National Government Chapter 5

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public opinion
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the array of beliefs and attitudes that people hold about political and related affairs
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dynamic public opinion
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public opinion that fluctuates considerably in response to social, political, and economic events
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intense preference
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a preference that is more likely to influence what people think about political candidates and how that person might get involved politically
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polling
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the process of using social science methods to get an accurate sense of the public’s view about an issue or set of issues
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True
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(True or False) Americans consistently express greater confidence in their country’s political, social, and economic institutions that do citizens of other democratic countries
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conservatism
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the majority of people identify with which political ideology?
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political socialization
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the process by which citizens acquire politically relevant knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and patterns of behavior
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social learning theory
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a theory of learning through psychological attachments or identifications to other people; mimicking the opinions of those we respect
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transfer theory
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a theory of carrying over attitudes developed in a narrower setting; reacting to a political authority as you would a parent
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cognitive development theory
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a theory of learning that is dependent on the stage of an individual’s mental development; emotional ties to the nation’s ideals tend to develop early, but intellectual understanding requires maturity
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equality and the government
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what branch of politics do African Americans and White Americans differ on significantly?
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12
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what age does political thinking start to blossom?
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subculture
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American sub societies that have their own shared patterns of political attitudes and behaviors; usually racially and ethnically based
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political efficacy
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a person’s sense of being able to accomplish something politically, an important determinant of political participation
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sense of duty
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a motivating factor by some citizens, to get involved in politics; \”a good citizen is politically involved.\”
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party identification
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psychological attachment that a citizen may feel toward a particular political party
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protest
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a form of political participation that can include marches, rallies, boycotts, picketing, political violence, and politically motivated crimes
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boycott
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the refusal of citizens to buy a particular product or use a certain service
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picketing
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groups of protesters standing in front of a retail store or office building, placards in hand
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civil disobedience
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a form of political protest in which advocates of a cause deliberately break a law as a means of asserting its illegitimacy or drawing attention to their cause
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passive resistance
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a form of civil disobedience in which protesters do not actively oppose government’s attempts to control them, but rather refuse to cooperate by doing noting
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inactives
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22% of the population that take virtually no part in political life; lower status social and economic groups are likely to fall into this category
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voting specialists
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about 21% of the population who do a little more politically than vote regularly
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parochial participants
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about 4% of the population who contact public officials when they have a particular personal problem and seek governmental assistance in solving it
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communalists
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about 20% of the population that has little involvement in electoral politics apart from voting they do engage in group and community activities with the aim of solving social problems
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campaigners
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15% of the population who engage in little group activity but much campaign activity; tend to be of higher status
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complete activists
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about 11% of the population who do it all: voting, contacting, group activities, and campaigning
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rational actor model
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a perspective that looks at politics as a system in which individuals and organizations pursue their self interests, defined in terms of costs and benefits, and choose to do things that give them the greatest benefit at the least cost

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