mineralnutrients that plants absorb through their roots that assist in growth and development
fertilizera mixture of substances containing minerals that are added to soil to help keep plants healthy
macronutrientsThe three minerals in fertilizers found in the largest amounts are known as
micronutrientsThe ten minerals in fertilizers in small amounts (also called trace elements) are called
BrassicaThe genus of plants in the mustard family that the Wisconsin Fast Plants belong to
selective breedingThe process of breeding plants and animals for specific traits
nitrogen, phosphorous and potassiumWhat are the three macronutrients?
germinationThe process by which a seed becomes a plant
dormantInactive, as in a seed
seed coatprotective covering on a seed
embryotiny beginnings in a seed of root, stem and leaves
endospermfood storing tissue in a seed
cotyledonseed leaves, which in dicots also contains the food storing tissue
monocotplants whose seeds have one seed leaf (also parallel veins, fibrous root systems and flower parts in multiples of 3)
dicotplants whose seeds have two seed leaves (also branching veins, taproot systems and flower parts in multiples of fours and fives)
primary rootthe first root that emerges from a seed
root hairsmicroscopic, fingerlike extensions of the outer root cells that increase surface area for the absorption of water and minerals
secondary rootsroots that branch off of the primary root
photosynthesisprocess by which true leaves use energy from the sun to manufacture glucose
not enough oxygen, too cold, not enough water, fungusWhat can cause some seeds to NOT germinate?
Dr. WilliamsWho helped develop the Wisconsin Fast Plant?
quick (6-week)life cycle, grows best in constant light, produces a lot of seeds, been to outer spacewhat are some special qualities of the Fast Plant?
Selective breeding, by cross-pollinating only the plants that grew the fastestHow was the Fast Plant developed?
egg, larva, pupa and adultWhat are the four stages of the cabbage white life cycle?
Only the adultWhich stage is sexually mature?
to eatWhat is the main function of the larval stage?
MetamorphosisWhat occurs in the pupal stage?
The exoskeleton cannot grow, so it is shed and a baggier skin will be underneath.Why do larva molt?
The order of insects that butterflies belong to; it means “scale wing”What is Lepidoptera?
FrassWhat is larval waste called?
moltingShedding of the exoskeleton (outer skin)
Parts of undigested plant tissue.What is frass made of?
Fast plant or cabbageWhich leaf did most of the larva prefer in the experiment?
The types of leavesWhat was the IV in the larva experiment?
Which leaf the larva preferredWhat was the DV in the larva experiment?
The size of the leaves, their distance from the larva and amount of time the larva had to choose each leafWhat are some constants in the larva experiment?
odor and taste, caused by chemicals in plantsHow do insects choose what to eat?
radishes, turnips, mustard greens, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and brussel sproutswhat are some members of the Brassicacaea (mustard) family?
glucosidesWhat are the chemicals in plants of the mustard family that cause the strong odors?
a scientist that studies insectsWhat is an entemologist?
to make the plants unappetizing – and it works (for most insects)What is the main job of glucosides?
nectarWhat does an adult cabbage white butterfly eat?
proboscisthe mouth part of an adult butterfly is called
Yes, they preferred blue over the other colors.Do butterflies see color?
The colors of the nectar.What was the IV in the nectar color experiment?
The amount of each that was eaten (by counting the number of drops of waste of each color)What was the DV in the nectar color experiment?
The nectar recipe, the time that the butterflies had access to the colors.What were some controlled variables (constants) in the nectar color experiment?
pistilfemale reproductive part of a flower
stamenmale reproductive part of a flower
filamentstem-like structure of a stamen
anthertop portion of a stamen
stigmasticky top of a pistil
stylethe stem-like part of a pistil
ovarythe bottom of a pistil
produce eggs (ovules)What is the function of the ovary?
one with both male and female partswhat is a perfect flower?
one without both male and female partsWhat is an imperfect flower?
pollinationprocess of pollen from an anther contacting the stigma of a pistil
self-pollinationif the pollen is transferred to a stigma of the same plant
cross-pollinationif the pollen is transferred to a stigma of a different plant
fertilizationunion of a sperm nucleus and an egg nucleus
Sperm nuclei must travel down the pollen tubes and into the ovaryWhat must happen after pollination before fertilization can occur?
fruita structure that developed from the ovary of a flower; it protects seeds and can assist in dispersal
bright petal colors, unique aromasHow do flowers promote their own pollination?
a seedWhat will a fertilized egg (ovule) develop into?
asexual reproductionreproduction with one parent, in which the offspring are identical to the parent
sexual reproductionreproduction with a male and female parent in which the offspring are different from (a genetic recombinaton of) the two parents
budding, runners, cuttings, bulbs, binary fissionexamples of asexual reproduction
binary fissionwhen amoeba or other simple organisms reproduce asexaully by splitting in two (cell division) it is known as
buddingtype of asexual reproduction in which outgrowths on an organism eventually break off and become self-sufficient
convenient – only one parentan advantage of asexual reproduction
cannot improve the quality of the speciesa disadvantage of asexual reproduction
increases diversity through genetic recombinationan advantage of sexual reproduction
requires union of male and female (is less convenient- have to wait for pollination or other actions)a disadvantage of sexual reproduction
bladethe broad, flat part of a leaf
petiolethe narrow, stem-like part of a leaf
veinsmall, tube-like structures that carry water and other substances throughout a plant
epidermisa thin, tough layer of cells on the outer surface of a leafs blade
cuticlea waxy covering on the upper surface of most leaves that protects from injury and water loss
mesophyllthe middle cells of a leaf that have roles in photosynthesis
stomaan opening between two guard cells
stomatamultiple openings (the plural for stoma)
guard cellsa pair of sausage/oval shaped cells on lower surface of most leaves that control formation of stomata
transpirationthe process by which water passes out of the stomata of a leaf and into the environment
photosynthesisprocess by which chlorophyll containing cells (chloroplasts) trap and use energy from the sun to combine carbon dioxide and water into glucose for food, releasing oxygen as a waste product
glucosefood produced through photosynthesis, stored in the plant cells until needed
palisade cellstightly packed cells of mesophyll that contains lots of chloroplasts for photosyhnthesis
spongy layerloose area of mesophyll providing room for water, oxygen and carbon dioxide to travel within the leaf
stomatal unita pair of guard cells and the stoma they form
energy from sunlight, water from roots, carbon dioxide from airWhat are the ingredients for photosynthesis?
glucose and oxygenWhat is formed from photosynthesis?
carbon dioxideWhat comes in stomata?
water and oxygenWhat goes out stomata?
If the leaf has too much water, water will enter the guard cells causing the to swell and buckle. The opening formed is the stoma.How does a stoma open?
As excess water is released out the stoma, the guard cells start to lose water and unswell. The gradually closes the stoma.How does a stoma close?