NHA CPT studyguide

Order of Draw: Blood Culture
1st, YELLOW , Sodium polyethenal sulfonate, 8 inversions, Microbiology
Order of Draw: Coagulation
2nd, LIGHT BLUE, Sodium citrate , 3-4 inversions, Chemistry, Common tests: PT, PTT, APTT, and INR
Serum
3rd, RED, no additives, no inversions, Chemistry, common tests: CMP, BMP, Hepatitis panel, therapeutic drug level
Plasma
4th, GREEN, heparin, 8 inversions, STAT Chemistry, Common tests: Amonia, plasma, stat whole blood, BMP-Basic Metabolic Panel, CMP-Comprehensive metabolic panel, troponin
Whole Blood (hematology cell counting)
5th, LAVENDER, EDTA, 8 inversions, Hematology, Common Tests: CBC, lead, ESR, Retic
Glucose
6th, GREY, Sodium fluoride/ Potassium oxalate, 8 inversions, Chemistry, Common tests: glucose, alcohol, latic acid
The THREE phases of Hemostasis
1. Vasoconstriction 2. Platelet formation 3. Clotting
Blood Thinners
Warfarin (coumadin) , Asparin
Pulmonary System
Blood is oxygenated and returned to the heart to be sent to systemic system. (note: pulmonary arteries)
Arteries
Oxygenated blood from Left side of the heart to body muscular walls, and to the nerve supply
Systemic system
Blood through whole body to deliver and remove oxygen and waste
Platelets
membrane- bound packets of cytoplasm (*note: no dna, or nucleus)
Thixotropic Gel
Inert, synthetic substance makes a barrier between plasma and formed elements
Capillaries
Tiny blood vessels (smallest) thin pourus walls, carries oxygen to tissues
Veins
Thin walls, Deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart, lack of nerve supply
Blood Pressure
Normal BP= 120/80 mm/hg, High BP= greater than or equal to 140/90 mm/Hg, Low BP=
Tube Sizes
Adult: 3-10mL, Pediatric: 2-4mL
Blood Smears
Feathered Edge
Number of Leukocytes (white blood cells)
5 Types
Formed Elements
Cellular elements such as RBC. 45% of a blood sample is formed elements
Heparin
Inactivates thrombin and thromboplastin
Whole Blood
Blood collected with an anticoagulant used for hematology tests
EDTA
Binds Calcium
Order of Cappilary Draw
L.G.G.R/SST
Hemochromatosis
Excess of iron in the blood
Hemolysis
Destruction of Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
Hemostasis
Process by which the body stops blood flow from a leaking wound
Chain of Infection
1. Causitive agent 2. Resevoir 3. Portal of opening 4. Mode of transmission 5. Portal of entry 6. Succeptable host
Sodium fluoride and Potassium oxalate
Binds Calcium
Baby Lancet Size/ Depth
0.65mm per 1kg
Plasma
Fluid portion of blood with anticoagulants 55%
Serum
Fluid portion of blood with out clotting factors
Chilled Specimen
ABG- Aterial Blood Gases
Sodium Citrate
Binds Calcium
Hematoma
Bruise, clotted blood underneath the skin
Hematocrit
% of blood volume in the body that is RBC
Hemoconcentration
Increased ratio of formed elements (such as RBC) to plasma
Light Sensitive
Bilirubin
Chain of Custody
*purpose and procedure explained to pt
*pt consent form
*pt picture identification
Bilirubin, Vitamins C, K, and E
Protect from light
STAT
Immediately 1 hour to report
ASAP
2-4 hours to report
Polymer gel/ clot activator
SST
Arteries
Carry blood that is high in oxygen
Blood Borne Pathogens
Pathogenic microorganisms that are present in the blood
Sharps
Objects that can penetrate the skin such as needles, scalpels, broken glass, broken capillary tubes, or lancets.
Plasma
The yellow fluid component of blood
Leukocyte
White blood cell
Hemoglobin
Iron containing protien pigment present in red blood cells, it functions primarily to transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissue of the body
Thrombocyte
Platelet
Erytrhocyte
Red Blood Cell
Pathogens
Disease producing agents
Coagulation
Cessation of bleeding , formation of a clot (hemostasis)
Sharps Container
Fill only 80% of capacity to prevent accidental needle puncture
Housekeeping rule of thumb (Cheapest)
One cup of Bleach = 10 cups of water
Antiseptic
70% alcohol
Gloves
Standard precautions policy states that if there is a possibility of coming into contact with a patient’s blood, GLOVES ARE NECESSARY
Gauge of needle
The size of the needle at smallest is 27 and 16 at the largest
Tourniquet is placed
3-4 inches above the skin and should never be left on longer than one minute
A properly labeled tube has
Patient’s complete name,. id, number date and time sample obtained with initials
Limit of Sticks on a patient
If you miss twice trying for a blood draw you may not try again
Arterial Puncture
Done by physician only
Capillary Puncture
Puncture skin by lancet
Venipuncture
Puncture to vein with the purpose of obtaining blood