(v) to make easier or milder, relieve; to quiet, calm; to put an end to, appease, satisfy, quench. SYN: mitigate, alleviate, slake, allay. ANT: intensify, aggravate, exacerbate
(n) a gap, opening, break (in the sense of having an element missing). SYN: pause, lacuna. ANT: continuity, continuation
(n) a hint, indirect suggestion, or reference (often in a derogatory sense). SYN: insinuation, intimation. ANT: direct statement
(v) to rise above or beyond, exceed. SYN: surpass, outstrip
(adj) without experience; immature, not fully developed; lacking sophistication and poise; without feathers. SYN: green, raw, unfledged, inexperienced. ANT: mature, grown-up, polished, sophisticated
(n) a summary, condensed account; an instance that represents a larger reality. SYN: abstract, digest, model, archetype
(adj) belonging to someone or something by its very nature, essential, inherent; originating in a bodily organ or part. SYN: immanent, organic. ANT: extrinsic, external, outward
(v) to spread through, penetrate, soak through
(v) to have intense dislike or hatred for. SYN: loathe, abhor, despise, detest. ANT: relish, savor, cherish, esteem
(v) to sympathize with, have pity or sorrow for, share a feeling of distress. SYN: feel sorry for, empathize. ANT: feel no sympathy for
(v) to make easy, cause to progress faster. SYN: accelerate, facilitate, speed up. ANT:hinder, hamper, impede, obstruct
(adj) resulting from or marked by lack of attention; unintentional, accidental. SYN: accidental, unconsidered. ANT: deliberate, intentional, premeditated
(adj) incapable of being understood; impossible to see through physically. SYN: impenetrable, incomprehensible, enigmatic. ANT: comprehensible, intelligible, penetrable
(adj) relating to, characteristic of, or situated on an island; narrow or isolated in outlook or experience. SYN: narrow-minded, parochial, provincial. ANT: catholic, cosmopolitan, liberal
(v) to argue or plead with someone against something, protest against, object to. SYN: reason against, expostulate
(v) to disown, reject, or deny the validity of. SYN: disavow, abjure, renounce. ANT: avow, affirm, aver, avouch
(adj) able to return to an original shape or form; able to recover quickly. SYN: springy, elastic, buoyant, bouncy. ANT: rigid. stiff, inflexible, unyielding
(n) a general pardon for an offense against a government; in general, any act of forgiveness or absolution
(v) to mock, treat with contempt. SYN: scoff at, sneer at, snicker at, scorn. ANT: obey, honor, revere, uphold
(adj) lasting only a short time, fleeting; (n) one who stays only a short time. SYN: impermanent, ephemeral, evanescent. ANT: permanent, imperishable, immortal
(adj) dull, uninteresting, tiresome; lacking in sharpness, flavor, liveliness, or force. SYN: insipid, lifeless, colorless. ANT: zesty, spicy, savory, colorful, lively
(v) to plan with ingenuity, invent; to bring about as the result of a scheme or plan
(adj) very wicked, offensive, hateful
(adj) stealthy, secret, intended to escape observation; made or accomplished by fraud
(adj) performed, suffered, or otherwise experienced by one person in place of another
When Paine compares America’s relationship with England to the bondage of slavery, to what emotion is he appealing?
Identify one reason Paine gives for supporting the fight for liberty.
a. faith that God will reward the weak and powerless
b. responsibility to ensure that all people are treated equally
c. shame that the colonies have been afraid to break away from Britain
d. duty to provide a better life for one’s family
What is the main point of Paine’s essay?
a. The time for armed struggle is over.
b. Colonists who support Britain are weak and cowardly.
c. The king of Britain is a fool.
d. The colonists must endure.
With what does Paine compare America’s war against the British?
b. all the treasures of the world
c. a man defending his property
d. a thief breaking into his house
Which of the following passages from The Crisis, Number 1, introduces an anecdote meant to persuade the audience?
a. “I have as little superstition in me as any man living.”
b. “[A] noted one, who kept a tavern at Amboy, was standing at his door, with as pretty a child in his hand.”
c. “The far and the near, the home counties and the back, the rich and the poor, will suffer or rejoice alike.”
d. “‘Tis the business of little minds to shrink.”
Jefferson uses the charged word tyrant to characterize the king of Britain. To what emotion does this word appeal?
From Jefferson’s statement that governments are instituted to secure basic human rights, the argument logically follows that
a. any form of government that suppresses people’s freedoms should be overthrown.
b. monarchy is a bad form of government because rulers are not elected.
c. the rights of men should be supported over those of women.
d. all forms of government destroy human rights and thus should be abandoned.
From the Declaration of Independence, what can be inferred about Jefferson’s general attitude toward revolution?
a. All cases of injustice vindicate a revolution.
b. People often revolt as their first course of action.
c. Revolution is a method of last resort.
d. Revolution is a very poor way of dealing with conflict.
Which of the following statements most appeals to the emotions of horror and disgust?
a. “He is at this time transporting large armies … to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun.”
b. “He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.”
c. “He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly ….”
d. “He has called together legislative bodies … for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.”
Jefferson’s list of self-evident truths is effective because it
a. helps his audience understand the truths.
b. creates a connection between these truths and the colonists’ attempts at reconciliation with Britain.
c. draws his readers’ attention to his personal opinions about humanity.
d. imparts a sense of reasonableness to the beginning of his argument.
What is Jefferson’s main form of persuasion in The Declaration of Independence?
a. He has an unusual view of how government should work.
b. He understands that the colonists should explain their actions.
c. He offers a list of colonists’ complaints against the British king.
d. He asks colonists to contribute their fortunes to the cause.
Which phrase from the Declaration of Independence is charged, or filled with emotion?
a. “for the public good”
b. “without consent”
c. “death, desolation, and tyranny”
d. “in the most humble terms”
Why is Jefferson’s list of self-evident truths effective in the Declaration of Independence?
a. It helps his audience understand him.
b. It restates beliefs people already have.
c. It tells people about Jefferson’s beliefs.
d. It outlines a new vision of freedom.
What overall announcement does the Declaration of Independence make?
a. The colonists share news of the war with Great Britain.
b. The colonists refuse to pay unfair taxes to Great Britain.
c. The colonists declare a separation from Great Britain.
d. The colonists sign new agreements with Great Britain.
In The Crisis, Number 1, what concern does Paine express about “the sunshine patriot” who might “shrink from the service of his country”?
a. He wants people to live in the colonies during the summer months.
b. He wants people to leave the colonies and go to Britain.
c. He wants people to be willing to fight, even at great risk.
d. He wants people to be training to be soldiers all year.
In The Crisis, Number 1, what does Paine try to convince his listeners to fight for?
b. lower taxes
c. trade items
Where does Paine use charged words in these examples from The Crisis, Number 1?
a. He says he has “little superstition.”
b. He says it does not matter “what rank of life you hold.”
c. He says “Tyranny” is like “Hell.”
d. He says men know the difference between “temper” and “principle.”
In The Crisis, Number 1, when Paine compares the colonies’ relationship with Britain to the chains of slavery, what emotion does he hope to persuade his readers to feel?
Why does Paine write in The Crisis, Number 1, that a generous parent would say: “If there must be trouble let it be in my day, that my child may have peace”?
a. to fight now so that their descendants will not have to
b. to put off the fight until their descendants are grown
c. to avoid having to fight, to protect their descendants
d. to ignore the problem altogether and hope for the best
Which phrase from The Crisis, Number 1 includes charged words?
a. The heart that feels
b. will curse his cowardice
c. shrinks back at a time
d. and made them happy
What is the main idea of Paine’s essay The Crisis, Number 1?
a. The King of England is a criminal.
b. British people must return to England.
c. The colonists must pay taxes.
d. The colonists must fight tyranny.
Paine’s primary purpose in saying that “a common murderer, a highwayman(robber), or a housebreaker, has as good a pretense” as the king is to
a. show how the common criminal is persecuted by the king’s representatives.
b. emphasize the notion of democracy.
c. stress the lawlessness of the king’s actions.
d. appeal to his audience’s fear of crime.
Paine uses “summer soldier” and “sunshine patriot” to refer to
a.those who support the Revolution only when it is convenient.
b.revolutionary soldiers who keep their spirits up.
c.agricultural workers who have joined the revolutionary army.
In which sentence is the meaning of the word unanimity suggested?
a. Franklin urged every member of the Convention to sign the Constitution.
b. Franklin praised the high quality of the new Constitution.
c. Franklin found he doubted his judgments more as he grew older.
d. Franklin wanted other nations to approve of the new Constitution.
According to The Autobiography, what is Franklin’s first step in his plan to reach perfection?
a. He makes a list of what he wants to achieve.
b. He improves his handwriting.
c. He makes a schedule of what he does each day.
d. He lists the friends he can count on.
When Jefferson spoke of British officers sent to harass the colonists, he meant that they
a. tried to get the colonists to convert
b. constantly engaged them in conversation
c. were a constant bother
d. never treated them fairly
What conclusion can you draw about why Franklin has trouble staying organized, according to The Autobiography?
a. He has very few responsibilities.
b. He is always busy traveling.
c. He likes to do things all at once.
d. He has too many responsibilities.
In The Autobiography, Franklin believes that he can become a better person. What does this belief tell you about how he sees himself?
a. He does not believe in himself.
b. He has high hopes for himself.
c. His knowledge of science can help him.
d. His religion will help him.
In comparison to other books about Franklin, The Autobiography probably gives you the best insight into
a. the moral values of the time.
b. Franklin’s inventions.
c. Franklin’s descendants.
d. Franklin’s personality.
Which part of this sentence from The Autobiography identifies it as an
I wished to live without committing any fault at any time.
A. the word I
B. the word wished
C. the word live
D. the word time
Why is the selection by Franklin identified as an autobiography?
A. Franklin is now dead.
B. Franklin is famous.
C. Franklin wrote about his own life.
D. Franklin was a scientist.
According to The Autobiography, what is Franklin’s first step in his plan to
A. He makes a list of what he wants to achieve.
B. He improves his handwriting.
C. He makes a schedule of what he does each day.
D. He lists the friends he can count on.
What experience does this portion of Equiano’s slave narrative describe?
a.the loss of African cultural traditions
b.the fight to abolish slavery
c.the observations of a slave merchant
d.the horrors slaves faced on transatlantic voyages
What attitude toward slavery does the narrative most strongly convey?
What was Equiano’s main purpose in writing The Interesting Narrative?
to entertain readers with dramatic episodes in his life
to sway public opinion about slavery
to contrast life in Africa and life in Barbados
to provide detailed information on 18th-century sea travel
Why does Equiano feel that the hardships, some of which he cannot even bear to relate, are “inseparable” from the slave trade?
a. Sailing in those days meant perilous hardships for all who sailed.
b. Because captives will always resist bondage, slave traders will always institute harsh measures to control the slaves
c. The slave traders know only hard measures and no other way
d. Because slavery is a form of commerical enterprise
Much of the power of this selection stems from the fact that it is
filled with highly poetic imagery and figures of speech.
similar in style to an African folk tale.
a logical, well-reasoned argument.
a personal narrative.
The narrator was placed on the deck of the ship because
there was no room for him below deck.
he was being punished, and the wind and rain were fierce.
his captors feared he might die below deck.
conditions below deck were unpleasant.
What happens to the captives who try to get the extra fish the slave traders caught?
They share the fish with the other captives.
They devour the fish instantly.
They are caught and flogged.
They are allowed to cook and eat the fish for supper.
Which of these details expresses the most objective viewpoint?
a. Equiano got seasick when he was on the ship.
b. Looking through the quadrant made Equiano think the world was magic.
c. The cries of slaves saddened Equiano.
d. The flying fish amazed Equiano as they flew across the ship.
Which detail most clearly shows that not every sailor on the slave ship was always cruel to the slaves?
the crew’s preventing additional suicides after some captives jump overboard
the mariner’s giving Equiano the quadrant to look through
the sailors’ tossing the extra fish back into the sea
the sailors’ treatment of those captives who tried to get the extra fish
Often did I think many of the inhabitants of the deep much more happy than myself. I envied them the freedom they enjoyed.
In this passage, “inhabitants of the deep” refers to
fish and other sea creatures.
the slaves who were below deck.
the slaves who had jumped overboard.
the children who had fallen into the necessary tubs.
If you were summarizing the selection, which statement would you use to express the main idea of the last section?
The traders were overjoyed at reaching Barbados.
The captives were afraid that they would be eaten.
The ship landed, and the captives were sold into slavery.
Old slaves joined the newcomers from Africa to tell them about their fate.
Which detail would probably be left out of a summary of The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano?
a. The crew ate the fish they caught.
b. Most slaves were kept in the ship’s hold.
c. The ship’s conditions were terrible.
d. Many slaves were infected with disease.
an abolitionist or a sailor
Based on the interests Equiano shows in this selection, if freed from slavery, he would most likely become
-A harsh discordant mixture of sounds
-Syn:din racket noise
A puzzling or difficult problem
A crucial point
-Nub, heart, central point, core
The quality of having an evil or immoral character
-Immorality, perversion, indecency
-Marked by or disposed by doing good
-kind-hearted, good natured
-Something pleasant or helpful
-A benefit or advantage
-Aid, blessing, asset
-State of being happy
-Betrayal of trust
-Violation of faith and loyalty
-Scam, double cross, Corruption, treachery
-a person who does not accept a particular faith, especially Christianity.
-Foolish Character or action
-To persist in a difficult situation
-To overcome an obstacle
-Endure, persist, pursue, maintain
-To give compensation to, pay for
-Reimburse, repay, compensate, indemnify
-An authorative command or order
– A custom or practice established by a long usage
-Edict, decree, ritual
-Having unlimited power
-Able to do anything
-Sad, Mournful, Grief, Sorrow
-Feeling great sorrow or distress
-To send away or off with promptness or speed on official business
-Post, Mail, Transmit, Finish, Conclude
-To extend beyond or above a surface
-To jut out of the surrounding surface
-Stick out, jut out, extend
-To be brave or determined
-Courageous or brave
-a state of pain, distress, or grief; misery
-Trouble, calamity, disaster
-extremely beautiful and, typically, delicate.
-Beautiful, lovely, elegant, fine
-Curious or inquiring
-Unduly curious about the affairs of others
-Curious, interested, prying
-long and careful consideration or discussion.
-Thought, consideration, reflection
-the state of being subject to death.
-Death, especially on a large scale
-Impermanence, transience, dying
belief in the existence of a supreme being, specifically of a creator who does not intervene in the universe. The term is used chiefly of an intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries that accepted the existence of a creator on the basis of reason but rejected belief in a supernatural deity who interacts with humankind.
-Anti-authority -Government does not have the right to dictate human rights
a philosophy committed to the ideal of limited government and liberty of individuals including freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and free markets.
-Believes in God but doesn’t follow faith -Follows nature -Reason+logic -to connect with natural world that God created
-The notion that a nation should be ruled by a republic – Remove absolute monarchies
-Civic Patriotism–> enlist in military -Virtuous Citizenship–> Community Service -Property based Personality–>represent one’s own wealth and success
Who believed the following?: -Freedom led to chaos -Liberalism ignored the contributions of previous generations -Liberal ideas ignore relationships that do exist -You need common norms to create a feeling of unity
Ed Burke’s beliefs were a part of what movement?
a political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of the culture and civilization.
-Reflected in the belief that hatred or fear of other races and creeds interfered with economic trade, extinguished of thought and expression, eroded the basis of friendship among nations, which led to war and persecution.
Scientific inquiry to satisfy intellectual curiosity but to respond to a divine calling to expose God’s natural laws.
– a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. -Known as the ideal man and “first american” -One of the founding fathers of our nation
-an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and the third President of the United States – He was a spokesman for democracy, and embraced the principles of republicanism and the rights of the individual with worldwide influence. At the beginning of the American Revolution, he served in the Continental Congress, representing Virginia, and then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia
-an English and American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary. -As the author of the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, he inspired the rebels in 1776 to declare independence from Britain.
-an African-American social reformer, orator, writer, and statesman -After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining note for his dazzling oratory antislavery writing -He stood as a living counter-example to slaveholders’ arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens.