Module 8 Patho Biology of Cancer

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The primary function of the nucleus is to?
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regulate cell division and control genetic information
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Which of the following organelles is (are) responsible for processing and packaging proteins into secretory vesicles for transportation to intracellular or extracellular destinations?
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golgi apparatus
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Which of the following cellular structures is (are) involved in cellular communication and cell-to-cell interactions?
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Plasma membrane
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Cell surface markers are composed of?
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glycoproteins
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Plasma membrane receptors are available to bind to?
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Ligands
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In the cell cycle, RNA and protein synthesis takes place during the?
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G2 phase
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Cytokines are?
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Growth factors
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Autocrinesis signifies
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a cell signals self
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Pass from inside the cell inside another
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Gap junctions
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Mutation
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All of the above
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What is correct about mutation
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mutations are alteration of DNA sequence
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Malignant tumors have a tendency to?
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All of the above grow rapid, metastasize to distant tissues and invade surrounding tissues
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Sarcomas are cancers that arise from?
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connective tissues
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Cancer-causing mutations to protooncogenes result in?
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increased cell division
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Mechanisms that cause cancer pain include all of the following except
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Cancer cells residing in lymph nodes
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The process of triggering new blood vessel formation in a tumor is called?
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angiogenesis
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Which of the following is not a typical characteristic of cancer cells?
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Decreased responsiveness to growth signals
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Determining the size of the tumor, the degree of node involvement, and the extent of distant metastasis is called?
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Staging
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Which of the following cancers always arises from an initial mutation in the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow?
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Leukemia
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Cancer-causing mutations of a protooncogene result in
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increased cell division
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Immortality in cancer cells is obtained through the production of?
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Telomerase
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The normal function of tumor suppressor genes in an individual without cancer is to?
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control production of anti-growth signals
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Which of the following mutational routes is necessary to cause cancer with a tumor suppressor gene mutation?
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Deletion of both copies of a tumor suppressor gene
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Normally the tumor suppressor gene p53 induces?
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apoptosis
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One way that a tumor suppressor gene can become inactivated in the absence of mutation or deletion is through gene
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silencing
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Which of the following genetic events is capable of activating oncogenes?
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Amplification
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Viruses are associated with all of the following cancers except?
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lung cancer
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Chronic active hepatitis B infection is a risk factor for developing which of the following types of cancer?
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Liver
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Individual response to pain depends on which of the following factors?
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All of the above cultural, Psychologic,Physiologic
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Pharmacologic therapies for pain management include all of the following except?
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beta receptor blockers
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Which of the following statements about cancer pain is false?
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Most patients with cancer experience pain early int the disease processes
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Apart from diminished physical energy cancer-related fatigue can manifest in which of the following ways?
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All of the above
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Which of the following cell populations do chemotherapeutic agents primarily target?
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All rapidly dividing cells
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Which of the following modes of treatment is not used to eradicate cancer?
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Blood transfusions
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Oral ulcers caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy is a condition known as?
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stomatitis
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Hair loss from chemotherapy treatment is condition known as?
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Alopecia
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Neuromuscular dysfunction and the release of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 are thought to be responsible for which of the following manifestations of caners?
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Fatigue
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Which of the following alterations in metabolism is often present in people with cancer?
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Increased basic metabolic rate
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Anemia in individuals with cancer can be the result of all of the following except?
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Fatigue
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Which of the following is an effective treatment for cancer-related or chemotherapy-related anemia
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Erythropoietin
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Leukopenia from cancer or chemotherapy treatment increases an individual’s risk for
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Infection
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The wasting syndrome associated with cancer and cancer treatment is called?
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cachexia
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Radon exposure increases an individual’s risk for which of the following cancers?
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Lung
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Which of the following viruses has been implicated in the development of cervical cancer?
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Human papilloma virus
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Helicobacter pylori infection is a bacterial cause of
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gastric cancer
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In males increased androgens are associated development of?
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Prostate cancer
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Epigentic factors play a role in?
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Gene expression
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True statements regarding tobacco smoke and cancer
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causes cancer in multiple organs as the carcinogen circulate in bloodstream
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Regular physical activity decreased risk cancer by means of following except
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decreased appetite stimulating hormone
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Mesothelioma is associated
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asbestos
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All the following dietary factors are know to be carcinogenns except
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sulphronine in cruciferous vegtables
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Which of following…..is true regarding exposure of electromagnetic radiation
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EMR has been ID possible carcinogen
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The concept of development plasticity?
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body is susceptible to environmental influences in utero and early life
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Inflammatory cytokines such as those found in UV light exposure……?
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Inflammatory cytokines increased risk skin and cancer
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Tobacco smoking accounts for?
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30% deaths
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Mutations BRCA 1 AND BRAC2
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Increased risks breast and ovary cancer
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Silica exposure
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Lung
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What role estrogen play in…….breast and endometrial cancer
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promotes growth in estrogen dependent organs

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