocin therapy, why must the nurse monitor the client’s fluid intake and output closely? 1. Because oxytocin causes fluid retention 2. Because oxytocin causes excessive thirst 3. Because oxytocin has a diuretic effect
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Answer: 1 RATIONALES: Oxytocin has an antidiuretic effect; prolonged I.V. infusion may lead to severe fluid retention, resulting in seizures, coma, and even death. Excessive thirst results from the work of labor and lack of oral fluids, not oxytocin administration. Oxytocin isn’t toxic to the kidney.
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At 40 weeks’ gestation, a client is admitted to the labor and delivery area. She and her husband are worried about the fetus’s health because she had problems during her previous childbirth. The nurse reassures them that the fetus will be monitored closely with an electronic fetal monitor (EFM). On the fetal monitor strip, what is the single most reliable indicator of fetal well-being? 1. Normal long-term variability 2. Normal short-term variability 3. Normal baseline fetal heart rate (FHR) 4. Normal contraction sequence
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Answer: 2 RATIONALES: Normal short-term variability — 2 to 3 beats per amplitude — is the single most reliable indicator of fetal well-being on an EFM strip. It represents actual beat-to-beat fluctuations in the FHR. Normal long-term variability, although a helpful indicator, takes into account larger periodic and rhythmic deviations above and below the baseline FHR. Baseline FHR serves only as a reference for all subsequent FHR readings taken during labor. Contraction sequence provides no information about fetal well-being, although it does give some indication of maternal well-being and progress.
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A pregnant client arrives at the health care facility, stating that her bed linens were wet when she woke up this morning. She says no fluid is leaking but complains of mild abdominal cramps and lower back discomfort. Vaginal examination reveals cervical dilation of 3 cm, 100% effacement, and positive ferning. Based on these findings, the nurse concludes that the client is in which phase of the first stage of labor? 1. Active phase 2. Latent phase 3. Expulsive phase 4. Transitional phase
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Answer: 2 RATIONALES: The latent phase of the first stage of labor is associated with irregular, short, mild contractions; cervical dilation of 3 to 4 cm; and abdominal cramps or lower back discomfort. During the active phase, the cervix dilates to 7 cm and moderately intense contractions of 40 to 50 seconds’ duration occur every 2 to 5 minutes. Fetal descent continues throughout the active phase and into the transitional phase, when the cervix dilates from 8 to 10 cm and intense contractions of 45 to 60 seconds’ duration occur every 1½ to 2 minutes. The first stage of labor doesn’t include an expulsive phase.
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The nurse is caring for a client who’s in the first stage of labor. What is the shortest but most difficult part of this stage? 1. Active phase 2. Complete phase 3. Latent phase 4. Transitional phase
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Answer: 4 RATIONALES: The transitional phase, which lasts 1 to 3 hours, is the shortest but most difficult part of the first stage of labor. This phase is characterized by intense uterine contractions that occur every 1½ to 2 minutes and last 45 to 90 seconds. The active phase lasts 4½ to 6 hours; it’s characterized by contractions that start out moderately intense, grow stronger, and last about 60 seconds. The complete phase occurs during the second, not first, stage of labor. The latent phase lasts 5 to 8 hours and is marked by mild, short, irregular contractions.
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A nulliparous client has been in the latent phase of the first stage of labor for several hours. Despite continued uterine contractions, her cervix hasn’t dilated further since the initial examination. Her latent phase may be considered prolonged after: 1. 6 hours. 2. 10 hours. 3. 14 hours. 4. 20 hours.
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Answer: 4 RATIONALES: Based on research, the latent phase may be considered prolonged if it exceeds 20 hours in a nulliparous client or 14 hours in a multiparous client.
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Using the acronym COAT or TOCA, what is the nurse assessing and what are important to ask the client?
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Assessing the amniotic fluid after the bag of membranes has been broken. • C : Color (Clear, Blood Tinged, Green Meconium) • O : Odor (Possible Infection) • A : Amount (Trickle (scant), Copius, Moderate) • T : Time (When? To prevent infection labor within 24 hrs.)
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A client is having contractions every 6-8 minutes apart lasting for 30 seconds and are mild in intensity. Her cervix is 2cm dialated, what stage and phase of labor is she in?
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Stage One, Latent(Early) Phase
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A laboring mom is 9 cm dilated and experiencing contractions every 2 minutes for 90 seconds each. Which stage and phase of labor is she in?
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Stage One, Transition Phase
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What three test are done to confirm a rupture of the amniotic membranes?
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1. Nitrazine Paper (Turn blue to change in pH) 2. Ferning Test (Fluid dried shows fern like design) 3. Free Flow (Cervical exam, pt asked to bear down, fluid seen on cervix)
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Variable decellerations in fetal heart monitor indicates what?
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Pressure on the cord causing circulation problems. • Prolapsed Cord • Fetus positioned on cord • Insufficient profusion to fetus
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What is the definition of Labor?
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Contractions with cervical change.
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According to Ballard assessment scale, what size determines and large for gestational age baby and a small for gestational age baby? What measurements are used to get to this score?
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>90% growth = LGA <10% growth = SGA 1. Head Circumference 2. Crown to Rump Distance 3. Femur Length
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What is pitocin drug half-life and where should it be administered and why?
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• 6 min. 1/2 life • Closest port to IV site • To provide tight control of medication infusion
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What are the 2 types of Episiotomies? What are there benefits?
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1. Midline (Faster Healing, Less Muscle Damage, Risk of tearing anus) 2. Medial Lateral (Slow healing, More muscle repair, No risk of tearing Anus)
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What are the 3 types of cesarean section cuts that can be made. What are their advantages?
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1. Kerr (Transverse) : Allows VBAC for 2nd birth 2. Selheim : Low incision 3. Classical : Fastest(Risk or Trauma), Dihisance Risk, No vaginal supsequent births.
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A laboring client in transition phase is 8 cm dilated and feels the urge to push. What are the risks to the mom and what is the nursing intervention?
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Risk of tearing perinium when <10cm dialted • Use open glottis, short breaths when feeling the urge to push.
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When a pregnant client arrives at the hospital and is taken to triage to determine what stage of labor she is in, the nurse gets a urine sample immediately, what is being tested for and what are the implications?
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Protein : Hypertention Nitrates : Infection Ketones : Renal Problems and Glucose (Diabetic?)
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If there has been a SROM or AROM, how often should the nurse take vital signs?
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Q 2hrs.
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After pitocin has been administered, how often should the fetal monitoring be checked? How often should vitals be taken? How often should temperature be checked?
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FHR/FT : Q15min. VS : Q30min Temp. :Q4hrs (if fever Q1hr.)
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After pitocin is administed, how often is it increased determining on dilation and effacement?
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1-2mu per 15 min 20 mu max. 30 mu max with physician orders
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What concentrations do Pitocin usually come in?
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30u/500L 20u/1000L 10u/1000L

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