NYSTCE CST Social Studies

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Global History Questions
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What did the English Parliament create in 1689?
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The English Bill of Rights
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What was King John of England forced to sign in 1215?
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The Magna Carta.
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What was the Magna Carta?
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The Magna Carta is Latin for \”Great Charter\”. It set down rights which became part of English law and which are now the foundation of the constitution of all countries which speak English.
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What did the Medieval Manor represent?
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The medieval manor was an agricultural estate. It was usually comprised of tracts of agricultural land, a village whose inhabitants worked that land, and a manor house where the lord who owned or controlled the estate lived. Manors were largely self-sufficient.
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What is the most important invention of the fifteenth century?
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When Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1445, he forever changed the lives of people in Europe and, eventually, all over the world.
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Which of the following was the most frequent source of conflict between church and state in Europe throughout the Middle Ages?
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The doctrine of papal supremacy: The Catholic Pope
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Which of the following breakthroughs of the Scientific Revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries presented a major challenge to traditional religious conceptions in Europe?
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The discovery that the earth and the other planets revolved around the sun. Shifting from a geocentric to a heliocentric perspective.
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Describe the Romantic Era.
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An artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century. Partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, it was also a revolt against the aristocratic social and political norms.
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Which of the following played a major role in the spread of both communist and fascist ideologies in Europe between World War I and World War II?
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The economic devastation caused by the Great Depression
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A paragraph about China ends with this question: Which of the following is an example of ethnocentrism?
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A country develops legislation to restrict the opportunity of immigrants.
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What was the main difference between China’s Revolution and the Russian Revolution?
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The Chinese Revolution lasted about 28 years, while the Russian Revolution only lasted about one year.
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What was a major reason European nations competed for control of Africa during the second half of the 1800s?
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Africa had a wealth of natural resources.
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The main source of wealth and power among the empires of West Africa between A.D. 400 and 1500 was control of:
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The trans-Saharan salt and gold trade.
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What is The Silk Road?
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The trade route that extended from Asia to the Mediterranean Basin.
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Which factor made Athens’ direct democracy different from representative democracy?
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Citizens directly made the laws themselves.
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One can best distinguish totalitarian from authoritarian governments by examining which of the following aspects of their political systems?
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The pervasiveness of government control over non- governmental sectors of society.
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What is a similarity between the hierarchy of Feudalism demonstrated by both the Shogun in Feudal Japan and Catherine the Great.
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Noble classes became more powerful
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What form of government relates to the phrase \”reigns but does not rule?\”
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Constitutional monarchy: The Queen of England
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What is an oligarchy?
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A form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people.
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What is the difference between a chiefdom and a state.
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A state, like a chiefdom, is centralized and stratified, however the level of stratification is based on classes or castes. States are lead by a powerful official like a king,
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What was the usual role of the chief in primitive societies?
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to coordinate economic activity
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A Caste system is part of the mixed culture of India, and a class system is part of American Culture. What is the difference?
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A class system has more flexibility than a caste system. You are born into the caste system and remain there for your entire life.
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Geography
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What would be the Absolute Location of New York City on a map?
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New York is positioned in both the northern and western hemisphere and its exact co-ordinates are: 40º 43′ N, 74º 0′ W. About 41 degrees North and 74 degrees West.
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What do geographers use to indicate absolute location?
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Absolute location is determined by a reference system, usually expressed in degrees north and south latitude and east and west longitude.
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Which conclusion, about the geography of these continents, is best supported by this passage? (Continents are Europe and Africa)
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River systems have helped development in Europe and hindered it in Africa.
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Why was The Ottoman Empire connected with the Age of Exploration?
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The age of exploration was largely driven by the spice trade. To get to India or China from Europe, you had to go through the Ottoman Empire, and pay taxes. So the major point of exploration was to find another way to get to China and India and so they went the other way. West.
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What is the \”Push Pull Factor?\”
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Push Factors: Reasons for emigrating (leaving a place) because of a difficulty (such as a food shortage, war, flood, etc.). Pull Factors: Reasons for immigrating (moving into a place) because of something desirable (such as a nicer climate, better food supply, freedom, etc.).
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What event most contributed to the \”Push Factor\” of Irish immigration to the United States during the 1900s?
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In Ireland, the Great Famine was a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration between 1845 and 1852. It is sometimes referred to as the Irish Potato Famine
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What does \”Chain Migration\” mean?
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A series of migrations within a family or defined group of people. A chain migration often begins with one family member who sends money to bring other family members to the new location.
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What does Chain Migration have to do with clustering?
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Chain migration results in migration fields. The clustering of people from a specific region into certain neighborhoods or small towns.
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What do geographers call the \”human-environment\” connection.
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This theme considers how humans adapt to and modify the environment. Humans shape the landscape through their interaction with the land; this has both positive and negative effects on the environment.
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What contributed to the difficulty in development and population growth in South America?
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The topography of the land.
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The American West was the desert in early 1800s, and in 1900 many saw the west as full of potential. What caused this change
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Agricultural advancements based on the use of technology and transportation. The rail roads.
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Which is the most significant contribution Mexico made to the USA in the 1860’s
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Building the transcontinental railroad.
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People engaged in geographic planning mining operations, and large scale engineering projects would likely find which of the following types of maps useful?
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Graphic-relief map
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Which of the following landforms is the dominant topographical feature in the three lettered areas on the map? Map has letters over Central Africa and Saudi Arabia
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desert
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What is the main geographical problem facing Nevada, Arizona, and Colorado in recent years?
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Drought causing problems with Lake Mead and Lake Powell.
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Which line, in the table below, best matches a world climate region, with a description of common characteristics of that region? Climate Region Characteristics Chart. Chart contains the following words in it. Mediterranean. Steppe. Tropical. Tundra.
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Line 2 which says: Steppe. Semi-arid conditions and short grass vegetation
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Which of the following lists correctly matches the four numbers on the map to the body of water to which they correspond? Map has four numbers.
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Baltic Sea. Red Sea. Bay of Bengal. South China Sea.
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The Erie Canal was significant because it
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tied the manufacturing of the East to the farming of the West.
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Mesopotamia was located on a flat plain between what two rivers?
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The Tigris and Euphrates River
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What are the main bodies of water in the Middle East ?
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The bodies of water in the Middle East include the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Aden.There are five seas as well, including the Aral Sea, Caspian Sea, and the Red Sea. The remaining two seas are the Arabian and Mediterranean.
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Map with two bodies of water indicated:
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Red Sea and Mediterranean.
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Questions About Slavery in the US
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What is the Abolitionist Movement?
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An effort to end slavery in a nation that valued personal freedom and believed \”all men are created equal.\” Over time, abolitionists grew more strident in their demands, and slave owners entrenched in response, fueling regional divisiveness that ultimately led to the American Civil War.
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The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1858 increased sectional tension because it
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reopened the issue of slavery in a territory north of 36º30′
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The Dred Scott decision of 1858 stated that
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Dred Scott was a slave, therefore he was property and could not sue.
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Which of the following elements of the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) contributed most to rising intersectional tensions between the North and the South?
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Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in the territories.
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What was the Slave Trade Compromise?
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The slave trade compromise was an agreement during the Constitutional Convention of 1787, protecting the interests of slave-holders, that forbid Congress the power to act on the slave trade for twenty years.
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Which is the correct chronological order to illustrate a cause and effect relationship among the following events leading to the Civil War?
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Kansas Nebraska Act, Dred Scott decision, Lincoln-Douglas debates, election of Lincoln, South Carolina secedes
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Which of the following is a correct statement about the use of slave labor in colonial Virginia?
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It spread rapidly in the late seventeenth century, as blacks displaced white indentured servants in the tobacco fields.
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What invention helped Abolitionists push for the ending of slavery?
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Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin. Abolitionists argued that slave labor was no longer needed due to machinery.
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Questions about Native American Culture
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The tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy were distinctive in that they:
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They formed the most important Native American political organization to confront the colonists. The Establishment of the Five Nations
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What were some differences between the Iroquois and Algonquin tribes?
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The Algonquins traced their ancestry through their fathers line (patrilineal). The Iroquois traced their ancestry through their mothers line (matrilineal). This impacted their political systems.
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During the 19th century the Native American Indian population decreased primarily due to which of the following:
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European diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles and typhus) to which the native populations had no resistance decimated the American population.
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What became an important goal of the Native American cultures in North America during the 1960s and 1970s?
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Every effort was made to preserve the culture.
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Define Tribal sovereignty in the United States?
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The inherent authority of indigenous tribes to govern themselves within the borders of the United States of America. It is recognized by the federal government.
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Origins of the names of the following: Massachusetts, Brooklyn, El Paso?
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Massachusetts –Native American origin Brooklyn— Dutch origin El Paso–Hispanic origin. These names were reflective of the surrounding cultures of the times.
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American History
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How does a \”third party\” contribute to the voting process?
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It increased voter turn out. (The more people feel they are represented, the more they are interested in the political process)
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What segment of the population usually has the highest voter turn out?
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The elderly.
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Which of the following excerpts from the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments(1848) most clearly illustrates the influence of the American Revolution on the antebellum women’s movement in the United States?
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\”[Man] has usurped the prerogative of Jehovah himself, claiming it as his right to assign for [woman] a sphere of action, when that belongs to her conscience and to her God.\”
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In McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that \”the States have no power, by taxation or otherwise, to retard, impede, burden, or in any manner control, the operations of the constitutional laws enacted by Congress to carry into execution the powers vested in the general government.\” The court’s decision in this case clarified which of the following features of the government established by the U.S. Constitution?
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Federalism
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What happened at the Constitutional Convention?
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The Virginia Plan demonstrated Montesquieu’s influence on Madison, as it called for separation of powers among three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. It created a bicameral legislature with both houses based on proportionate representation.
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Why did some states reject the Virginia Plan?
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Smaller states, however, objected to the proportional representation and responded with the New Jersey Plan, which called for all states to have equal representation in Congress, similar to the Articles of Confederation.
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What is the Connecticut Compromise?
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The Connecticut Compromise blended the Virginia and New Jersey Plans as a model for representation in the two houses of Congress: equal representation in the Senate and proportionate in the House.
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What was the impact of the 24th Amendment?
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The 24th amendment was important to the Civil Rights Movement as it ended mandatory poll taxes that prevented many African Americans from voting. Poll taxes, combined with grandfather clauses and intimidation, effectively prevented African Americans from having any sort of political power, especially in the South
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Economics
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Which of the following best describes the major function of the U.S. Federal Reserve System?
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to serve as the monetary agent for the federal government
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Read the excerpt below from the writings of Adam Smith; then answer the two questions that follow. To give the monopoly of the home market to the produce of domestic industry, in any particular art or manufacture, is in some measure to direct private people in what manner they ought to employ their capitals, and must, in almost all cases, be either a useless or hurtful regulation. If the produce of domestic can be brought there as cheaply as that of foreign industry, the regulation is evidently useless. If it cannot, it must generally be hurtful.
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The law of supply and demand
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Which of the following is the best measure of productivity growth in the U.S. economy?
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Increases in national income per worker hour
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Which of the following best describes a major function of the World Bank?
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to encourage private investment in developing nations through loan guarantees
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How would the Federal Reserve Board most likely use its monetary power during a period of inflation?
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Raise the reserve requirements of member banks
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In which of the following situations would a manufacturing firm’s demand for labor most likely decrease?
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when the price of using capital relative to that of using labor decreases
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Which of the following best describes a major consequence of the growing interdependence of contemporary economic systems?
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an increase in the global specialization of labor
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Which of the following best describes a major role of labor unions in the U.S. economy?
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To improve wages and working conditions
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Marxism definition:
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The political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in which the concept of class struggle plays a central role in understanding society’s allegedly inevitable development from bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist and ultimately classless society.
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Capitalism definition:
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an economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
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Ben Bernanke, an American economist, explained the Great Depression in the United States as specifically related to?
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Failure of banks due to lack of regulation.
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Supply and Demand definition :
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the amount of a commodity, product, or service available and the desire of buyers for it, considered as factors regulating its price.
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Scarcity economics definition:
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(Scarcity, Economic) In economic terminology, \”scarcity\” refers to the fact that the same resource – regardless of its quantity – cannot be put to more than a single use at a time.
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Keynesian economics:
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Keynesian economics is a theory of total spending in the economy (called aggregate demand) and its effects on output and inflation.

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